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ang 4
angel 1659
angelic 314
angels 2518
anger 874
angered 11
angle 11
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2603 own
2551 time
2540 holy
2518 angels
2515 subject
2462 father
2441 just
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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angels

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     Part, Question
1 1, 1 | sacred doctrine we treat of angels, corporeal creatures and 2 1, 7 | think is ~the case with angels, these will be relatively 3 1, 9 | certain created substances, as angels and ~souls, have not matter. 4 1, 9 | as in the case with the angels; and universally all ~creatures 5 1, 9 | 1~Reply OBJ 2: The good angels, besides their natural endowment 6 1, 10 | in operation; ~like the angels, and the blessed, who enjoy 7 1, 10 | The same applies to the angels, who have an ~unchangeable 8 1, 10 | spiritual substances, as are the angels. Therefore there ~is not 9 1, 10 | last; even in one ~order of angels. Now according to the first 10 1, 12 | prophets only, but neither angels nor ~archangels have seen 11 1, 12 | incorporeal beings, called ~angels. But to God alone does it 12 1, 12 | incongruous; since equality with angels is promised to men as ~their 13 1, 12 | 1/1~On the contrary, The angels see the essence of God; 14 1, 12 | Hier. vii), "the inferior angels ~are cleansed from ignorance 15 1, 12 | ignorance by the superior angels." Also they are ~ignorant 16 1, 12 | diverse ideas given them, the angels do not know all things ~ 17 1, 20 | him a little less than the angels" (Ps. 8:6). But God ~loved 18 1, 20 | men more than He loved the angels, for it is said: "Nowhere 19 1, 20 | doth He ~take hold of the angels, but of the seed of Abraham 20 1, 20 | more than He loves all the angels; for that nature ~is better, 21 1, 20 | that, in this respect, some angels are found nobler than some 22 1, 20 | some men nobler than some angels. But as to natural condition 23 1, 23 | 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, the angels are capable of beatitude, 24 1, 23 | predestination is not suitable to angels, since in them there never 25 1, 23 | Predestination applies to angels, just as it does to men, ~ 26 1, 23 | the place of ~the fallen angels; and the Gentiles in that 27 1, 23 | many men ~will be saved as angels fell; some, so many as there 28 1, 23 | some, so many as there were angels left; ~others, as many as 29 1, 23 | as many as the number of angels created by God. It is, however, ~ 30 1, 25 | more than twelve legions of angels?" (Mt. ~26:53). But He neither 31 1, 25 | above all the choirs of angels, and ~so cannot be better 32 1, 29 | as in God, and ~in the angels. Therefore the word "nature" 33 1, 29 | Further, person in men and angels does not signify relation, 34 1, 29 | meaning in God, in man, and in angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[29] A[ 35 1, 30 | something composite. Hence the angels, who are more perfect and 36 1, 31 | another." But God is with ~the angels and the souls of the saints. 37 1, 31 | Reply OBJ 1: Although the angels and the souls of the saints 38 1, 31 | alone or solitary, though angels and men ~were with Him, 39 1, 31 | Therefore the society of angels and of souls does not take 40 1, 43 | by the ~ministry of the angels; as Augustine says (De Trin. 41 1, 43 | any, came by means of the angels. ~Thus the angels are sent, 42 1, 43 | of the angels. ~Thus the angels are sent, and not the Holy 43 1, 43 | by the ministry of the ~angels, not to signify the person 44 1, 44 | nigh unto Thyself" - viz. angels - "the other nigh unto ~ 45 1, 45 | that neither good nor ~bad angels can create anything. Much 46 1, 47 | promoted to the order of angels according to the ~diversity 47 1, 50 | Para. 1/4 - TREATISE ON THE ANGELS (QQ[50]-64)~OF THE SUBSTANCE 48 1, 50 | OF THE SUBSTANCE OF THE ANGELS ABSOLUTELY CONSIDERED (FIVE 49 1, 50 | Para. 2/4~Concerning the angels, we consider first what 50 1, 50 | creature is corporeal. Now angels are God's creatures, ~as 51 1, 50 | Praise ye" the Lord, "all His angels"; and, ~farther on (verse 52 1, 50 | were created." Therefore angels are corporeal.~Aquin.: SMT 53 1, 50 | 103:4): "Who makes His angels spirits."~Aquin.: SMT FP 54 1, 50 | and thus it ~is said that angels, compared to God, are material 55 1, 50 | that, Some assert that the angels are composed of matter and ~ 56 1, 50 | understood to be in the angels; and this is what some say, 57 1, 50 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels exist in any great number?~ 58 1, 50 | It would seem that the angels are not in great numbers. 