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evidences 1
evident 972
evidently 76
evil 3419
evil-doer 6
evil-doers 20
evil-doing 2
Frequency    [«  »]
3453 answer
3442 augustine
3423 natural
3419 evil
3386 any
3378 life
3353 something
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

IntraText - Concordances

evil

1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1500 | 1501-2000 | 2001-2500 | 2501-3000 | 3001-3419

     Part, Question
1 1, 2 | existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there 2 1, 2 | discoverable; but there is evil in the ~world. Therefore 3 1, 2 | He would not allow any evil to exist in His works, unless ~ 4 1, 2 | bring good even out of ~evil." This is part of the infinite 5 1, 2 | God, that He should allow ~evil to exist, and out of it 6 1, 5 | inasmuch as the removal of an evil, which can only be ~removed 7 1, 5 | desirable. Now the removal of an evil cannot be ~desirable, except 8 1, 5 | desirable, except so far as this evil deprives a thing of some 9 1, 5 | 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, no evil is good: "Woe to you that 10 1, 5 | good: "Woe to you that call evil good and ~good evil" (Is. 11 1, 5 | call evil good and ~good evil" (Is. 5:20). But some things 12 1, 5 | But some things are called evil. Therefore not ~every being 13 1, 5 | being can be spoken of as evil, formally as being, but ~ 14 1, 5 | Thus a man is said to be evil, because he ~lacks some 15 1, 5 | and an eye is said to be evil, because it lacks the ~power 16 1, 5 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, evil is the privation of mode, 17 1, 5 | species and order. But ~evil is not the total absence 18 1, 5 | cannot be ~spoken of as evil. Yet we can speak of an 19 1, 5 | Yet we can speak of an evil mode, species and order. ~ 20 1, 5 | everything predicated of him. But evil deprives a thing of some 21 1, 5 | species and order). "But an evil ~mode, species and order 22 1, 5 | Therefore ~they are called evil, because they are out of 23 1, 9 | to choice from good ~to evil, as Damascene says (De Fide 24 1, 11 | multitude is some one thing; and evil is some good thing, and 25 1, 12 | belongs to both good and ~evil, inasmuch as they have a 26 1, 13 | goodness," or "God is not evil"; but the meaning is, ~" 27 1, 14 | Whether He has knowledge of evil?~(11) Whether He has knowledge 28 1, 14 | Para. 1/1~Whether God knows evil things?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 29 1, 14 | seems that God does not know evil things. For the Philosopher ~( 30 1, 14 | not know privation. But "evil is the privation of good," 31 1, 14 | seems that God does not know evil things.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 32 1, 14 | God is not the cause of evil, ~nor is it caused by evil. 33 1, 14 | evil, ~nor is it caused by evil. Therefore God does not 34 1, 14 | Therefore God does not know evil things.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 35 1, 14 | neither is the ~likeness of evil, nor is evil contrary to 36 1, 14 | likeness of evil, nor is evil contrary to it; for to the 37 1, 14 | Therefore God ~does not know evil things.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 38 1, 14 | imperfectly known. But evil is not known by God; for 39 1, 14 | the knower. Therefore if evil is known through another, 40 1, 14 | Therefore God does not know evil ~things.~Aquin.: SMT FP 41 1, 14 | to which corruption ~by evil may be accidental. Hence 42 1, 14 | perfectly, unless He also knew evil things. Now a thing is knowable 43 1, 14 | since this is the essence of evil that ~it is the privation 44 1, 14 | knows good things, He ~knows evil things also; as by light 45 1, 14 | substances. God therefore ~knows evil, not by privation existing 46 1, 14 | God is not the cause of evil; but is the ~cause of the 47 1, 14 | cause of the good whereby evil is known.~Aquin.: SMT FP 48 1, 14 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: Although evil is not opposed to the divine 49 1, 14 | which ~is not corruptible by evil; it is opposed to the effects 50 1, 14 | of itself knowable; but evil is ~not of itself knowable, 51 1, 14 | forasmuch as the very nature of evil means the ~privation of 52 1, 14 | privation of good; therefore evil can neither be defined nor 53 1, 14 | of time. And, as regards evil things, although they are 54 1, 15 | knows. For the idea of evil is not in God; since it 55 1, 15 | since it would follow that ~evil was in Him. But evil things 56 1, 15 | that ~evil was in Him. But evil things are known by God. 57 1, 15 | 1 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Evil is known by God not through 58 1, 15 | through the type of good. Evil, therefore, has no idea 59 1, 17 | ordained; wherein consists the evil ~of sin. Thus sins themselves 60 1, 17 | contrary to ~it, just as evil is not founded in the good 61 1, 17 | that is a being, so every evil is ~founded in some good, 62 1, 19 | there is in God the will of evil?