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virtuality 2
virtually 98
virtue 4737
virtues 2014
virtuous 419
virtuously 9
virtuousness 1
Frequency    [«  »]
2042 account
2038 philosopher
2022 then
2014 virtues
2008 had
1999 shall
1975 9
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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virtues

1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1500 | 1501-2000 | 2001-2014

     Part, Question
1 1, 20 | the habits of ~the moral virtues, as justice, fortitude and 2 1, 21 | 1: Certain of the moral virtues are concerned with the ~ 3 1, 21 | meekness with anger. Such virtues as these can only ~metaphorically 4 1, 21 | 10), the subject of those virtues. On ~the other hand, certain 5 1, 21 | other hand, certain moral virtues are concerned with works 6 1, 21 | prevent our attributing these virtues to God; although not in ~ 7 1, 21 | praise God for His ~political virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[21] A[ 8 1, 22 | morals, after the moral virtues themselves, comes the consideration 9 1, 22 | prudence presupposes the moral ~virtues, by means of which the appetitive 10 1, 55 | respect to all the acts of the virtues; which can be taken as the 11 1, 59 | 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, some virtues are said to reside in the 12 1, 59 | the ~irascible. But these virtues are in the angels. Therefore 13 1, 60 | inclination among the social virtues; for it behooves the virtuous ~ 14 1, 56 | respect to all the acts of the virtues; which can be taken as the 15 1, 60 | 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, some virtues are said to reside in the 16 1, 60 | the ~irascible. But these virtues are in the angels. Therefore 17 1, 61 | inclination among the social virtues; for it behooves the virtuous ~ 18 1, 77 | appetitive powers, in which the virtues reside. And since the knowledge ~ 19 1, 87 | after enumerating many ~virtues in the tenth book, he concludes ( 20 1, 89 | only as to some ~"causal virtues"; which cannot be said of 21 1, 90 | according to the causal virtues ~which God inserted in corporeal 22 1, 90 | creature by ~reason of causal virtues can be produced by some 23 1, 90 | pre-exist in the causal virtues of ~creatures, in two ways. 24 1, 90 | previous work in their causal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[91] A[ 25 1, 91 | creatures as to their ~causal virtues are produced by the power 26 1, 91 | produced in its causal ~virtues among the first created 27 1, 91 | pre-exist in these causal virtues, in the things first created; ~ 28 1, 92 | Reply OBJ 3: Even certain virtues are natural to the soul, 29 1, 94 | 3) Whether he had all virtues?~(4) Whether what he did 30 1, 94 | restrained by the moral ~virtues. But in Adam the moral virtues 31 1, 94 | virtues. But in Adam the moral virtues were perfect. Therefore 32 1, 94 | Whether Adam had all the virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[95] A[ 33 1, 94 | that Adam had not all the virtues. For some virtues ~are directed 34 1, 94 | all the virtues. For some virtues ~are directed to curb passions: 35 1, 94 | Therefore ~neither did these virtues then exist.~Aquin.: SMT 36 1, 94 | 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, some virtues are concerned with the passions 37 1, 94 | Therefore neither did those virtues exist then.~Aquin.: SMT 38 1, 94 | Therefore neither did ~those virtues exist.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 39 1, 94 | sense ~possessed all the virtues; and this can be proved 40 1, 94 | powers to reason. ~Now the virtues are nothing but those perfections 41 1, 94 | explained in the Treatise on the Virtues ~(FS, Q[63], A[2]). Wherefore 42 1, 94 | however, be noted that some virtues of their very nature do 43 1, 94 | charity and justice; and these virtues did ~exist in the primitive 44 1, 94 | habit and in act. But ~other virtues are of such a nature as 45 1, 94 | the primitive state, such virtues ~necessarily existed in 46 1, 94 | primitive state. Wherefore such virtues existed as habits in the ~ 47 1, 94 | passions, and yet those virtues are 'per se' ~competent 48 1, 94 | God's goodness. Thus the virtues which relate to such ~passions 49 1, 94 | state, in habit and in act. ~Virtues, however, relating to passions 50 1, 94 | and of mercy. But other virtues there are which have relation 51 1, 101 | day, but in their seminal ~virtues; whereas, after the work 52 1, 107 | called angels and heavenly ~virtues. But common names should 53 1, 107 | orders of the angels and virtues are ineptly named.~Aquin.: 54 1, 107 | 1:16; "Dominations," ~"Virtues," "Powers," and "Principalities" 55 1, 107 | in the greatest; by the virtues miracles are wrought; by 56 1, 107 | spirits are called heavenly virtues, as also "heavenly ~essences." 