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Alphabetical    [«  »]
excommunicated 124
excommunicates 3
excommunicating 5
excommunication 195
excommunications 4
excommunicator 1
excretion 1
Frequency    [«  »]
196 prevent
196 unfitting
195 color
195 excommunication
195 hast
195 incorruptible
195 lawfully
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

IntraText - Concordances


    Part, Question
1 2, 10 | quoted to forbid, not ~the excommunication but the slaying of heretics, 2 2, 10 | pronounced ~sentence of excommunication, he adds as his reason: " 3 2, 10 | Church pronounces sentence of excommunication on both.~Aquin.: SMT SS 4 2, 11 | separated from ~the Church by excommunication, but also to be severed 5 2, 12 | as soon as sentence of ~excommunication is passed on a man on account 6 2, 37 | should be punished with ~excommunication?~Aquin.: SMT SS Q[39] A[ 7 2, 37 | not rightly punished with ~excommunication. For excommunication deprives 8 2, 37 | with ~excommunication. For excommunication deprives a man chiefly of 9 2, 37 | Therefore it seems that ~excommunication is not a fitting punishment 10 2, 37 | not to be punished with excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT SS Q[39] A[ 11 2, 37 | 2 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: Excommunication does not forbid the intercourse 12 2, 37 | manner the Church, when excommunication does not ~sufficiently restrain 13 2, 38 | obstinate, the sentence of excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT SS Q[40] A[ 14 2, 41 | speaking, when, to wit, the excommunication ~of a few threatens to bring 15 2, 41 | of justice to pronounce ~excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT SS Q[43] A[ 16 2, 97 | sacrilege is punished with excommunication; major excommunication, 17 2, 97 | with excommunication; major excommunication, for ~violating a sacred 18 2, 97 | destroying a church, and ~minor excommunication for other sacrileges. Therefore 19 2, 97 | injury to a sacred thing, is ~excommunication [*Append. Gratian. on can. 20 2, 97 | death of the body, but ~excommunication in its stead.~Aquin.: SMT 21 2, 97 | addition to the punishment of ~excommunication, in order to coerce those 22 2, 98 | money when ~absolving from excommunication. Therefore it is not always 23 2, 98 | if they be clerics, and ~excommunication if they be laymen, as stated 24 2, 98 | command or for ~fear of his excommunication: and such as receive Orders 25 3, 64 | separated ~from the Church by excommunication: for it is written in the 26 3, 82 | Church by heresy, schism, or excommunication. But such ~as are ordained 27 3, 82 | Church by heresy, schism, or excommunication, can indeed ~consecrate 28 3, 82 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Excommunication is medicinal. And therefore 29 3, 83 | in ~mortal sin, or under excommunication, which he did not remember ~ 30 3, 83 | will ~incur sentence of excommunication."~Aquin.: SMT TP Q[83] A[ 31 3, 83 | mind that he is under some ~excommunication; for he ought to make the 32 3, 83 | broken his fast, or is under excommunication, unless ~grave scandal were 33 Suppl, 8 | his sins, ~but also from excommunication, by whomsoever pronounced, 34 Suppl, 8 | who has been absolved from excommunication needs to go to the ~judge, 35 Suppl, 11| commanded under pain of excommunication to be ~incurred "ipso facto," 36 Suppl, 11| nor would he incur the ~excommunication, for he is not subject to 37 Suppl, 11| to escape a sentence of excommunication, incurred on account of 38 Suppl, 17| of the keys, secondly, of excommunication, thirdly, of indulgences, ~ 39 Suppl, 19| Chapters can pass a sentence of excommunication, which ~pertains to the 40 Suppl, 19| the Church Militant, by ~excommunication or absolution. This is called 41 Suppl, 19| than by ~punishment. Now excommunication, suspension and degradation 42 Suppl, 20| irregularity or a sentence of excommunication, from which a ~simple priest 43 Suppl, 20| superior, except in the case of excommunication, absolution from which ~ 44 Suppl, 20| man can pass sentence of excommunication on himself, ~so neither 45 Suppl, 20| of jurisdiction, whereas excommunication ~regards jurisdiction exclusively. 