~(10) Whether God has free 63 1, 19 | considered, may be good or evil, and yet when some additional ~ 64 1, 19 | man should be killed is evil, absolutely considered. 65 1, 19 | good; that he live is an evil. Hence it may be said of 66 1, 19 | nation shall repent of its evil, I also ~will repent of 67 1, 19 | also ~will repent of the evil that I have thought to do 68 1, 19 | wills. But it is a good that evil should exist. For Augustine 69 1, 19 | Enchiridion 95): "Although evil in so far as it is evil 70 1, 19 | evil in so far as it is evil is not a good, ~yet it is 71 1, 19 | things should exist, but also evil ~things." Therefore God 72 1, 19 | things." Therefore God wills evil things.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 73 1, 19 | says (Div. Nom. iv, 23): "Evil would conduce ~to the perfection 74 1, 19 | even that which is called evil, properly ordered ~and disposed, 75 1, 19 | praiseworthy when contrasted with evil." But God wills all ~that 76 1, 19 | creatures. Therefore God wills ~evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[19] A[ 77 1, 19 | 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, that evil should exist, and should 78 1, 19 | But God does not will that evil should not ~exist; otherwise, 79 1, 19 | Therefore God wills that evil should exist.~Aquin.: SMT 80 1, 19 | Now it is clear that every evil ~makes a thing worse. Therefore 81 1, 19 | Therefore God wills not evil things.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 82 1, 19 | Q[5], A[1]), and since evil is opposed to good, it is ~ 83 1, 19 | is ~impossible that any evil, as such, should be sought 84 1, 19 | the ~will. Nevertheless evil may be sought accidentally, 85 1, 19 | an accompaniment. Now the evil ~that accompanies one good, 86 1, 19 | Never ~therefore would evil be sought after, not even 87 1, 19 | good that accompanies the evil were more desired than the 88 1, 19 | than the good of which ~the evil is the privation. Now God 89 1, 19 | He in no way ~wills the evil of sin, which is the privation 90 1, 19 | towards the ~divine good. The evil of natural defect, or of 91 1, 19 | although God does not will evil, yet He ~wills that evil 92 1, 19 | evil, yet He ~wills that evil should be or be done, because, 93 1, 19 | done, because, although evil is not a ~good, yet it is 94 1, 19 | good, yet it is good that evil should be or be done. This 95 1, 19 | they said ~because things evil in themselves are ordered 96 1, 19 | expressed in the words "that evil should be or be ~done." 97 1, 19 | however, is not correct; since evil is not of itself ~ordered 98 1, 19 | it is a good thing that ~evil should be or be done, since 99 1, 19 | 2 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: Evil does not operate towards 100 1, 19 | Dionysius in saying that "evil would conduce to the perfection 101 1, 19 | OBJ 3: The statements that evil exists, and that evil exists 102 1, 19 | that evil exists, and that evil exists not, ~are opposed 103 1, 19 | statements that anyone wills evil ~to exist and that he wills 104 1, 19 | therefore neither wills evil to be done, nor wills it ~ 105 1, 19 | done, but wills to permit evil to be done; and this is 106 1, 19 | will, by ~which good and evil are chosen. But God does 107 1, 19 | chosen. But God does not will evil, as has been ~said (A[9]). 108 1, 19 | 1~Reply OBJ 2: Since the evil of sin consists in turning 109 1, 19 | impossible for Him to will the evil of sin; yet ~He can make 110 1, 19 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 4: Further, evil happens in more ways than 111 1, 19 | happens ~in one way, but evil in all kinds of ways," as 112 1, 19 | expression only in the case of ~evil - namely, prohibition - 113 1, 19 | permission being with respect to evil, operation with regard to 114 1, 19 | prohibition is in respect to evil, precept to ~good that is 115 1, 19 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 4: All evil of sin, though happening 116 1, 19 | will. Hence with regard to evil, ~only one expression is 117 1, 20 | faculty tend ~towards good and evil, as to their proper objects: 118 1, 20 | and the appetite, ~whereas evil is only the object secondarily 119 1, 20 | prior to those that regard evil; thus, for instance, ~joy 120 1, 20 | sorrow, which is ~about the evil we have. This applies also 121 1, 22 | provider excludes