57 1, 107 | Hier. viii) that the "name 'virtues' signifies a certain virile ~ 58 1, 107 | belongs to God; as the name "Virtues" signifies the ~participation 59 1, 107 | presiding over all the heavenly "Virtues" who fulfil the ~Divine 60 1, 107 | Dominations," as the first, the "Virtues" in the middle, the "Powers" ~ 61 1, 107 | the "Principalities" and "Virtues." For Dionysius places the ~" 62 1, 107 | For Dionysius places the ~"Virtues" beneath the "Dominations," 63 1, 107 | and the "Powers"; and the "Virtues" between the "Powers" and 64 1, 107 | Dominion." Here he places "Virtues" between "Powers" and ~" 65 1, 107 | disposition - the "Dominations," ~"Virtues," and "Powers"; and he places 66 1, 107 | done, which belongs to the "Virtues"; the third is to order ~ 67 1, 107 | After these come the "Virtues," ~which have power over 68 1, 107 | which also agrees with the ~"Virtues" accordingly as this name 69 1, 107 | according to Gregory, the "Virtues" seem to be the ~same as " 70 1, 109 | so to the order of the "virtues" do those ~angels seem to 71 1, 109 | Those spirits are called virtues by whom signs ~and miracles 72 1, 111 | from "announcing"; the ~"Virtues" and "Powers" are so called 73 1, 112 | infusing into him grace and virtues; as regards the second, 74 1, 112 | coerce the demons, the "Virtues" to work ~miracles in things 75 1, 112 | miracles, which ~belongs to the Virtues. Therefore these orders 76 1, 112 | creatures are guarded by the ~"Virtues"; and likewise the demons 77 1, 114 | in bodies certain seminal virtues?~(3) Whether the heavenly 78 1, 114 | Whether there are any seminal virtues in corporeal matter?~Aquin.: 79 1, 114 | that there are no seminal virtues in corporeal ~matter. For 80 1, 114 | Therefore there are no ~seminal virtues in corporeal matter.~Aquin.: 81 1, 114 | matter. But bodies, not virtues, can be employed ~with local 82 1, 114 | that there are ~seminal virtues in corporeal matter.~Aquin.: 83 1, 114 | Therefore there are no seminal ~virtues in corporeal matter.~Aquin.: 84 1, 114 | said to be certain "causal virtues" ~(Augustine, De Gen. ad 85 1, 114 | production of things. But seminal virtues are not causal virtues: 86 1, 114 | seminal virtues are not causal virtues: for ~miracles are outside 87 1, 114 | outside the scope of seminal virtues, but not of causal ~virtues. 88 1, 114 | virtues, but not of causal ~virtues. Therefore it is unreasonable 89 1, 114 | that there are seminal ~virtues in corporeal matter.~Aquin.: 90 1, 114 | gave the name of "seminal ~virtues" [seminales rationes] to 91 1, 114 | those active and passive virtues ~which are the principles 92 1, 114 | These active and passive virtues may be considered in several 93 1, 114 | These active and passive virtues of natural things, thought ~ 94 1, 114 | things, thought ~not called "virtues" [rationes] by reason of 95 1, 114 | These active and passive virtues are in certain parts of ~ 96 1, 114 | speaking of these seminal ~virtues, it is easy to gather that 97 1, 114 | that they are also causal virtues, just as ~seed is a kind 98 1, 114 | can be ~called "causal virtues," but not, strictly speaking, " 99 1, 114 | strictly speaking, "seminal virtues," ~because seed is not a 100 1, 114 | outside the scope of causal virtues. Likewise neither are ~miracles 101 1, 114 | the scope of the passive virtues so implanted in ~the creature, 102 1, 114 | scope of the ~natural active virtues, and the passive potentialities 103 1, 114 | ordered ~to such active virtues, and this is what is meant 104 1, 114 | outside the scope of seminal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[115] A[ 105 2, 3 | And in ~distinguishing the virtues, he gives no more than three 106 2, 3 | than three speculative ~virtues - "knowledge," "wisdom" 107 2, 13 | OBJ 1: The proper ends of virtues are ordained to Happiness 108 2, 17 | lust, and their contrary virtues. Therefore ~the acts of 109 2, 18 | vainglory, actions of various virtues and vices ~can be ordained. 110 2, 20 | For this reason various virtues are necessary. But right ~ 111 2, 21 | prudence, as in the moral virtues," which prudence directs, " 112 2, 27 | although not all men have these virtues in the complete habit, yet ~ 113 2, 31 | and evil as applied to virtues and vices: because one vice 114 2, 41 | action, they are called virtues. But the Philosopher denies 115 2, 49 | place ~we shall consider virtues and vices and other like 116 2, 49 | causes, e.g. sciences ~and virtues. And in this sense, disposition 117 2, 50 | the soul are sciences and virtues: and ~just as science is 118 2, 50 | Ethic. iii, 10) that "some ~virtues," namely, temperance and 119 2, 50 | Philosopher puts the intellectual virtues, which are wisdom, science 120 2, 51 | case ~with all gratuitous virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[51] A[ 121 2, 52 | that ~some are not, as the virtues. The fourth opinion