46 Suppl, 21| CONGRUITY AND CAUSE OF EXCOMMUNICATION (FOUR ARTICLES)~We must 47 Suppl, 21| ARTICLES)~We must now treat of excommunication: we shall consider: (1) 48 Suppl, 21| congruity and cause of excommunication; (2) who has the power ~ 49 Suppl, 21| persons; (4) ~absolution from excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[21] Out. 50 Suppl, 21| of inquiry:~(1) Whether excommunication is suitably defined?~(2) 51 Suppl, 21| temporal harm?~(4) Whether an excommunication unjustly pronounced has 52 Suppl, 21| Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether excommunication is suitably defined as separation 53 Suppl, 21| OBJ 1: It would seem that excommunication is unsuitably defined by 54 Suppl, 21| defined by some ~thus: "Excommunication is separation from the communion 55 Suppl, 21| except by his ~own fault. Now excommunication is not a fault, but a punishment. ~ 56 Suppl, 21| a punishment. ~Therefore excommunication does not deprive a man of 57 Suppl, 21| of temporal goods, since ~excommunication does not deprive a man of 58 Suppl, 21| Further, there is a kind of excommunication called minor*, by ~which 59 Suppl, 21| of the Church. [*Minor ~excommunication is no longer recognized 60 Suppl, 21| and this is the ~minor excommunication. Secondly, by being deprived 61 Suppl, 21| and this is ~the major excommunication, of which the above is the 62 Suppl, 21| acts, and is as follows: "Excommunication is the privation of all ~ 63 Suppl, 21| as they remain under the ~excommunication, but prayers are said for 64 Suppl, 21| they may be loosed from excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[21] A[ 65 Suppl, 21| them that ~fear Thee." Now excommunication does not interrupt this 66 Suppl, 21| excommunicated. An ~unjust excommunication cannot deprive a man of 67 Suppl, 21| union is ~interrupted by excommunication, because by passing sentence 68 Suppl, 21| by passing sentence of ~excommunication, the Church severs a man 69 Suppl, 21| 1~Reply OBJ 4: The minor excommunication does not fulfill all the ~ 70 Suppl, 21| fulfill all the ~conditions of excommunication but only a part of them, 71 Suppl, 21| hence the ~definition of excommunication need not apply to it in 72 Suppl, 21| excommunicate anyone, ~because excommunication is a kind of curse, and 73 Suppl, 21| no hope for him. Now by excommunication a man is given ~into the 74 Suppl, 21| banished from the Church by excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[21] A[ 75 Suppl, 21| by ~passing sentence of excommunication imitates the judgment of 76 Suppl, 21| wherefore the ~pain of excommunication cannot do him any good.~ 77 Suppl, 21| of God is taken away by excommunication." They also ~prove a safeguard 78 Suppl, 21| a visible sign), so too excommunication was evidenced by ~a person 79 Suppl, 21| But the ~punishment of excommunication is the privation of a spiritual 80 Suppl, 21| Para. 1/1~I answer that, By excommunication the ecclesiastical judge 81 Suppl, 21| injury on anyone. Yet, as excommunication is the most severe punishment, ~ 82 Suppl, 21| risky remedies, therefore excommunication should not be ~inflicted, 83 Suppl, 21| though the punishment of excommunication exceeds the harm ~done, 84 Suppl, 21| Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether an excommunication unjustly pronounced has 85 Suppl, 21| 1: It would seem that an excommunication which is pronounced ~unjustly 86 Suppl, 21| no effect at all. Because excommunication deprives a man of ~the protection 87 Suppl, 21| forfeited unjustly. ~Therefore excommunication has no effect if it be unjustly 88 Suppl, 21| erroneous. Therefore an unjust excommunication has no effect.~Aquin.: SMT 89 Suppl, 21| reason to fear an unjust excommunication if it did not ~hurt. Therefore, 90 Suppl, 21| Para. 1/2~I answer that, An excommunication may be unjust for two reasons. 