any defect or evil, as far as ~he can, from 122 1, 22 | be hindered, for ~if all evil were prevented, much good 123 1, 22 | would in ~no wise permit evil to exist in His works, unless 124 1, 22 | to produce good even from evil." It would appear that it 125 1, 22 | things - e.g. casual and evil ~things - as removed from 126 1, 22 | restrain the wicked from the evil of sin, He is ~said to abandon 127 1, 22 | because the ~thought of evil sometimes perverts the will 128 1, 22 | perverts the will towards evil. This does not ~hold with 129 1, 22 | turn in the direction of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[22] A[ 130 1, 23 | nor had done any good or ~evil . . . not of works, but 131 1, 23 | majority of ~things; defect and evil in the minority. If, then, 132 1, 24 | to each one his ~good or evil works are recalled to memory." 133 1, 25 | deliberately do what is evil. But this must be understood 134 1, 25 | were to say that God can do evil things if He will. For there 135 1, 25 | things which now seem to be evil: which, however, if He did ~ 136 1, 46 | things and the other of evil things, against ~which " 137 1, 47 | distinction of good and evil; thirdly, of the distinction 138 1, 47 | principles of good and ~evil, he said that in the beginning 139 1, 48 | DISTINCTION OF GOOD AND EVIL (QQ[48]-49)~THE DISTINCTION 140 1, 48 | distinction of good and evil; and then the distinction 141 1, 48 | the first, we inquire into evil and its cause.~Aquin.: SMT 142 1, 48 | Out. Para. 3/3~Concerning evil, six points are to be considered:~( 143 1, 48 | considered:~(1) Whether evil is a nature? ~(2) Whether 144 1, 48 | is a nature? ~(2) Whether evil is found in things?~(3) 145 1, 48 | Whether good is the subject of evil?~(4) Whether evil totally 146 1, 48 | subject of evil?~(4) Whether evil totally corrupts good?~( 147 1, 48 | good?~(5) The division of evil into pain and fault.~(6) 148 1, 48 | has more the nature of evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 149 1, 48 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil is a nature?~Aquin.: SMT 150 1, 48 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil is a nature. For every genus 151 1, 48 | genus is a nature. ~But evil is a genus; for the Philosopher 152 1, 48 | Praedic. x) that "good and ~evil are not in a genus, but 153 1, 48 | other things." Therefore evil ~is a nature.~Aquin.: SMT 154 1, 48 | species is a ~nature. But evil is a difference constituting 155 1, 48 | illiberality. Therefore evil signifies a nature.~Aquin.: 156 1, 48 | contraries is a nature. But evil and ~good are not opposed 157 1, 48 | fact that between good and evil ~there is a medium, and 158 1, 48 | there is a medium, and from evil there can be a return to 159 1, 48 | return to good. Therefore ~evil signifies a nature.~Aquin.: 160 1, 48 | what is not, acts not. But evil acts, for it corrupts ~good. 161 1, 48 | corrupts ~good. Therefore evil is a being and a nature.~ 162 1, 48 | being and a nature. But evil belongs to the perfection 163 1, 48 | which even ~what is called evil, well ordered and in its 164 1, 48 | what is good." Therefore evil is a nature.~Aquin.: SMT 165 1, 48 | Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv), "Evil is neither a being ~nor 166 1, 48 | through light. Hence also what evil is must be known from the ~ 167 1, 48 | Hence it cannot be that evil signifies being, or any 168 1, 48 | must be that by the name of evil is signified the ~absence 169 1, 48 | is meant by saying that "evil is ~neither a being nor 170 1, 48 | Pythagoreans, who thought that evil was a kind of nature; and 171 1, 48 | of the genus of good and evil. For ~Aristotle, especially 172 1, 48 | And in this way good and evil are said to be genera not 173 1, 48 | such, has the nature of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 174 1, 48 | 1~Reply OBJ 2: Good and evil are not constitutive differences 175 1, 48 | end, therefore good and evil are specific differences 176 1, 48 | things; ~good in itself, but evil as the absence of the due 177 1, 48 | form. Thus, therefore, the evil which is a constitutive 178 1, 48 | the order of reason. Hence evil ~is not a constitutive difference 179 1, 48 | speaks ~there of good and evil in morality. Because in 180 1, 48 | respect, between good ~and evil there is a medium, as good 181 1, 48 | something rightly ~ordered, and evil as a thing not only out 182 1, 48 | man is foolish, but not evil." And from this evil in 183 1, 48 | not evil." And from this evil in morality, ~there may 184 1, 48 | but not from any sort of evil, for from ~blindness there 185 1, 48 | although blindness is an evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 186 1, 48 | white; and in that sense ~evil considered even as a privation 187 1, 48 | cause. But in these two ways evil does ~not effect anything 188 1, 48 | Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv): "Evil does not act, nor is it 189 1, 48 | this can ~only happen to evil as joined to some good. 190 1, 48 | joined to some good. Hence evil neither belongs to ~the 191 1, 48 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil is found in things?