59 1, 50 | But this cannot be in the angels, since they are incorporeal, 60 1, 50 | above (A[1]). Therefore the angels cannot exist in any great ~ 61 1, 50 | apprehend. ~Therefore the angels are not in greater number 62 1, 50 | harmony, held ~that the angels, in so far as they are styled 63 1, 50 | divine message are styled angels; and ~again, even the powers 64 1, 50 | things to be designated as angels. ~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[50] A[ 65 1, 50 | it must be said that the angels, even inasmuch as they are ~ 66 1, 50 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: In the angels number is not that of discrete 67 1, 50 | the multiplication of the angels is not ~to be taken according 68 1, 50 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels differ in species?~Aquin.: 69 1, 50 | It would seem that the angels do not differ in species. 70 1, 50 | according to species. But all angels ~agree in what is noblest 71 1, 50 | intellectuality. ~Therefore all the angels are of one species.~Aquin.: 72 1, 50 | change a species. But the angels ~seem to differ only from 73 1, 50 | intellect. Therefore the ~angels do not differ specifically.~ 74 1, 50 | species. So therefore are the ~angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[50] A[ 75 1, 50 | Therefore there are many angels of one ~species.~Aquin.: 76 1, 50 | iii, text 2). But in the angels even of the one order there 77 1, 50 | Ang. x). Therefore the ~angels are not of the same species.~ 78 1, 50 | Others, again, that all the angels are of the one ~species, 79 1, 50 | others allege that all the angels of one ~hierarchy, or even 80 1, 50 | materially. If, ~therefore, the angels be not composed of matter 81 1, 50 | it is impossible for two angels to be of ~one species; just 82 1, 50 | substances. And if the ~angels had matter, not even then 83 1, 50 | then could there be several angels of one species. For it would 84 1, 50 | and in like manner all the angels differ in ~species according 85 1, 50 | air: and in this way the angels are diversified ~according 86 1, 50 | to be multiplied in ~the angels than for individuals to 87 1, 50 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels are incorruptible?~Aquin.: 88 1, 50 | It would seem that the angels are not incorruptible; for ~ 89 1, 50 | be ~understood to be the angels. Therefore the angels are 90 1, 50 | the angels. Therefore the angels are corruptible by ~their 91 1, 50 | corruptible. Therefore, since the ~angels were made by God, it would 92 1, 50 | necessarily be maintained that the angels are ~incorruptible of their 93 1, 50 | being, as happens in the angels, as was said above (A[2]), 94 1, 50 | Contra Maxim. iii). The angels obtain perfect ~immutability 95 1, 50 | that all ~things, even the angels, would lapse into nothing, 96 1, 50 | principle of ~corruption in the angels; but that the nature of 97 1, 50 | but that the nature of the angels is dependent ~upon God as 98 1, 51 | Out. Para. 1/2 - OF THE ANGELS IN COMPARISON WITH BODIES ( 99 1, 51 | We next inquire about the angels in comparison with corporeal 100 1, 51 | bodies; secondly, of ~the angels in comparison with corporeal 101 1, 51 | of inquiry:~(1) Whether angels have bodies naturally united 102 1, 51 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels have bodies naturally united 103 1, 51 | OBJ 1: It would seem that angels have bodies naturally united 104 1, 51 | the nature of demons and angels is the same. Therefore angels 105 1, 51 | angels is the same. Therefore angels have bodies ~naturally united 106 1, 51 | body and soul. Therefore angels ~have bodies naturally united 107 1, 51 | life is more perfect in the angels than in souls. But ~the 108 1, 51 | the body. Therefore the angels ~animate bodies which are 109 1, 51 | Div. Nom. iv) that "the angels are ~understood to be incorporeal."~ 110 1, 51 | 1/1~I answer that, The angels have not bodies naturally 111 1, 51 | bodies, and these we call ~angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[51] A[ 112 1, 51 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether angels assume bodies?~Aquin.: SMT 113 1, 51 | OBJ 1: It would seem that angels do not assume bodies. For 114 1, 51 | would be superfluous for the angels to ~assume bodies, because 115 1, 51 | all bodies moved by the angels are assumed ~by them. Therefore 116 1, 51 | by them. Therefore the angels do not assume bodies.~Aquin.: 117 1, 51 | Para. 1/1 ~OBJ 3: Further, angels do not assume bodies from 118 1, 51 | or color. Therefore the angels do not assume bodies.