was 122 2, 52 | A[1]) how it is with the virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[52] A[ 123 2, 52 | How this question affects virtues we shall state further on ( 124 2, 53 | habit of virtue: and again, virtues are engendered ~and corrupted 125 2, 53 | corruption of science." As to virtues, some of them are intellectual, ~ 126 2, 53 | however, viz. the ~moral virtues, are in the appetitive part 127 2, 54 | demands a diversity ~of virtues, even as diversity of active 128 2, 54 | with which, above all, the virtues ~are concerned, as is evident 129 2, 54 | temperance, and other virtues. Therefore one habit is 130 2, 55 | 55]-89) GOOD HABITS, i.e. VIRTUES (QQ[55]-70)~OF THE VIRTUES, 131 2, 55 | VIRTUES (QQ[55]-70)~OF THE VIRTUES, AS TO THEIR ESSENCE (FOUR 132 2, 55 | of good habits, which are virtues, and of ~other matters connected 133 2, 55 | must be considered about virtues: (1) the essence of virtue; ~( 134 2, 55 | But we do ~merit by our virtues. Therefore virtues are not 135 2, 55 | by our virtues. Therefore virtues are not habits, but acts.~ 136 2, 55 | just as there are human virtues, so are there natural ~virtues. 137 2, 55 | virtues, so are there natural ~virtues. But natural virtues are 138 2, 55 | natural ~virtues. But natural virtues are not habits, but powers. 139 2, 55 | Neither ~therefore are human virtues habits.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 140 2, 55 | are in themselves called virtues. But the rational powers, ~ 141 2, 55 | A[4]~). Therefore human virtues are habits.~Aquin.: SMT 142 2, 55 | are ~we said to merit by virtues and habits.~Aquin.: SMT 143 2, 55 | the mind." But there are virtues even of the ~irrational 144 2, 55 | definition will apply to all virtues in general, whether acquired 145 2, 55 | A[4]), is common to all virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[55] A[ 146 2, 56 | manner as regards other such virtues. And since virtue is that ~" 147 2, 56 | of ~habits are not called virtues simply: because they do 148 2, 56 | other times they are called virtues ~(Ethic. vi, 2).~Aquin.: 149 2, 56 | also art, are intellectual virtues. But the subject of a habit 150 2, 56 | iii, 10) says that "these virtues belong to the irrational 151 2, 56 | powers we must needs assign ~virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[56] A[ 152 2, 56 | clear that there are some virtues in the irascible and ~concupiscible 153 2, 56 | also must there be some virtues in the irascible and ~concupiscible 154 2, 56 | And therefore those moral ~virtues which are concerned with 155 2, 56 | 1/1~On the contrary, All virtues are either intellectual 156 2, 56 | ii, 1). Now all the moral virtues are in the appetite; while 157 2, 56 | while the ~intellectual virtues are in the intellect or 158 2, 56 | powers, they cannot be ~virtues. For virtue is a perfect 159 2, 56 | powers there are none of the virtues, by which we know truth: 160 2, 56 | reason the cognoscitive virtues are in the intellect itself, 161 2, 56 | all human acts, to which virtues are ordained, are ~voluntary. 162 2, 56 | power, or there will be two virtues ordained to the same act, 163 2, 56 | virtue. And therefore such virtues as ~those which direct man' 164 2, 56 | objection is true of those virtues which are ordained ~to the 165 2, 56 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Some virtues are directed to the good 166 2, 56 | exists only in the case of ~virtues which are directed to some 167 2, 57 | 1 - OF THE INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (SIX ARTICLES)~We now have 168 2, 57 | and (1) the ~intellectual virtues; (2) the moral virtues; ( 169 2, 57 | intellectual virtues; (2) the moral virtues; (3) the theological virtues. ~ 170 2, 57 | virtues; (3) the theological virtues. ~Concerning the first there 171 2, 57 | speculative intellect are virtues?~(2) Whether they are three, 172 2, 57 | synesis" and "gnome" are virtues annexed to ~prudence?~Aquin.: 173 2, 57 | speculative intellect are virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 174 2, 57 | speculative intellect are ~not virtues. For virtue is an operative 175 2, 57 | speculative intellect are not virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 176 2, 57 | habits cannot be called virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 177 2, 57 | speculative habits are not ~virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 178 2, 57 | places certain intellectual virtues in that part of the soul 179 2, 57 | speculative intellect are virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 180 2, 57 | they may indeed be called virtues in so far as they confer 181 2, 57 | yet they are not called virtues in the second ~way, as though 182 2, 57 | And thus these speculative virtues ~are not about those things 183 2, 57 | sense the ~intellectual virtues are