91 Suppl, 21| then, nevertheless, the excommunication takes effect, ~though its 92 Suppl, 21| Secondly, ~on the part of the excommunication, through there being no 93 Suppl, 21| effect, for there is no ~excommunication; but if the error does not 94 Suppl, 21| compensate him for the harm of excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[21] A[ 95 Suppl, 21| It is in this sense that excommunication is said to deprive a man ~ 96 Suppl, 22| can excommunicate. For ~excommunication is an act of the keys. But 97 Suppl, 22| superiors. Now the punishment of excommunication is fraught ~with many dangers, 98 Suppl, 22| external ~judgment. And since excommunication severs a man from the communion 99 Suppl, 22| 1 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Excommunication is an act of the keys not 100 Suppl, 22| judgment. The sentence of excommunication, ~however, though it is 101 Suppl, 22| excommunicate. Because excommunication is an act of the keys, as 102 Suppl, 22| Further, more is required for excommunication than for absolution ~in 103 Suppl, 22| Penance. On the other hand excommunication regards grace, not ~directly 104 Suppl, 22| jurisdiction renewed. But excommunication requires nothing more ~than 105 Suppl, 22| excommunicate another, since excommunication is a ~spiritual chain.~Aquin.: 106 Suppl, 22| of jurisdiction. And ~as excommunication requires jurisdiction, an 107 Suppl, 22| different with the power of excommunication which results ~from jurisdiction, 108 Suppl, 22| priest pronounces a general excommunication ~for theft or the like. 109 Suppl, 22| Para. 1/1~On the contrary, Excommunication is an act of jurisdiction. 110 Suppl, 22| while on the other hand excommunication is ~the affair of an external 111 Suppl, 22| 1~Whether a sentence of excommunication can be passed on a body 112 Suppl, 22| would seem that sentence of excommunication can be passed on a ~body 113 Suppl, 22| most grievous effect of an excommunication is ~privation of the sacraments 114 Suppl, 22| so great a punishment as excommunication, ~since those who are suspended 115 Suppl, 22| is no ~comparison between excommunication and suspension.~Aquin.: 116 Suppl, 22| already under sentence of ~excommunication?~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[22] A[ 117 Suppl, 22| already under sentence of ~excommunication cannot be excommunicated 118 Suppl, 22| Para. 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, excommunication is privation of divine things 119 Suppl, 22| Para. 1/1~On the contrary, Excommunication is a punishment and a healing 120 Suppl, 22| when necessary. Therefore ~excommunication can be repeated.~Aquin.: 121 Suppl, 22| is under sentence of one excommunication, can ~be excommunicated 122 Suppl, 22| repetition of the same ~excommunication, for his greater confusion, 123 Suppl, 22| its cause. In this way an excommunication can be ~repeated, and a 124 Suppl, 23| excommunicated person. For excommunication is an act ~of the keys. 125 Suppl, 23| spiritual matters. ~Therefore excommunication does not prevent one from 126 Suppl, 23| Para. 1/2~I answer that, Excommunication is twofold: there is minor ~ 127 Suppl, 23| twofold: there is minor ~excommunication, which deprives a man merely 128 Suppl, 23| a person lying under an excommunication of ~this kind, but not to 129 Suppl, 23| sacraments. The other is major ~excommunication which deprives a man of 130 Suppl, 23| one who lies under such an excommunication. But, since ~the Church 131 Suppl, 23| since ~the Church resorts to excommunication to repair and not to destroy, ~ 132 Suppl, 23| entered his service before his excommunication, but not if they did ~so 133 Suppl, 23| as when the fact of ~the excommunication is unknown, or in the case 134 Suppl, 23| Whether a person incurs excommunication for communicating with one 135 Suppl, 23| a person does not incur excommunication for ~communicating with 136 Suppl, 23| But ~one does not incur excommunication for communicating with a 137 Suppl, 23| Further, if a man incurs excommunication for communicating with ~ 138 Suppl, 23| reason a third would incur ~excommunication for communicating with him, 139 Suppl, 23| Therefore one does not incur ~excommunication for communicating with one 140 Suppl, 23| that, A person may incur excommunication in two ways. First, so ~ 141 Suppl, 23| ways. First, so ~that the excommunication includes both himself and 142 Suppl, 23| with him, ~incurs a major excommunication. Secondly, so that the excommunication 143 Suppl, 23| excommunication. Secondly, so that the excommunication is ~simply pronounced on 144 Suppl, 23| again he incurs ~the major excommunication, or he may communicate with 145 Suppl, 23| case he ~incurs the minor excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[23] A[ 146 Suppl, 23| who has incurred a ~minor excommunication, so that excommunication 147 Suppl, 23| excommunication, so that excommunication does not pass on to a ~third 148 Suppl, 23| since he incurs a minor ~excommunication. Therefore it is a mortal 149 Suppl, 23| one should incur a major excommunication save for a ~mortal sin. 150 Suppl, 23| a ~man may incur a major excommunication for holding communion with 151 Suppl, 24| 1/1 - OF ABSOLUTION FROM EXCOMMUNICATION (THREE ARTICLES)~We must 152 Suppl, 24| consider absolution from excommunication: under which head ~there 153 Suppl, 24| absolve his subject from excommunication?