~Aquin.: 192 1, 48 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil is not found in things. 193 1, 48 | says (Div. Nom. iv) that "evil is distant ~from existence, 194 1, 48 | non-existence." Therefore evil ~is not at all found in 195 1, 48 | convertible. If therefore evil ~is a being in things, it 196 1, 48 | things, it follows that evil is a thing, which is contrary ~ 197 1, 48 | also the good unmixed with ~evil is the greater good. But 198 1, 48 | made by God there is no evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 199 1, 48 | Now ~it is in this that evil consists, namely, in the 200 1, 48 | Hence it is clear that evil is found in things, as ~ 201 1, 48 | corruption is itself an evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 202 1, 48 | 1 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Evil is distant both from simple 203 1, 48 | and neither ~therefore is evil a being. In another sense 204 1, 48 | privation. In this way even evil can be called a ~being. 205 1, 48 | considering that ~things may be evil, or that evil is said to 206 1, 48 | things may be evil, or that evil is said to be in things, 207 1, 48 | in things, believed that ~evil was a positive thing in 208 1, 48 | can even make good out of evil." Hence many good things 209 1, 48 | away if God permitted no evil to exist; for fire would 210 1, 48 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil is in good as in its subject?~ 211 1, 48 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil is not in good as its subject. 212 1, 48 | Div. Nom. iv, 4) that "evil ~does not exist, nor is 213 1, 48 | which exists." Therefore, evil is not ~in good as its subject.~ 214 1, 48 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, evil is not a being; whereas 215 1, 48 | Therefore, neither ~does evil require good as its subject.~ 216 1, 48 | of another. But good and ~evil are contraries. Therefore, 217 1, 48 | are contraries. Therefore, evil is not in good as in its 218 1, 48 | Therefore also ~the subject of evil is evil. If, therefore, 219 1, 48 | the subject of evil is evil. If, therefore, evil is 220 1, 48 | is evil. If, therefore, evil is in good as in its ~subject, 221 1, 48 | it follows that good is evil, against what is said (Is. 222 1, 48 | Woe to you who call evil good, and good evil!"~Aquin.: 223 1, 48 | call evil good, and good evil!"~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 224 1, 48 | says (Enchiridion 14) that "evil exists only ~in good."~Aquin.: 225 1, 48 | As was said above (A[1]), evil imports the absence of good. 226 1, 48 | every absence of good is evil. For absence of good can 227 1, 48 | taken ~negatively, is not evil; otherwise, it would follow 228 1, 48 | what does not ~exist is evil, and also that everything 229 1, 48 | that everything would be evil, through not having ~the 230 1, 48 | instance, a man would be evil ~who had not the swiftness 231 1, 48 | a privative sense, is an evil; as, for ~instance, the 232 1, 48 | Therefore, the ~subject of evil is good.~Aquin.: SMT FP 233 1, 48 | 1: Dionysius means that evil is not in existing things 234 1, 48 | and such "not-being" is an evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 235 1, 48 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Evil is not in the good opposed 236 1, 48 | as referring to good and ~evil in general, but not in reference 237 1, 48 | any particular good and evil. ~For white and black, sweet 238 1, 48 | say that good as such ~is evil. But this does not follow 239 1, 48 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil corrupts the whole good?~ 240 1, 48 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil corrupts the whole good. 241 1, 48 | by another. But good and evil are contraries. ~Therefore 242 1, 48 | are contraries. ~Therefore evil corrupts the whole good.~ 243 1, 48 | says (Enchiridion 12) that "evil hurts ~inasmuch as it takes 244 1, 48 | is wholly taken away by evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 245 1, 48 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, evil, as long as it lasts, hurts, 246 1, 48 | created ~good. Therefore evil wholly consumes good.