about those things whereby 184 2, 57 | because the acts of these virtues can be meritorious, as stated ~ 185 2, 57 | unfitting to distinguish three virtues of the ~speculative intellect, 186 2, 57 | science among the intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 187 2, 57 | alone as being intellectual virtues, viz. wisdom, science and ~ 188 2, 57 | already stated (A[1]), the virtues of the speculative ~intellect 189 2, 57 | point aright, these three virtues are ~distinct, not as being 190 2, 57 | are called intellectual virtues, whereby we tell the truth 191 2, 57 | they are not ~intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 192 2, 57 | reckoned among the speculative virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[57] A[ 193 2, 57 | it among the speculative virtues, ~which, according to him, 194 2, 57 | work: while some habits are virtues, not only through ~conferring 195 2, 57 | But if we consider them as virtues, then art has more in ~common 196 2, 57 | It is reckoned with other virtues necessary for human ~life, 197 2, 57 | synesis, and gnome" are virtues annexed to prudence? ~[*{ 198 2, 57 | unfittingly assigned as virtues annexed to prudence. For "{ 199 2, 57 | the above are not the only virtues annexed to ~prudence.~Aquin.: 200 2, 57 | who assigns these three virtues as being annexed to prudence.~ 201 2, 57 | place, has ~other secondary virtues annexed to it, viz. "{eustochia}," 202 2, 57 | counsel, wheres there are two virtues for good judgment: ~because 203 2, 57 | docility and the like, are not virtues distinct from prudence: 204 2, 57 | subordinate thereto, as secondary virtues to a principal virtue: ~ 205 2, 58 | BETWEEN MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)~We must 206 2, 58 | must now consider moral virtues. We shall speak (1) of the 207 2, 58 | between them and intellectual virtues; (2) of their distinction, 208 2, 58 | between ~the chief or cardinal virtues and the others.~Aquin.: 209 2, 58 | ourselves to the acts of all the virtues. Therefore every virtue ~ 210 2, 58 | understanding are not ~moral virtues: and yet they are virtues, 211 2, 58 | virtues: and yet they are virtues, as stated above (Q[57], 212 2, 58 | reason, is proper to those virtues which are in the appetitive 213 2, 58 | science in the definition of virtues: ~thus some define perseverance 214 2, 58 | belongs to the intellectual ~virtues, as stated in Ethic. vi, 215 2, 58 | be none but intellectual virtues. This was the opinion ~of 216 2, 58 | habits to be considered virtues in so far as they are in 217 2, 58 | essentially; but to other ~virtues, by participation, for as 218 2, 58 | participation to all the moral virtues, in ~so far as they are 219 2, 58 | reckoned among the intellectual virtues ~(Ethic. vi, 3,5); and again 220 2, 58 | among the four cardinal ~virtues, which are moral virtues, 221 2, 58 | virtues, which are moral virtues, as we shall show further 222 2, 58 | reckoned ~to be intellectual virtues. Yet neither are they moral 223 2, 58 | Yet neither are they moral virtues; since ~they do not reduce 224 2, 58 | faith, hope, and charity are virtues. Yet they are not ~intellectual 225 2, 58 | they are not ~intellectual virtues: for there are only five 226 2, 58 | Neither are they moral virtues; since they are not about 227 2, 58 | in common with the ~moral virtues: for it is right reason 228 2, 58 | reckoned with the ~moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 229 2, 58 | they fall short of being virtues: since intellectual virtue, 230 2, 58 | midst of pains, are not virtues, but ~something less than 231 2, 58 | and charity are superhuman virtues: for they ~are virtues of 232 2, 58 | superhuman virtues: for they ~are virtues of man as sharing in the 233 2, 58 | good works. Therefore moral virtues can be without ~intellectual 234 2, 58 | be without ~intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 235 2, 58 | Moral. xxii) that "the other virtues, ~unless we do prudently 236 2, 58 | desire to do, cannot be real virtues." But ~prudence is an intellectual 237 2, 58 | A[5]). ~Therefore moral virtues cannot be without intellectual 238 2, 58 | be without intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 239 2, 58 | some of the intellectual ~virtues, viz. wisdom, science, and 240 2, 58 | function of prudence and the virtues annexed to it, ~as stated 241 2, 58 | of all the intellectual virtues, it seems most akin to ~ 242 2, 58 | most akin to ~the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 243 2, 58 | without having the moral ~virtues. Therefore prudence can 244 2, 58 | that, Other intellectual virtues can, but prudence cannot, 245 2, 59 | And since those moral virtues which are about the passions, 246 2, 59 | Therefore some passions are virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[59] A[ 247 2, 59 | that "passions are neither ~virtues nor vices."