~Aquin.: 119 1, 51 | says (De Civ. Dei xvi) that angels appeared ~to Abraham under 120 1, 51 | have maintained that the angels never assume ~bodies, but 121 1, 51 | Scripture of apparitions of angels ~happened in prophetic vision - 122 1, 51 | time to time ~introduces angels so apparent as to be seen 123 1, 51 | commonly by all; just as the ~angels who appeared to Abraham 124 1, 51 | Consequently, since the angels are not bodies, nor have 125 1, 51 | 1 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Angels need an assumed body, not 126 1, 51 | life to come. Moreover that angels assumed bodies under the 127 1, 51 | bodies are so fashioned by ~angels as fittingly to represent 128 1, 51 | the clouds. Even so the angels assume bodies of ~air, condensing 129 1, 51 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels exercise functions of life 130 1, 51 | It would seem that the angels exercise functions of life 131 1, 51 | pretence is unbecoming in angels of truth. But it ~would 132 1, 51 | functions. Therefore the ~angels exercise functions of life 133 1, 51 | Further, in the works of the angels there is nothing without 134 1, 51 | says (De Anima ii). But the angels are ~manifestly seen to 135 1, 51 | Abraham walked with" the angels, who had appeared to him, ~" 136 1, 51 | thereof." Therefore the angels often exercise functions 137 1, 51 | of Sacred Scripture that ~angels spoke in assumed bodies. 138 1, 51 | life ~(Lk. 24). Now when angels appeared in their assumed 139 1, 51 | Gn. 18). Therefore the angels exercise functions of life 140 1, 51 | But this has befallen ~the angels in their assumed bodies; 141 1, 51 | 6:4). Consequently ~the angels exercised vital functions 142 1, 51 | contrary, The bodies assumed by angels have no life, as was ~stated 143 1, 51 | in assumed ~bodies by the angels, as to that which is common 144 1, 51 | to the truth of the holy angels that through their assumed ~ 145 1, 51 | properties and works of the angels may be manifested by the 146 1, 51 | lead us to men, ~and not to angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[51] A[ 147 1, 51 | no way be said that the angels perceive through the organs 148 1, 51 | spiritual powers of the angels may be made ~manifest; just 149 1, 51 | the bodies assumed by the angels are not thus moved, since 150 1, 51 | not thus moved, since the ~angels are not their forms. Yet 151 1, 51 | not their forms. Yet the angels are moved accidentally, 152 1, 51 | He is everywhere; yet the angels are ~moved accidentally 153 1, 51 | Properly speaking, the angels do not talk through their ~ 154 1, 51 | Properly speaking, the angels cannot be said to eat, ~ 155 1, 51 | eating. But the food taken by angels ~was neither changed into 156 1, 51 | deny it. But God's ~holy angels could not fall in such fashion 157 1, 52 | Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE ANGELS IN RELATION TO PLACE (THREE 158 1, 52 | inquire into the place of the angels. Touching this there are ~ 159 1, 52 | at once?~(3) Can several angels be in the same place?~Aquin.: 160 1, 52 | Breviary]: "Let Thy holy angels who dwell herein, keep us 161 1, 52 | no such ~quantity in the angels, for theirs is a virtual 162 1, 52 | Orth. ii) that "while the ~angels are in heaven, they are 163 1, 52 | Para. 1/1~Whether several angels can be at the same time 164 1, 52 | would seem that several angels can be at the same time 165 1, 52 | fill the place. But the angels do not fill a place, ~because 166 1, 52 | 52,58). Therefore several angels can ~be in the one place.~ 167 1, 52 | than there is between two angels. But an angel and a body 168 1, 52 | Much more, ~then, can two angels be in the same place.~Aquin.: 169 1, 52 | reason there are not two angels in the same place.~Aquin.: 170 1, 52 | that, There are not two angels in the same place. The reason 171 1, 52 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Several angels are not hindered from being 172 1, 53 | THE LOCAL MOVEMENT OF THE ANGELS (THREE ARTICLES)~We must 173 1, 53 | the local movement of the angels; under which ~heading there 174 1, 53 | because of want. But the holy angels ~have no want. Therefore 175 1, 53 | want. Therefore the holy angels are not moved locally.~Aquin.: 176 1, 54 | OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANGELS (FIVE ARTICLES)~After considering 177 1, 54 | intelligence?~(4) Is there in the angels an active and a passive 178 1, 54 | writings, Dionysius styles angels "intellects" and "minds." 179 1, 54 | Coel. Hier. xi) that "the angels are ~divided into substance, 180 1, 54 | necessities is absent from the angels. They are ~neither sometimes 181 1, 54 | is not generated in the angels, ~but is present naturally. 182 1, 54 | intellectual knowledge in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[54] A[ 183 1, 54 | that the knowledge of the angels is not exclusively ~intellectual. 184 1, 54 | Civ. Dei viii) that in the angels ~there is "life which understands 185 1, 54 | De Summo Bono) that the angels have learnt ~many things 186 1, 54 | same reason it is in the angels, since they are of ~the 187 1, 54 | and understands with the angels."