~Aquin.: 247 1, 48 | says (Enchiridion 12) that "evil cannot ~wholly consume good."~ 248 1, 48 | Para. 1/3~I answer that, Evil cannot wholly consume good. 249 1, 48 | is wholly destroyed by ~evil, and this is the good opposed 250 1, 48 | this is the good opposed to evil, as light is wholly destroyed ~ 251 1, 48 | destroyed nor diminished by evil, and that is the good which 252 1, 48 | which is ~the subject of evil; for by darkness the substance 253 1, 48 | good which is diminished by evil, ~but is not wholly taken 254 1, 48 | good which is opposed to evil is wholly taken away; but ~ 255 1, 48 | act, it is diminished by evil; but where it ~touches the 256 1, 48 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil is adequately divided into 257 1, 48 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil is not adequately divided 258 1, 48 | every defect is a kind of evil. But in all creatures there 259 1, 48 | pain nor a fault. Therefore evil is ~inadequately divided 260 1, 48 | evils. ~Therefore not every evil is a pain or a fault.~Aquin.: 261 1, 48 | Further, temptation is an evil, but it is not a fault; 262 1, 48 | afterwards. Therefore, evil is not sufficiently divided 263 1, 48 | Enchiridion 12), a thing is evil "because it ~hurts." But 264 1, 48 | is penal. Therefore every evil comes under ~pain. ~Aquin.: 265 1, 48 | Para. 1/1~I answer that, Evil, as was said above (A[3]) 266 1, 48 | its operation. Therefore evil also is twofold. ~In one 267 1, 48 | thing, as blindness is an evil, as also ~it is an evil 268 1, 48 | evil, as also ~it is an evil to be wanting in any member 269 1, 48 | the body. In another way ~evil exists by the withdrawal 270 1, 48 | the object of the will, evil, which is the privation 271 1, 48 | have a will. ~Therefore the evil which comes from the withdrawal 272 1, 48 | against the will. But the evil which consists in the ~subtraction 273 1, 48 | the will. Therefore every evil ~in voluntary things is 274 1, 48 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Because evil is the privation of good, 275 1, 48 | every defect of good is ~an evil, but the defect of the good 276 1, 48 | want ~of sight is not an evil in a stone, but it is an 277 1, 48 | in a stone, but it is an evil in an animal; since ~it 278 1, 48 | kind of defect is not an evil as regards a creature.~Aquin.: 279 1, 48 | and fault do not divide evil absolutely considered, ~ 280 1, 48 | absolutely considered, ~but evil that is found in voluntary 281 1, 48 | importing provocation to evil, is always an ~evil of fault 282 1, 48 | provocation to evil, is always an ~evil of fault in the tempter; 283 1, 48 | the tempted is changed to evil by the tempter he falls ~ 284 1, 48 | thus both are contained in evil, as including ~the idea 285 1, 48 | Whether pain has the nature of evil more than fault has?~Aquin.: 286 1, 48 | seem that pain has more of evil than fault. For fault ~is 287 1, 48 | Therefore pain has more evil in it than fault has.~Aquin.: 288 1, 48 | Further, that is the greater evil which is opposed to the 289 1, 48 | vision of God; whereas the evil of fault is privation of ~ 290 1, 48 | Therefore pain is a greater evil than fault.~Aquin.: SMT 291 1, 48 | wise workman chooses a less evil in order to prevent ~a greater, 292 1, 48 | Therefore fault is a ~greater evil than pain.~Aquin.: SMT FP 293 1, 48 | Fault has the nature of evil more than pain has; not 294 1, 48 | first is that one becomes evil ~by the evil of fault, but 295 1, 48 | one becomes evil ~by the evil of fault, but not by the 296 1, 48 | of fault, but not by the evil of pain, as Dionysius says ~( 297 1, 48 | To be punished is not an evil; but it is an evil to be ~ 298 1, 48 | not an evil; but it is an evil to be ~made worthy of punishment." 299 1, 48 | will, fault has more of evil in it than pain has.~Aquin.: 300 1, 48 | God is the author of ~the evil of pain, but not of the 301 1, 48 | of pain, but not of the evil of fault. And this is because 302 1, 48 | And this is because the ~evil of pain takes away the creature' 303 1, 48 | uncreated good. But the evil of fault is properly opposed 304 1, 48 | plain that fault has more ~evil in it than pain has. ~Aquin.: 305 1, 49 | Para. 1/1 - THE CAUSE OF EVIL (THREE ARTICLES)~We next 306 1, 49 | inquire into the cause of evil. Concerning this there are 307 1, 49 | good can be the cause of evil?~(2) Whether the supreme 308 1, 49 | good, God, is the cause of evil?~(3) Whether there be any 309 1, 49 | Whether there be any supreme evil, which is the first cause 310 1, 49 | good can be the cause of evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 311 1, 49 | good cannot be the cause of evil. For it is ~said (Mt. 7: 312 1, 49 | tree cannot bring forth evil fruit."