~(2) Whether a man can be 154 Suppl, 24| man can be absolved from excommunication against his will?~(3) Whether 155 Suppl, 24| can be absolved from one excommunication without being ~absolved 156 Suppl, 24| absolve his subject from excommunication? ~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[24] A[ 157 Suppl, 24| absolve his subject from ~excommunication. For the chains of sin are 158 Suppl, 24| stronger than those of ~excommunication. But any priest can absolve 159 Suppl, 24| can he absolve him from excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[24] A[ 160 Suppl, 24| removed. But the ~cause of excommunication is a mortal sin. Therefore 161 Suppl, 24| to ~absolve him from the excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[24] A[ 162 Suppl, 24| excommunicate as to ~absolve from excommunication. But priests of inferior 163 Suppl, 24| Anyone can absolve from minor excommunication who can ~absolve from the 164 Suppl, 24| in the ~case of a major excommunication, this is pronounced either 165 Suppl, 24| judge who pronounced the ~excommunication on him.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[ 166 Suppl, 24| by any priest from any ~excommunication; (2) if the striker be the 167 Suppl, 24| a cleric ~does not incur excommunication: (1) if he do it for the 168 Suppl, 24| themselves greater than ~those of excommunication, yet in a certain respect 169 Suppl, 24| certain respect the chains of ~excommunication are greater, inasmuch as 170 Suppl, 24| Hence absolution from ~excommunication requires jurisdiction in 171 Suppl, 24| case of absolution from excommunication, because, as the ~Apostle 172 Suppl, 24| be ~first absolved from excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[24] A[ 173 Suppl, 24| will. Now ~absolution from excommunication is a spiritual favor. Therefore 174 Suppl, 24| 2: Further, the cause of excommunication is contumacy. But when, ~ 175 Suppl, 24| through contempt of the excommunication, a man is unwilling to be ~ 176 Suppl, 24| Para. 1/1~On the contrary, Excommunication can be pronounced on a man 177 Suppl, 24| goods of fortune. ~Therefore excommunication can be removed from a man 178 Suppl, 24| OBJ 2: It is possible for excommunication to be removed from a man ~ 179 Suppl, 24| of the man ~for whom the excommunication was intended as a medicine.~ 180 Suppl, 24| can be absolved from one excommunication without being ~absolved 181 Suppl, 24| cannot be absolved from one ~excommunication without being absolved from 182 Suppl, 24| cause. Now the cause of excommunication is a sin. ~Since then a 183 Suppl, 24| can this happen as regards excommunication.~Aquin.: SMT XP Q[24] A[ 184 Suppl, 24| Further, absolution from excommunication is pronounced in the ~Church. 185 Suppl, 24| is under the ban of one excommunication is outside ~the Church. 186 Suppl, 24| Para. 1/1~On the contrary, Excommunication is a punishment. Now a man 187 Suppl, 24| can be ~loosed from one excommunication and yet remain under another.~ 188 Suppl, 24| ask to be absolved from excommunication on one ~count only, whereas 189 Suppl, 24| under several sentences of excommunication ~pronounced by several judges; 190 Suppl, 24| when absolved from one ~excommunication, he is not therefore absolved 191 Suppl, 24| again is absolution from excommunication hindered by contrariety 192 Suppl, 27| 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Excommunication is pronounced by way of 193 Suppl, 45| compelled under pain ~of excommunication to take her as his wife, 194 Suppl, 45| a man ought to bear the excommunication rather than ~return to his 195 Suppl, 60| kind of punishment, since ~excommunication is also a kind of punishment.~

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