~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[54] A[ 188 1, 54 | parts of ~the body. Now the angels have no bodies naturally 189 1, 54 | soul. For ~this reason the angels are called "intellects" 190 1, 54 | such men as contended that angels and demons have bodies ~ 191 1, 54 | can be attributed to ~the angels according to the likeness 192 1, 54 | through the senses: the angels likewise know single ~objects, 193 1, 54 | memory can be allowed in the angels, according as Augustine ( 194 1, 55 | points of inquiry:~(1) Do the angels know everything by their 195 1, 55 | things?~(3) Do the higher angels know by more universal species 196 1, 55 | species than the lower ~angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[55] A[ 197 1, 55 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels know all things by their 198 1, 55 | It would seem that the angels know all things by their 199 1, 55 | Div. Nom. vii) that "the angels, according to the ~proper 200 1, 55 | without matter, such as the angels, the ~medium whereby the 201 1, 55 | Div. Nom. iv) that "the angels are ~enlightened by the 202 1, 55 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels understand by species drawn 203 1, 55 | It would seem that the angels understand by species drawn 204 1, 55 | Div. Nom. vii) that the "angels do not ~gather their Divine 205 1, 55 | The species whereby the angels understand are not drawn ~ 206 1, 55 | substances - that is, the angels - the power of understanding 207 1, 55 | substances - that is, the angels - are utterly free from 208 1, 55 | which are lower than the angels are so ~created that they 209 1, 55 | 1/1~Whether the higher angels understand by more universal 210 1, 55 | species than the ~lower angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[55] A[ 211 1, 55 | would seem that the higher angels do not understand by more ~ 212 1, 55 | universal species than the lower angels. For the universal, seemingly, 213 1, 55 | abstracted from particulars. But angels do not understand by ~species 214 1, 55 | therefore, the higher ~angels know by more universal species 215 1, 55 | Hier. xii) that the higher angels ~have a more universal knowledge 216 1, 55 | is ~said that the higher angels have more universal forms.~ 217 1, 56 | into the knowledge of the angels with regard to the ~objects 218 1, 56 | Dionysius ~says that "the angels do not know their own powers" ( 219 1, 56 | they," that is to say the ~angels, "knew their own powers": 220 1, 56 | this respect, that the ~angels do not know their own power 221 1, 56 | Divine Wisdom, Which to the angels is ~incomprehensible.~Aquin.: 222 1, 56 | subsisting without matter, as the angels are, there is nothing to ~ 223 1, 56 | be known by the existing ~angels; or else he would have to 224 1, 56 | would follow that the higher angels could not know the lower, ~ 225 1, 56 | spiritual natures of the angels are distinguished from ~ 226 1, 56 | causality be admitted in the ~angels, this will suffice for one 227 1, 56 | God resolved to make more angels or ~more natures of things, 228 1, 56 | It would seem that the angels cannot know God by their 229 1, 56 | through a mirror belong to the angels, since ~they do not derive 230 1, 56 | Nom. vii). Therefore the angels cannot know God ~by their 231 1, 56 | 1/1~On the contrary, The angels are mightier in knowledge 232 1, 56 | Therefore much more so can ~the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[56] A[ 233 1, 56 | 1/2~I answer that, The angels can have some knowledge 234 1, 57 | objects which are known by the angels. ~Under this heading there 235 1, 57 | inquiry:~(1) Whether the angels know the natures of material 236 1, 57 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels know material things?~Aquin.: 237 1, 57 | It would seem that the angels do not know material things. 238 1, 57 | cannot be the perfections of angels, since they are ~beneath 239 1, 57 | beneath them. Therefore the angels do not know material things.~ 240 1, 57 | nor sensible vision in the angels, but only ~intellectual. 241 1, 57 | intellectual. Therefore the angels cannot know material things.~ 242 1, 57 | which does not ~exist in angels. Therefore angels do not 243 1, 57 | exist in angels. Therefore angels do not know material things.~ 244 1, 57 | among other creatures the ~angels are nearest to God, and 245 1, 57 | things pre-exist in the angels more ~simply and less materially 246 1, 57 | of such subject. But the angels are intellectual beings 247 1, 57 | His essence, so do the ~angels know them, forasmuch as 248 1, 57 | forasmuch as they are in the angels by their ~intelligible species.