~Aquin.: SMT 248 2, 59 | applies to all the moral virtues. Therefore all moral ~virtues 249 2, 59 | virtues. Therefore all moral ~virtues are without passion.~Aquin.: 250 2, 59 | with virtue. Because ~the virtues are effects of wisdom, according 251 2, 59 | 1~Whether all the moral virtues are about the passions?~ 252 2, 59 | seem that all the moral virtues are about the passions. ~ 253 2, 59 | Therefore all ~the moral virtues are about the passions.~ 254 2, 59 | the subject of the moral virtues is a faculty which is ~rational 255 2, 59 | Therefore all the moral virtues are about the passions.~ 256 2, 59 | Consequently there are ~moral virtues about all matters that are 257 2, 59 | Therefore not all the moral virtues are about ~passions, but 258 2, 59 | 1~Reply OBJ 1: The moral virtues are not all about pleasures 259 2, 59 | words quoted, ~adds, "if virtues are about actions and passions; 260 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Some virtues have passions as their proper 261 2, 59 | proper matter, but some ~virtues not. Hence the comparison 262 2, 59 | still less can the other virtues be.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[59] 263 2, 59 | it is plain that moral virtues, which are about ~the passions 264 2, 59 | Body Para. 2/2~Those moral virtues, however, which are not 265 2, 60 | Para. 1/1 - HOW THE MORAL VIRTUES DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER ( 266 2, 60 | now consider how the moral virtues differ from one another: ~ 267 2, 60 | 2) Whether those moral virtues which are about operations, 268 2, 60 | there are different moral virtues about different passions?~( 269 2, 60 | passions?~(5) Whether the moral virtues differ in point of the various 270 2, 60 | subject ~of the intellectual virtues; so does their inclination 271 2, 60 | is the subject of moral virtues. But there is only one ~ 272 2, 60 | common end of all ~moral virtues, viz. happiness, while the 273 2, 60 | in number. But the moral virtues themselves are not infinite 274 2, 60 | the subject of the moral virtues is the appetitive ~part 275 2, 60 | AA[1],2,3), the moral virtues are ~habits of the appetitive 276 2, 60 | that it follows that moral virtues are of various species and ~ 277 2, 60 | Para. 1/1~Whether moral virtues about operations are different 278 2, 60 | It would seem that moral virtues are not divided into those 279 2, 60 | action. If ~therefore some virtues regulate the passions, they 280 2, 60 | Therefore the same moral virtues ~are about both passions 281 2, 60 | passions. Therefore the same virtues that are about operations 282 2, 60 | in this sense those moral virtues which ~are about operations 283 2, 60 | clearly applied to other virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[60] A[ 284 2, 60 | diversity among the ~moral virtues: for the Philosopher says ( 285 2, 60 | cause a diversity of moral ~virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[60] A[ 286 2, 60 | there are various moral virtues about various ~operations, 287 2, 60 | operations, diversity of moral virtues would needs follow diversity 288 2, 60 | there are not ~different virtues about different operations.~ 289 2, 60 | answer that, All the moral virtues that are about operations 290 2, 60 | due. Wherefore all such ~virtues as are about operations, 291 2, 60 | the same kind in all these virtues: ~for something is due to 292 2, 60 | debt there are ~various virtues: e.g. "Religion" whereby 293 2, 60 | directs all the acts ~of the virtues to its own end, viz. the 294 2, 60 | the common good. And the virtues, in ~so far as they are 295 2, 60 | there are different moral virtues about different passions?~ 296 2, 60 | are not different moral virtues about ~different passions. 297 2, 60 | there were different moral virtues about different ~passions, 298 2, 60 | there are as many moral virtues as ~passions. But this clearly 299 2, 60 | need for ~different moral virtues about different passions.~ 300 2, 60 | are not different moral ~virtues about different passions.~ 301 2, 60 | for a diversity of moral virtues. First, because some passions ~ 302 2, 60 | require different moral ~virtues, because their movements 303 2, 60 | Consequently there are different virtues about such like passions: 304 2, 60 | Para. 1/1~Whether the moral virtues differ in point of the various 305 2, 60 | would seem that the moral virtues do not differ according 306 2, 60 | operations. Now those moral virtues that are ~about operations, 307 2, 60 | neither do those ~moral virtues that are about passions 308 2, 60 | But there ~are various virtues about the desires for good 309 2, 60 | there should be different virtues ~about fears of evils.