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New Testament Greek Manuscr.

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Transliteration Method

The transliteration of the Greek is simple and follows that documented in Strong's Dictionary. It is as follows:

Alpha    = a                   Nu       = n
Beta     = b                   Xi       = x
Gamma    = g                   Omicron  = o
Delta    = d                   Pi       = p
Epsilon  = e                   Rho      = r
Zeta     = z                   Sigma    = s  (final included)
Eta      = ê (ascii 136)       Tau      = t
Theta    = th                  Upsilon  = u
Iota     = i                   Phi      = pf
Kappa    = k                   Chi      = ch
Lambda   = l                   Psi      = ps
Mu       = m                   Omega    = ô (ascii 147)

If it is desirable to change this transliteration to something more in keeping with a Greek typewriter, simply use any text editor and perform the following global changes.

Psi:    'ps' to 'q'
Chi:    'ch' to 'c'
Phi:    'ph' to 'f'
Theta:  'th' to 'y'
Omega:  'ôto 'w'
Eta:    'êto 'h'

Be sure to perform these changes in the *exact* order listed, otherwise the wrong characters will be changed. For instance, changing eta to 'h' before theta to 'y', would cause tau eta to appear as theta, and this would be erroneously changed to 'y'. The above order has been tested and works.

If representation of final sigma is desired, change the following.

's '    to 'v '
's[Hrt] to 'v[Hrt]'
's]'    to 'v]'
's>'    to 'v>'

The [Hrt] is for Word Perfect, and may be different depending on your editor. The idea is to get final sigma on blank delimted words, as well as words at end of line. Hence, the [Hrt].

Orthographic Considerations

The orthographic methods utilized are those established by George Ricker Berry in his edition of "The Interlinear Literal Translation of the Greek New Testament" (New York: Hinds & Noble, 1897). This method follows Berry as stated in his "Introduction," p.ii [Greek modified to current transliteration format]:

we have...added the final -n to the third person singular and plural in -si; third singular in -e; in datives plural in -si &c. For "outô" we have given "outôs."

This method is utilized solely for ease of pronunciation, and does not change the meaning of the Greek text. Note also that Berry's method is more in accord with the practice of the earliest Greek manuscripts than modern structured grammars would suggest.

In the Majority book of the Revelation (alone) this method does not consistently apply, due to specific data collation requirements.

Verse Numbers

For ease of reference, the verse numbering scheme has been made to conform closely to that found in most standard English versions of the New Testament, following the Authorized (King James) Version of 1611. Where considerate verse numbering differences occur, they are added to the text in brackets.

Breathings, Accents, and Diacritical Markings

All breathings, accents, capitalization, punctuation, and diacritical markings have been omitted. These are primarily a product of modern editorship and are lacking in ancient mss.

Book Titles And Colophons

Book titles do not appear within the present files. The Greek closing colophons to the epistles which appear in the English of the Authorized Version have been placed in brackets [] wherever they occur in the Stephens 1550 edition (only).

Variant Tagging Method

The following tags have been applied to those words peculiar to one stream of transmission, or scholarly group which emphasizes a particular variant word. Those words with no tag are do not differ in the various printings of the Greek.

The text used is George Ricker Berry's edition of "The Interlinear Literal Translation of the Greek New Testament." This text is virtually identical to Erasmus 1516, Beza 1598, and the actual Textus Receptus: Elzevir 1633. Berry states that "In the main they are one and the same; and [any] of them may be referred to as the Textus Receptus" (Berry, p.ii).

These early printed Greek New Testaments closely parallel the text of the English King James Authorized Version of 1611, since that version was based closely upon Beza 1598, which differed little from its "Textus Receptus" predecessors. These Textus Receptus editions follow the Byzantine Majority mss., which was predominant during the period of manual copying of Greek New Testament manuscripts.

The text used is "ê Kainê Diathêkê: The New Testament. The Greek Text underlying the English Authorised Version of 1611" (London: Trinitarian Bible Society, 1977). This is an unchanged reprint of Scrivener's "The New Testament in the Original Greek according to the Text followed in the Authorised Version" (Cambridge: University Press, 1894, 1902).

Scrivner attempted to reconstruct the Greek text underlying the English 1611 KJV for comparison to the 1881 English R.V. In those places where the KJV followed the Latin Vulgate (Joh 10:16), Scrivener inserted the greek reading, as opposed to back-translating the Latin to Greek--which would have produced a Greek word with no Greek mss. evidence. Scrivner's work follows the Byzantine Majority texts, and in many places matches the modern Alexandrian based editions.

The text is that identified by Freiherr Von Soden, "Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments in ihrer altesten erreichbaren Textgestalt" (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1911) and Herman C. Hoskier, "Concerning the Text of the Apocalypse" (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1929). This technique of Byzantine identification and weighting, was utilized by Hodges and Farsted in "The Greek New Testament according to the Majority Text" (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982; 1985). It was subsequently utilized by Robinson and Pierpont, resulting in 99.75 percent agreement between the two texts.

The Byzantine Majority text is closely identified with the Textus Receptus editions, and well it should with greater than 98% agreement. As Maurice Robinson pointed out in his edition of the Byzantine Majority: "George Ricker Berry correctly noted that 'in the main they are one and the same; and [any] of them may be referred to as the Textus Receptus' (George Ricker Berry, ed., The Interlinear Literal Translation of the Greek New Testament [New York: Hinds & Noble, 1897], p.ii).

The differences are those identified by United Bible Society 3rd ed., and utilized by modern translations such as NIV and NASB. While these variants come from mss. with less textual evidence than the Byzantine Majority, many of the differences are exactly the same as those identified by the Byzantine Majority and Scrivner. The percentage of variants are quite small and occur mainly in word placement, and spelling. Many of the variations identified are omitted or bracketed words, which is not surprising due to a significantly smaller base of text from this stream of transmission.

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