~ 249 1, 57 | the ~intellect of man and angels, as the thing understood 250 1, 57 | OBJ 1: It would seem that angels do not know singulars. For 251 1, 57 | universals." Now, in the angels there is no ~power of understanding 252 1, 57 | what he does not know. But angels ~guard individual men, according 253 1, 57 | 90:11: "He hath given His angels ~charge over Thee." Consequently 254 1, 57 | Thee." Consequently the angels know singulars.~Aquin.: 255 1, 57 | Some have denied to the angels all knowledge of ~singulars. 256 1, 57 | things are administered by angels, ~according to Heb. 1:14: " 257 1, 57 | according to which the angels are stated to be the movers 258 1, 57 | imparted to them do the angels know things, not only as 259 1, 57 | keeping with the nature of the angels, ~as was said above (Q[55], 260 1, 57 | to their nature that the angels are ~likened to material 261 1, 57 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Angels know singulars by universal 262 1, 57 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether angels know the future?~Aquin.: 263 1, 57 | It would seem that the angels know future events. For 264 1, 57 | know future events. For angels are ~mightier in knowledge 265 1, 57 | Therefore much more do the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[57] A[ 266 1, 57 | Therefore it appears that the ~angels know indifferently things 267 1, 57 | by reason of place. But angels know things which are distant ~ 268 1, 57 | does ~not belong to the angels. But to know future events 269 1, 57 | are gods." Therefore the ~angels do not know future events.~ 270 1, 57 | future ~events exists in the angels, and by so much the more 271 1, 57 | by ~God's revelation. The angels know the future in the same 272 1, 57 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether angels know secret thoughts?~Aquin.: 273 1, 57 | It would seem that the angels know secret thoughts. For 274 1, 57 | who rise shall be like the angels, as is stated ~(Mt. 22:30). 275 1, 57 | God does not belong to the angels. ~But it is proper to God 276 1, 57 | search the heart." Therefore angels do not ~know the secrets 277 1, 57 | pulse. Much more then can angels, or ~even demons, the more 278 1, 57 | not exist at all ~in the angels; while the second will remain, 279 1, 57 | will remain, and is in the angels now. ~Nevertheless the brightness 280 1, 57 | Since, ~therefore, the angels know corporeal things and 281 1, 57 | happens in brutes. Yet the angels do ~not necessarily know 282 1, 57 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels know the mysteries of grace?~ 283 1, 57 | It would seem that the angels know mysteries of grace. 284 1, 57 | all mysteries. But ~the angels knew of it from the beginning; 285 1, 57 | godliness appeared ~unto angels*." [*Vulg.: 'Great is the 286 1, 57 | which . . . ~appeared unto angels.'] Therefore the angels 287 1, 57 | angels.'] Therefore the angels know the mysteries of grace.~ 288 1, 57 | the Divine wisdom. But the angels behold God's wisdom, which 289 1, 57 | prophets are enlightened by the angels, as is clear ~from Dionysius ( 290 1, 57 | the prophets." Therefore angels know ~the mysteries of grace.~ 291 1, 57 | already. Yet even the ~highest angels seek out and learn mysteries 292 1, 57 | Is. ~63:1, where, on the angels asking, "Who is he who cometh 293 1, 57 | justice." Therefore the angels do not ~know mysteries of 294 1, 57 | species. By such knowledge the angels cannot know ~mysteries of 295 1, 57 | another knowledge of the angels, which renders them happy; 296 1, 57 | yet so that the higher angels ~beholding the Divine wisdom 297 1, 57 | communicate to the lower ~angels by enlightening them. Some 298 1, 57 | conditions. Thus not all the angels were instructed on all points ~ 299 1, 57 | beginning; even the higher angels learned these afterwards, 300 1, 57 | Reply OBJ 2: Although the angels in bliss behold the Divine 301 1, 57 | more excellent way to the angels. And ~although God revealed 302 1, 58 | in Phys. iii, 6. But the angels' minds are moved ~by understanding, 303 1, 58 | Pt. 1:12): "On Whom the angels desire to look." Therefore 304 1, 58 | ad lit. ii): "Since the angels ~were created, in the eternity 305 1, 58 | heavenly intellects, the angels, have no intelligible ~potentiality 306 1, 58 | Word. For the ~bliss of the angels consists in such vision; 307 1, 58 | desire on the part of the angels does not exclude the ~object 308 1, 58 | by such knowledge as the angels have of things through the ~ 309 1, 58 | knowledge wherewith the angels know things by ~innate species, 310 1, 58 | through another. But the angels know one thing through another; 311 1, 58 | Div. Nom. vii) that the "angels do not ~acquire Divine knowledge 312 1, 58 | A[1]; Q[55], A[1]), the angels ~hold that grade among spiritual 313 1, 58 | is the condition of the angels, because in the truths which ~ 314 1, 58 | intellectual light, like the angels, then in the first aspect 315 1, 58 | knowledge. And in this way the angels know things in ~the Word.