~Aquin.: 310 2, 60 | appetite. ~Consequently virtues must needs be differentiated 311 2, 60 | the different species of virtues. Now the movement of reason 312 2, 60 | without causing ~diversity of virtues, as when one virtue is about 313 2, 60 | from causing ~different virtues, without causing a difference 314 2, 60 | passions, since ~several virtues are directed about one passion, 315 2, 60 | always belong ~to diverse virtues, as stated above (A[4]); 316 2, 60 | specific difference of virtues - for instance the difference 317 2, 60 | to cause a difference of virtues. ~Consequently man's good 318 2, 60 | to reason, differentiates virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[60] A[ 319 2, 60 | Aristotle, there are ten ~moral virtues about the passions, viz. 320 2, 60 | differentiated by the same rule as virtues ~are, as stated above.~Aquin.: 321 2, 60 | reason, so as to require ~virtues unless that evil be great; 322 2, 60 | there are various moral virtues about ~desires, as stated 323 2, 61 | Para. 1/1 - OF THE CARDINAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)~We must 324 2, 61 | now consider the cardinal virtues: under which head there 325 2, 61 | inquiry:~(1) Whether the moral virtues should be called cardinal 326 2, 61 | called cardinal or principal ~virtues?~(2) Of their number;~(3) 327 2, 61 | perfect, ~and exemplar virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 328 2, 61 | Para. 1/1~Whether the moral virtues should be called cardinal 329 2, 61 | called cardinal or principal virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 330 2, 61 | It would seem that moral virtues should not be called cardinal 331 2, 61 | called cardinal or ~principal virtues. For "the opposite members 332 2, 61 | than ~another. Now all the virtues are opposite members of 333 2, 61 | means. But the ~theological virtues are about the end; while 334 2, 61 | the end; while the moral virtues are about ~the means. Therefore 335 2, 61 | Therefore the theological virtues, rather than the moral ~ 336 2, 61 | rather than the moral ~virtues, should be called principal 337 2, 61 | participation. But the intellectual virtues ~belong to that which is 338 2, 61 | rational: whereas the moral virtues ~belong to that which is 339 2, 61 | Therefore the intellectual virtues are principal, rather than ~ 340 2, 61 | rather than ~the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 341 2, 61 | there are four cardinal ~virtues, viz. temperance, justice, 342 2, 61 | fortitude." But these ~are moral virtues. Therefore the moral virtues 343 2, 61 | virtues. Therefore the moral virtues are cardinal virtues.~Aquin.: 344 2, 61 | moral virtues are cardinal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 345 2, 61 | imperfect: and so those virtues which imply rectitude of 346 2, 61 | appetite are called principal virtues. Such are the moral virtues, 347 2, 61 | virtues. Such are the moral virtues, and ~prudence alone, of 348 2, 61 | alone, of the intellectual virtues, for it is also something 349 2, 61 | Consequently, ~those virtues which are called principal 350 2, 61 | placed ~among the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 351 2, 61 | Reply OBJ 2: The theological virtues are above man, as stated 352 2, 61 | super-human" or godlike virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 353 2, 61 | Although the intellectual virtues, except in prudence, rank ~ 354 2, 61 | rank ~before the moral virtues, in the point of their subject, 355 2, 61 | not rank ~before them as virtues; for a virtue, as such, 356 2, 61 | there are four cardinal virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 357 2, 61 | there are not four cardinal virtues. For ~prudence is the directing 358 2, 61 | principle of the other moral virtues, as is ~clear from what 359 2, 61 | Further, the principal virtues are, in a way, moral virtues. 360 2, 61 | virtues are, in a way, moral virtues. Now ~we are directed to 361 2, 61 | there are only two ~cardinal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 362 2, 61 | Further, even among the other virtues one ranks higher than ~another. 363 2, 61 | are ~many more principal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 364 2, 61 | good works is built on four virtues."~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 365 2, 61 | there are four cardinal virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 366 2, 61 | passions, and then we need two virtues. For the need ~of putting 367 2, 61 | the principal of all the virtues simply. The ~others are 368 2, 61 | Reply OBJ 3: All the other virtues among which one ranks before 369 2, 61 | Para. 1/1~Whether any other virtues should be called principal 370 2, 61 | It would seem that other virtues should be called principal ~ 371 2, 61 | great influence on all the virtues" (Ethic. ~iv, 3). Therefore 372 2, 61 | which strengthens the other virtues should above ~all be called 373 2, 61 | he who gathers the other virtues without humility ~is as 374 2, 61 | Cicero reduces all other virtues to these four (De ~Invent. 