~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 313 1, 49 | the cause of another. But evil is ~the contrary to good. 314 1, 49 | good cannot be the cause of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 315 1, 49 | a deficient ~cause. But evil is a deficient effect. Therefore 316 1, 49 | everything deficient is an evil. Therefore the ~cause of 317 1, 49 | Therefore the ~cause of evil can only be evil.~Aquin.: 318 1, 49 | cause of evil can only be evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 319 1, 49 | says (Div. Nom. iv) that evil has no cause. ~Therefore 320 1, 49 | good is not the cause of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 321 1, 49 | is no ~possible source of evil except good."~Aquin.: SMT 322 1, 49 | must be said that every evil in some way has a cause. ~ 323 1, 49 | some way has a cause. ~For evil is the absence of the good, 324 1, 49 | that good is the cause of evil by way of the material ~ 325 1, 49 | good is the ~subject of evil. But evil has no formal 326 1, 49 | the ~subject of evil. But evil has no formal cause, rather 327 1, 49 | which is ordered to the end. Evil, ~however, has a cause by 328 1, 49 | this, we must know that evil is caused in the action ~ 329 1, 49 | the effect. In the action evil is caused by reason of ~ 330 1, 49 | lame. On the other hand, evil is caused in a thing, but 331 1, 49 | the ~contrary. Hence that evil and corruption befall air 332 1, 49 | Hence it is true ~that evil in no way has any but an 333 1, 49 | thus is good the ~cause of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 334 1, 49 | i): "The Lord calls an ~evil will the evil tree, and 335 1, 49 | calls an ~evil will the evil tree, and a good will a 336 1, 49 | the movement itself ~of an evil will is caused by the rational 337 1, 49 | thus good is the cause of evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 338 1, 49 | Good does not cause that evil which is contrary to itself, ~ 339 1, 49 | itself, ~but some other evil: thus the goodness of the 340 1, 49 | goodness of the fire causes evil to the ~water, and man, 341 1, 49 | nature, causes an act morally evil. And, ~as explained above ( 342 1, 49 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Evil has a deficient cause in 343 1, 49 | defect belonging to it. Hence evil never follows in ~the effect, 344 1, 49 | effect, unless some other evil pre-exists in the agent 345 1, 49 | 4 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 4: Evil has no direct cause, but 346 1, 49 | good, God, is the cause of evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 347 1, 49 | good, God, is the cause of evil. ~For it is said (Is. 45: 348 1, 49 | making peace, and creating ~evil." And Amos 3:6, "Shall there 349 1, 49 | Amos 3:6, "Shall there be evil in a city, which the Lord 350 1, 49 | But good is the cause of evil, as was said above (A[1]). ~ 351 1, 49 | follows that also every evil is from God.~Aquin.: SMT 352 1, 49 | all ~perdition and of all evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 353 1, 49 | God is not the ~author of evil because He is not the cause 354 1, 49 | what was said (A[1]), the evil which ~consists in the defect 355 1, 49 | Q[4], A[1]). Hence, the evil which consists in defect 356 1, 49 | Body Para. 2/2~But the evil which consists in the corruption 357 1, 49 | God is the author of the evil which is penalty, but not ~ 358 1, 49 | penalty, but not ~of the evil which is fault, by reason 359 1, 49 | These passages refer to the evil of penalty, and not to the ~ 360 1, 49 | penalty, and not to the ~evil of fault.~Aquin.: SMT FP 361 1, 49 | Whether there be one supreme evil which is the cause of every 362 1, 49 | which is the cause of every evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 363 1, 49 | that there is one supreme evil which is the cause ~of every 364 1, 49 | which is the cause ~of every evil. For contrary effects have 365 1, 49 | 15: "Good is set against ~evil, and life against death; 366 1, 49 | one of good, the other of ~evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 367 1, 49 | also, there is a supreme ~evil opposed to it as the cause 368 1, 49 | it as the cause of every evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 369 1, 49 | better things, so we find evil and ~worse. But good and 370 1, 49 | what is best. ~Therefore evil and worse are so considered 371 1, 49 | relation to some supreme ~evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 372 1, 49 | essential. ~But things which are evil among us are evil not essentially, 373 1, 49 | which are evil among us are evil not essentially, but by ~ 374 1, 49 | for some supreme essential evil, ~which is the cause of 375 1, 49 | which is the cause of every evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 376 1, 49 | the accidental cause of evil. Therefore, we must suppose ~ 377 1, 49 | must suppose ~some supreme evil which is the "per se" cause 378 1, 49 | Nor can it be ~said that evil has no "per se" cause, but 379 1, 49 | it would then follow that evil would not exist in the many, 380 1, 49 | 1/1~OBJ 6: Further, the evil of the effect is reduced 381 1, 49 | effect is reduced to the evil of the ~cause; because the 382 1, 49 | we must suppose one first evil as the cause of every ~evil.