~ 316 1, 58 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: The angels can syllogize, in the sense 317 1, 58 | Experience is affirmed of angels and demons simply by way ~ 318 1, 58 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels understand by composing 319 1, 58 | It would seem that the angels understand by composing 320 1, 58 | the angelic mind; because angels ~apprehend different things 321 1, 58 | But in speaking to ~men, angels use affirmative and negative 322 1, 58 | Reply OBJ 3: The fact that angels use affirmative and negative 323 1, 58 | in the intellect of the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[58] A[ 324 1, 58 | can be nescience in the angels. ~Therefore it seems there 325 1, 58 | error in the minds of the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[58] A[ 326 1, 58 | is not the method of the angels; but through the (knowledge 327 1, 58 | every creature, the good angels form no judgments as to 328 1, 58 | while nescience is in the angels as ~regards things knowable, 329 1, 58 | evening" knowledge in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[58] A[ 330 1, 58 | morning ~knowledge in the angels; because evening and morning 331 1, 58 | evening knowledge in the angels, for the same reason it ~ 332 1, 58 | knowledge be admitted in the angels, ~because of the existence 333 1, 58 | divides the knowledge of the angels into morning and evening ~ 334 1, 58 | is, to the enlightened angels, who are quite apart from 335 1, 58 | the evil spirits. The good angels, while knowing the ~creature, 336 1, 58 | following, in so far as the angels refer to ~God's praise their 337 1, 58 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: The angels themselves are also creatures. 338 1, 58 | day" the knowledge of the angels is to be understood, ~as 339 1, 58 | evening knowledge of the angels are one and the same.~Aquin.: 340 1, 58 | at the same time. But the angels are always using their morning ~ 341 1, 58 | knowledge is that by ~which the angels know things in their proper 342 1, 58 | stated (Q[55], A[2]), the angels do not draw ~their knowledge 343 1, 58 | evening knowledge is ~in the angels in so far as they know the 344 1, 58 | knowledge, in so far as when the angels ~behold the Word, they know 345 1, 58 | classes of things known by the angels; so that the day's unit 346 1, 58 | morning knowledge in the angels; hence there is nothing 347 1, 58 | at the same time in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[58] A[ 348 1, 59 | Para. 1/1 - THE WILL OF THE ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)~In the next 349 1, 59 | concerning the will of the ~angels. In the first place we shall 350 1, 59 | Whether there is will in the angels?~(2) Whether the will of 351 1, 59 | Is there free-will in the angels?~(4) Is there an irascible 352 1, 59 | Whether there is will in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 353 1, 59 | there is no will in the angels. For as the ~Philosopher 354 1, 59 | there is no reason in the angels, but something higher than 355 1, 59 | there is no will in the angels, but something higher than 356 1, 59 | is no imperfection in the angels, ~especially in the blessed 357 1, 59 | object ~understood. Now the angels are immovable, since they 358 1, 59 | there is no will in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 359 1, 59 | Therefore ~there is will in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 360 1, 59 | necessarily place a will in the angels. In ~evidence thereof, it 361 1, 59 | Accordingly, since the angels by their intellect know 362 1, 59 | the same. Therefore in the angels, who are purely intellectual, 363 1, 59 | kind from existing in the angels, ~since such movement is 364 1, 59 | Para. 1/1~Whether in the angels the will differs from the 365 1, 59 | contrary, The will in the angels regards good things only, 366 1, 59 | Therefore the will of the angels is distinct from their intellect.