375 2, 61 | are reckoned as ~cardinal virtues, in respect of the four 376 2, 61 | Accordingly the above four virtues may be considered in two 377 2, 61 | comparison with all the virtues: ~so that, for instance, 378 2, 61 | philosophers, speak about these virtues ~in this sense: and in this 379 2, 61 | and in this way the other virtues are contained under ~them. 380 2, 61 | thus ~they are specific virtues, condivided with the others. 381 2, 61 | comparison with the other virtues, on account of the ~importance 382 2, 61 | fail: because the other virtues may ~be principal in some 383 2, 61 | Whether the four cardinal virtues differ from one another? ~ 384 2, 61 | seem that the above four virtues are not diverse and ~distinct 385 2, 61 | not be so, if the above virtues ~were distinct from one 386 2, 61 | Therefore the aforesaid virtues are not ~distinct from one 387 2, 61 | Therefore it seems that these virtues are not ~distinct from one 388 2, 61 | Therefore each of these virtues is general in ~comparison 389 2, 61 | in ~comparison to other virtues. Therefore they are not 390 2, 61 | xi) that "there are ~four virtues, corresponding to the various 391 2, 61 | applies this to the four virtues mentioned above. Therefore 392 2, 61 | Therefore the same four ~virtues are distinct from one another.~ 393 2, 61 | above (A[3]), these four virtues are understood ~differently 394 2, 61 | to be found in all the virtues: so ~that, to wit, prudence 395 2, 61 | distinguish these four virtues in this way does not imply 396 2, 61 | distinct from the other three virtues: but these would not be 397 2, 61 | reason, take these four virtues, according ~as they have 398 2, 61 | clear that the aforesaid virtues are distinct habits, differentiated 399 2, 61 | is speaking of these four virtues in the first ~sense given 400 2, 61 | be said that these four virtues qualify ~one another by 401 2, 61 | overflow ~on to the other virtues in so far as they are directed 402 2, 61 | either in so far as these virtues are taken ~to denote certain 403 2, 61 | proper to the aforesaid virtues. They may, however, ~be 404 2, 61 | 1/1~Whether the cardinal virtues are fittingly divided into 405 2, 61 | fittingly divided into social virtues, ~perfecting, perfect, and 406 2, 61 | perfecting, perfect, and exemplar virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 407 2, 61 | would seem that these four virtues are unfittingly divided ~ 408 2, 61 | unfittingly divided ~into exemplar virtues, perfecting virtues, perfect 409 2, 61 | exemplar virtues, perfecting virtues, perfect virtues, and social ~ 410 2, 61 | perfecting virtues, perfect virtues, and social ~virtues. For 411 2, 61 | perfect virtues, and social ~virtues. For as Macrobius says ( 412 2, 61 | Scip. 1), the "exemplar ~virtues are such as exist in the 413 2, 61 | to God." Therefore these virtues cannot be ~exemplar.~Aquin.: 414 2, 61 | Further, the "perfect" virtues are those which are without 415 2, 61 | 5]) ~that the aforesaid virtues cannot be without passions. 416 2, 61 | that the ~"perfecting" virtues are those of the man "who 417 2, 61 | there are no ~"perfecting" virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[61] A[ 418 2, 61 | Scip. 1) that the ~"social" virtues are those "whereby good 419 2, 61 | v, ~1). Therefore other virtues should not be called "social."~ 420 2, 61 | place there are social* ~virtues; secondly, there are perfecting 421 2, 61 | secondly, there are perfecting virtues [*Virtutes purgatoriae: ~ 422 2, 61 | literally meaning, cleansing virtues]; thirdly, there are perfect ~[* 423 2, 61 | purgati animi: literally, virtues of the clean soul] virtues; ~ 424 2, 61 | virtues of the clean soul] virtues; ~and fourthly, there are 425 2, 61 | fourthly, there are exemplar virtues.'" [*Cf. Chrysostom's fifteenth ~ 426 2, 61 | thus we speak of "exemplar" virtues: so that in ~God the Divine 427 2, 61 | Chrysostom] animal, these virtues, in so far as they are in 428 2, 61 | nature, are called "social" virtues; since it is ~by reason 429 2, 61 | have been speaking of these virtues ~until now.