~ 383 1, 49 | evil as the cause of every ~evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 384 1, 49 | one first ~principle of evil, as there is one first principle 385 1, 49 | Q[5], A[3]); ~and that evil can exist only in good as 386 1, 49 | there cannot be a supreme evil; because, as was shown above ~( 387 1, 49 | Q[48], A[4]), although evil always lessens good, yet 388 1, 49 | 5) that "if ~the wholly evil could be, it would destroy 389 1, 49 | for something to be wholly evil), evil ~itself would be 390 1, 49 | something to be wholly evil), evil ~itself would be taken away, 391 1, 49 | because the very nature of evil is against the idea of a 392 1, 49 | principle; both because every evil is caused by good, as was 393 1, 49 | above ~(A[1]), and because evil can be only an accidental 394 1, 49 | one good and the other ~evil, fell into this error from 395 1, 49 | nature of that thing was evil; as, for instance, if one 396 1, 49 | that the nature of fire was evil because it burnt the house 397 1, 49 | 48], A[3]). Hence, since evil is privation of good, as 398 1, 49 | term; but privation and evil by receding from ~that term. 399 1, 49 | thing is not said to be evil and worse, by reason of ~ 400 1, 49 | of ~access to the supreme evil, in the same way as it is 401 1, 49 | OBJ 4: No being is called evil by participation, but by 402 1, 49 | reduce it to any essential ~evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[49] A[ 403 1, 49 | 5 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 5: Evil can only have an accidental 404 1, 49 | to any 'per se' cause of evil is impossible. And ~to say 405 1, 49 | impossible. And ~to say that evil is in the greater number 406 1, 49 | alone can there be natural ~evil, are the smaller part of 407 1, 49 | number. In man alone does ~evil appear as in the greater 408 1, 49 | OBJ 6: In the causes of evil we do not proceed to infinity, 409 1, 49 | some good cause, whence evil follows accidentally.~ 410 1, 58 | darkness, ~that is, from the evil spirits. The good angels, 411 1, 62 | inclined towards ~good and evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[62] A[ 412 1, 62 | able to choose good or evil. But the freedom of will 413 1, 63 | consider how angels became evil: first of all ~with regard 414 1, 63 | all ~with regard to the evil of fault; and secondly, 415 1, 63 | and secondly, as to the evil of ~punishment. Under the 416 1, 63 | consideration:~(1) Can there be evil of fault in the angels?~( 417 1, 63 | Supposing that some became evil by a sin of their own choosing, 418 1, 63 | are ~any of them naturally evil?~(5) Supposing that it is 419 1, 63 | could any one of them become evil in ~the first instant of 420 1, 63 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the evil of fault can be in the angels?~ 421 1, 63 | seem that there can be no evil of fault in the angels. ~ 422 1, 63 | angels. ~For there can be no evil except in things which are 423 1, 63 | Therefore there can be no ~evil in them.~Aquin.: SMT FP 424 1, 63 | say that there cannot be evil in the heavenly bodies. ~ 425 1, 63 | this respect ~there can be evil in them.~Aquin.: SMT FP 426 1, 63 | Therefore as there can be no evil of corruption in their nature; 427 1, 63 | so ~neither can there be evil of disorder in their natural 428 1, 63 | angels, by reason of which evil may be in them.~Aquin.: 429 1, 63 | First, when something evil is chosen; as man sins by 430 1, 63 | choosing adultery, ~which is evil of itself. Such sin always 431 1, 63 | error; ~otherwise what is evil would never be chosen as 432 1, 63 | pride, there ~followed the evil of envy in the sinning angel, 433 1, 63 | to be deceitful is to be evil. Therefore some demons are ~ 434 1, 63 | may happen to have some evil connected with it; thus ~ 435 1, 63 | it; thus ~fire has this evil connected with it that it 436 1, 63 | with the universal good no evil can be connected. If, then, 437 1, 63 | tend naturally to some evil; not as evil, but accidentally, 438 1, 63 | naturally to some evil; not as evil, but accidentally, as connected ~ 439 1, 63 | it cannot be inclined to evil. Now it is ~manifest that 440 1, 63 | inclination towards any evil whatsoever; consequently 441 1, 63 | they ~cannot be naturally evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[63] A[ 442 1, 63 | particular good, with which evil may be connected. In this 443 1, 63 | a natural inclination to evil; yet only accidentally, 444 1, 63 | accidentally, inasmuch ~as evil is connected with good.