~ 367 1, 59 | 3~I answer that, In the angels the will is a special faculty 368 1, 59 | there is free-will in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 369 1, 59 | there is no free-will in the angels. For the ~act of free-will 370 1, 59 | can be no choice with the ~angels, because choice is "the 371 1, 59 | Ethic. iii, 3. But ~the angels' knowledge is not the result 372 1, 59 | is no ~free-will in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 373 1, 59 | alternatives. But in ~the angels on the part of their intellect 374 1, 59 | natural endowments of the angels belong to them ~according 375 1, 59 | less; because in the higher angels the ~intellectual nature 376 1, 59 | of man's dignity. But the angels' ~dignity surpasses that 377 1, 59 | more reason is it in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 378 1, 59 | is there free-will in the angels, and ~in a higher degree 379 1, 59 | Hence there is choice in the angels, yet not with ~the inquisitive 380 1, 59 | nobler manner in the higher angels ~than it does in the lower, 381 1, 59 | concupiscible appetite in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 382 1, 59 | concupiscible ~appetite in the angels. For Dionysius says (Div. 383 1, 59 | are of the same nature as angels; for sin has not altered 384 1, 59 | concupiscible appetite in the ~angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 385 1, 59 | good and to the wicked ~angels. Therefore there is an irascible 386 1, 59 | concupiscible appetite in ~the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 387 1, 59 | these virtues are in the angels. Therefore there is both 388 1, 59 | irascible appetite in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 389 1, 59 | which does not ~exist in angels. Consequently there is no 390 1, 59 | concupiscible ~appetite in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[59] A[ 391 1, 59 | since there exists in the angels ~only an intellective appetite, 392 1, 59 | these things is said of the ~angels, as by way of passions; 393 1, 59 | they do not exist ~in the angels in this manner. For in them 394 1, 60 | LOVE OR DILECTION OF THE ANGELS (FIVE ARTICLES)~The next 395 1, 60 | there is natural love in the angels?~(2) Whether there is in 396 1, 60 | love or dilection in the ~angels. For, natural love is contradistinguished 397 1, 60 | its own nature. ~Now the angels are not acted upon, but 398 1, 60 | no ~natural love in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[60] A[ 399 1, 60 | natural knowledge in the angels. Therefore there is also 400 1, 60 | place natural love in the angels. In ~evidence of this we 401 1, 60 | is love of choice in the angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[60] A[ 402 1, 60 | no love of choice in the angels. For ~love of choice appears 403 1, 60 | intellectual, which is proper to angels, as is said (Div. ~Nom. 404 1, 60 | no love of choice in the angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[60] A[ 405 1, 60 | 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, the angels have only natural knowledge 406 1, 60 | only natural love in the angels. Therefore there is no love 407 1, 60 | But ~by their love the angels merit or demerit. Therefore 408 1, 60 | that, There exists in the angels a natural love, and a love 409 1, 60 | intellectual nature of the angels is perfect, only natural 410 1, 60 | have no love for ~the good angels. Therefore an angel does 411 1, 60 | stripped from the wicked angels, without their still ~retaining 412 1, 60 | affection towards the good angels, in so far as they ~share 413 1, 60 | charity is not natural to the angels; for "it is poured out ~ 414 1, 60 | Dei xii, 9). Therefore the angels do not love God more than ~ 415 1, 61 | OF THE PRODUCTION OF THE ANGELS IN THE ORDER OF NATURAL 416 1, 61 | dealing with the nature of the angels, their knowledge and will, ~ 417 1, 61 | creatures?~(4) Whether the angels were created in the empyrean 418 1, 61 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels have a cause of their existence?~ 419 1, 61 | It would seem that the angels have no cause of their existence. ~ 420 1, 61 | there is no mention of angels. Therefore the angels were 421 1, 61 | of angels. Therefore the angels were not created by ~God.~ 422 1, 61 | being and unity." But the angels ~are immaterial forms, as 423 1, 61 | form from it. But since the angels are ~forms, they do not 424 1, 61 | any agent. Therefore the angels ~have no active cause.~Aquin.: 425 1, 61 | Praise ye Him, all His ~angels"; and further on, verse 426 1, 61 | It must be affirmed that angels and everything existing, ~ 427 1, 61 | fire. Consequently ~the angels, of necessity, were made 428 1, 61 | Civ. Dei xi, 50) that the angels were ~not passed over in 429 1, 61 | Therefore He produced the angels from eternity.~Aquin.: SMT 430 1, 61 | shown above (A[1]), the ~angels were made by God. Therefore 431 1, 61 | Therefore at one time the angels were not.