~Aquin.: SMT 430 2, 61 | we must needs place some ~virtues between the social or human 431 2, 61 | between the social or human virtues, and the exemplar virtues ~ 432 2, 61 | virtues, and the exemplar virtues ~which are Divine. Now these 433 2, 61 | which are Divine. Now these virtues differ by reason of a difference 434 2, 61 | and term: so that some are virtues of men who are on their 435 2, 61 | are called ~"perfecting" virtues. Thus prudence, by contemplating 436 2, 61 | Besides these there are the virtues of those who have already ~ 437 2, 61 | are called the "perfect ~virtues." Thus prudence sees nought 438 2, 61 | everlasting covenant. Such as the virtues attributed to the Blessed, ~ 439 2, 61 | Philosopher is speaking of these virtues according as ~they relate 440 2, 61 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: Human virtues, that is to say, virtues 441 2, 61 | virtues, that is to say, virtues of men living ~together 442 2, 61 | about the passions. But the virtues of those ~who have attained 443 2, 61 | Scip. 1) that "the social virtues check ~the passions," i.e. 444 2, 61 | kind," viz. the perfecting virtues, "uproot them"; "the third 445 2, 61 | kind," viz. ~the perfect virtues, "forget them; while it 446 2, 61 | them in ~connection with virtues of the fourth kind," viz. 447 2, 61 | kind," viz. the exemplar virtues. ~It may also be said that 448 2, 61 | by commanding the other virtues it draws them all into the 449 2, 61 | that it concerns the human virtues, as we understand them here, 450 2, 62 | 1/1 - OF THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES (FOUR ARTICLES)~We must 451 2, 62 | consider the Theological Virtues: under which head there 452 2, 62 | there are any theological virtues?~(2) Whether the theological 453 2, 62 | Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual ~ 454 2, 62 | intellectual ~and moral virtues?~(3) How many, and which 455 2, 62 | there are any theological virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 456 2, 62 | are not any theological virtues. For ~according to Phys. 457 2, 62 | Therefore the theological virtues are not virtues of a man.~ 458 2, 62 | theological virtues are not virtues of a man.~Aquin.: SMT FS 459 2, 62 | 2: Further, theological virtues are quasi-Divine virtues. 460 2, 62 | virtues are quasi-Divine virtues. But the ~Divine virtues 461 2, 62 | virtues. But the ~Divine virtues are exemplars, as stated 462 2, 62 | Therefore the theological virtues are not virtues ~of man.~ 463 2, 62 | theological virtues are not virtues ~of man.~Aquin.: SMT FS 464 2, 62 | Further, the theological virtues are so called because they ~ 465 2, 62 | faith, hope, and charity are virtues directing us to God. Therefore 466 2, 62 | Therefore they ~are theological virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 467 2, 62 | are called ~"theological virtues": first, because their object 468 2, 62 | thirdly, because these virtues are not made known to us, 469 2, 62 | and thus these theological virtues surpass the ~nature of man. 470 2, 62 | stated above: so that these virtues are ~proportionate to man 471 2, 62 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: These virtues are called Divine, not as 472 2, 62 | exemplar but exemplate ~virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 473 2, 62 | Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual 474 2, 62 | intellectual and ~moral virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 475 2, 62 | seem that the theological virtues are not distinct from ~the 476 2, 62 | the moral and intellectual virtues. For the theological virtues, 477 2, 62 | virtues. For the theological virtues, if they ~be in a human 478 2, 62 | appetitive part. Now the virtues which perfect the ~intellective 479 2, 62 | called intellectual; and the virtues which perfect ~the appetitive 480 2, 62 | Therefore, the theological virtues ~are not distinct from the 481 2, 62 | the moral and intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 482 2, 62 | Further, the theological virtues are those which direct us 483 2, 62 | among the intellectual virtues there is one which directs 484 2, 62 | Therefore the theological virtues are not distinct from ~the 485 2, 62 | distinct from ~the intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 486 2, 62 | shows how the four ~cardinal virtues are the "order of love." 487 2, 62 | virtue. Therefore the moral virtues are not distinct from the ~ 488 2, 62 | nature. But the theological virtues are above ~man's nature; 489 2, 62 | the intellectual and moral virtues are in proportion ~to his 490 2, 62 | object of the theological virtues is ~God Himself, Who is 491 2, 62 | intellectual and moral ~virtues is something comprehensible 492 2, 62 | Wherefore the ~theological virtues are specifically distinct 493 2, 62 | moral and ~intellectual virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 494 2, 62 | The intellectual and moral virtues perfect man's intellect ~ 495 2, 62 | nature; the theological ~virtues, supernaturally.~Aquin.: 496 2, 62 | essentially: but that ~all other virtues depend on charity in some 497 2, 62 | reckoned as theological ~virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[62] A[ 498 2, 62 | reckoned as three theological virtues. For the theological virtues 499 2, 62 | virtues. For the theological virtues are in ~relation to Divine 500 2, 62 | connatural end. Now among the virtues directed to the connatural ~


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