~ 445 1, 63 | deceit. Wherefore it is not evil ~in the fox to be sly, since 446 1, 63 | natural to him; as it is not evil in ~the dog to be fierce, 447 1, 63 | that the devil's nature is evil of itself. Since this ~opinion, 448 1, 63 | whosoever consents to another's evil ~suggestion, shall be subjected 449 1, 63 | Philosopher says (Ethic. ii, 6): "Evil is in many, but good is 450 1, 63 | regard to men, in whom ~evil comes to pass from seeking 451 1, 63 | creature can be turned to evil. In the Sacred Scripture, 452 1, 64 | the demons is obstinate in evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[64] A[ 453 1, 64 | demons is not obstinate in ~evil. For liberty of will belongs 454 1, 64 | ordained to good rather than to evil. ~Therefore the demons' 455 1, 64 | will is not so obstinate in evil as not to be able ~to return 456 1, 64 | have a will obstinate in evil, then their ~will would 457 1, 64 | be inclined to good and ~evil; with the exception of the 458 1, 64 | the demons is obstinate in evil.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[64] A[ 459 1, 64 | even ~such good acts to evil purpose.~Aquin.: SMT FP 460 1, 64 | good thing to be sorry for evil. But the demons ~can do 461 1, 64 | sorry, at least for the ~evil of sin; which applies to 462 1, 64 | the demons over present evil, so also ~there is fear 463 1, 64 | there is fear of future evil. Now when it is said, "He 464 1, 64 | OBJ 3: To be sorry for the evil of sin on account of the 465 1, 64 | of the will, to which the evil of sin is opposed. ~But 466 1, 64 | But to be sorry for the evil of punishment, for the evil 467 1, 64 | evil of punishment, for the evil of sin on ~account of the 468 1, 64 | of nature, to ~which the evil of punishment is opposed. 469 1, 64 | he is not sorry for the evil of sin.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 470 1, 64 | unto good and withheld from evil; and ~this is fittingly 471 1, 65 | corporeal creatures are evil, since ~we find them harmful 472 1, 65 | things. Now a thing is called evil, in so far as it ~is harmful. 473 1, 65 | the good God, but by an evil principle, and allege in 474 1, 65 | themselves seems simply ~evil. For they do not reflect 475 1, 65 | themselves the same ~thing may be evil in some respects, but good 476 1, 65 | bodies were essentially evil and harmful.~Aquin.: SMT 477 1, 65 | should be, but that the evil in another might be punished. 478 1, 68 | into heaven"; whereby the evil spirit is represented as ~ 479 1, 73 | happened in it, or some evil been avoided. But whether 480 1, 47 | things and the other of evil things, against ~which " 481 1, 48 | distinction of good and evil; thirdly, of the distinction 482 1, 48 | principles of good and ~evil, he said that in the beginning 483 1, 49 | DISTINCTION OF GOOD AND EVIL (QQ[48]-49)~THE DISTINCTION 484 1, 49 | distinction of good and evil; and then the distinction 485 1, 49 | the first, we inquire into evil and its cause.~Aquin.: SMT 486 1, 49 | Out. Para. 3/3~Concerning evil, six points are to be considered:~( 487 1, 49 | considered:~(1) Whether evil is a nature? ~(2) Whether 488 1, 49 | is a nature? ~(2) Whether evil is found in things?~(3) 489 1, 49 | Whether good is the subject of evil?~(4) Whether evil totally 490 1, 49 | subject of evil?~(4) Whether evil totally corrupts good?~( 491 1, 49 | good?~(5) The division of evil into pain and fault.~(6) 492 1, 49 | has more the nature of evil?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[48] A[ 493 1, 49 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether evil is a nature?~Aquin.: SMT 494 1, 49 | OBJ 1: It would seem that evil is a nature. For every genus 495 1, 49 | genus is a nature. ~But evil is a genus; for the Philosopher 496 1, 49 | Praedic. x) that "good and ~evil are not in a genus, but 497 1, 49 | other things." Therefore evil ~is a nature.~Aquin.: SMT 498 1, 49 | species is a ~nature. But evil is a difference constituting 499 1, 49 | illiberality. Therefore evil signifies a nature.~Aquin.: 500 1, 49 | contraries is a nature. But evil and ~good are not opposed


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