~Aquin.: SMT FP 432 1, 61 | fact that God produced the ~angels and other creatures by His 433 1, 61 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Angels and intelligent souls are 434 1, 61 | does not follow that the angels existed from eternity. ~( 435 1, 61 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels were created before the 436 1, 61 | It would seem that the angels were created before the 437 1, 61 | count the ages, in which the Angels, Thrones, Dominations, and 438 1, 61 | ii): "Some ~say that the angels were begotten before all 439 1, 61 | previously. Consequently the angels were not created before ~ 440 1, 61 | probable one holds that the angels ~were created at the same 441 1, 61 | corporeal creatures. For the angels are ~part of the universe: 442 1, 61 | hold the creation of the angels to have taken place ~previously 443 1, 61 | one in matter; while the angels ~do not agree with them 444 1, 61 | but the creation of the angels does not involve creation 445 1, 61 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels were created in the empyrean 446 1, 61 | It would seem that the angels were not created in the 447 1, 61 | empyrean ~heaven. For the angels are incorporeal substances. 448 1, 61 | creation. Therefore the angels were ~not created in any 449 1, 61 | lit. iii, 10), that the ~angels were created in the upper 450 1, 61 | heaven. If ~therefore the angels were created in the empyrean 451 1, 61 | and which was filled with angels directly it was made."~Aquin.: 452 1, 61 | Hence it was fitting for the angels ~to be created in the highest 453 1, 61 | heaven is the heaven ~of the angels, explaining the passage 454 1, 61 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: The angels were created in a corporeal 455 1, 61 | not speaking of all ~the angels; but only of such as sinned, 456 1, 61 | saying that the higher angels, as having an exalted and 457 1, 61 | creature; while the other angels, as having more restricted ~ 458 1, 62 | OF THE PERFECTION OF THE ANGELS IN THE ORDER OF GRACE AND 459 1, 62 | have to inquire how the angels were made in the order ~ 460 1, 62 | of ~inquiry:~(1) Were the angels created in beatitude?~(2) 461 1, 62 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels were created in beatitude?~ 462 1, 62 | It would seem that the angels were created in beatitude. 463 1, 62 | Eccl. Dogm. xxix) that "the angels who continue in the ~beatitude 464 1, 62 | they have." Therefore the angels were created in beatitude.~ 465 1, 62 | Word. But the bliss of the angels comes of seeing the Word. 466 1, 62 | Word. Consequently ~the angels were in beatitude straightway 467 1, 62 | nature ~of beatitude. But the angels were not confirmed in good 468 1, 62 | shows this. Therefore the angels ~were not in beatitude from 469 1, 62 | natural dignity. ~But the angels did not have from the beginning 470 1, 62 | was not, but only when the angels became blessed by turning 471 1, 62 | 1/2~I answer that, The angels stood in need of grace in 472 1, 62 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels were created in grace?~Aquin.: 473 1, 62 | It would seem that the angels were not created in grace. 474 1, 62 | nature and glory. But the ~angels were not beatified in their 475 1, 62 | wrought the ~good will of the angels? Who, save Him Who created 476 1, 62 | some holding that the angels were created only in a natural 477 1, 62 | from the ~beginning the angels were created in grace.~Aquin.: 478 1, 62 | Such absence of form in the angels can be understood either ~ 479 1, 62 | have maintained, that the angels merit beatitude by their 480 1, 62 | not ~retarded, then the angels were in beatitude in the 481 1, 62 | the beatific state of the angels is very far remote from ~ 482 1, 62 | consequently equality with angels is promised to the saints. ~ 483 1, 62 | various instants regarding the angels are not to be taken except 484 1, 62 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the angels receive grace and glory 485 1, 62 | It would seem that the angels did not receive grace and 486 1, 62 | ii, ~D, 3) that "those angels who were created with more 487 1, 62 | beatitude were bestowed on the angels according to the ~degree 488 1, 62 | that God destined those angels for greater gifts of ~grace 489 1, 62 | reasonable to suppose that the angels who had a higher nature, 490 1, 62 | Hence it appears that the angels who ~had the greater natural 491 1, 62 | gifts is in one way in the angels, who ~are themselves different 492 1, 62 | intellective nature; but not in the angels. Consequently the argument 493 1, 62 | remain in the beatified angels?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[62] A[ 494 1, 62 | remain in ~the beatified angels. For it is said (1 Cor. 495 1, 62 | suffice for the beatified angels. Therefore ~it would be 496 1, 62 | points. But the ~beatified angels are always exercising their 497 1, 62 | knowledge and love in the ~angels.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[62] A[ 498 1, 62 | knowledge and love remain in the angels. For as ~principles of operations 499 1, 62 | lessened in ~the beatified angels. Therefore they can sin.~ 500 1, 62 | that "there is in the ~holy angels that nature which cannot


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