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mopsuestia 1
mor 1
mora 1
moral 1450
moralia 1
moralist 3
morality 20
Frequency    [«  »]
1460 each
1459 three
1455 means
1450 moral
1441 mortal
1423 manner
1401 persons
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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moral

1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1450

     Part, Question
1 1, 1 | followed in our lives (as in moral ~sciences) and in order 2 1, 1 | Law. ~But law implies a moral science which is a practical 3 1, 1 | with human ~operations; as moral science is concerned with 4 1, 1 | just as a man learned in moral science might ~be able to 5 1, 1 | allegorical, tropological or moral, and ~anagogical. For many 6 1, 1 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. xx, 1): "Holy Writ by the 7 1, 1 | ought to do, there is the moral sense. But so far as they 8 1, 4 | OBJ 1: As Gregory says (Moral. v, 26,29): "Though our 9 1, 19 | unchangeable. Hence Gregory says (Moral. xvi, 5): "The sentence 10 1, 20 | and the habits of ~the moral virtues, as justice, fortitude 11 1, 21 | Reply OBJ 1: Certain of the moral virtues are concerned with 12 1, 21 | the other hand, certain moral virtues are concerned with 13 1, 21 | As to this ~Gregory says (Moral. xxvi, 9): "The evils that 14 1, 22 | science of ~morals, after the moral virtues themselves, comes 15 1, 22 | prudence presupposes the moral ~virtues, by means of which 16 1, 22 | which passage Gregory says (Moral. xxiv, 20): "Himself He 17 1, 26 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. xxxii, 7): "He is in glory, 18 1, 42 | Joan. i). But as Gregory [*Moral. ~xxix, 21] and Augustine [* 19 1, 48 | specific differences in moral things; ~good in itself, 20 1, 48 | end by itself constitute a moral species, except ~as it is 21 1, 49 | good will itself ~that a moral act is judged to be good. 22 1, 50 | Further, according to Gregory (Moral. xvi), "all things would ~ 23 1, 57 | thoughts. For Gregory ~(Moral. xviii), explaining Job 24 1, 60 | On the contrary, All the moral precepts of the law come 25 1, 60 | God more than self is a moral precept ~of the law. Therefore, 26 1, 62 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, a moral act seems to be more closely 27 1, 62 | than nature is; because a moral act is preparatory to grace. 28 1, 63 | Further, according to Gregory (Moral. xxxi), many vices spring ~ 29 1, 64 | Further, Gregory says (Moral. iv) that man can be reinstated 30 1, 42 | Joan. i). But as Gregory [*Moral. ~xxix, 21] and Augustine [* 31 1, 49 | specific differences in moral things; ~good in itself, 32 1, 49 | end by itself constitute a moral species, except ~as it is 33 1, 50 | good will itself ~that a moral act is judged to be good. 34 1, 51 | Further, according to Gregory (Moral. xvi), "all things would ~ 35 1, 58 | thoughts. For Gregory ~(Moral. xviii), explaining Job 36 1, 61 | On the contrary, All the moral precepts of the law come 37 1, 61 | God more than self is a moral precept ~of the law. Therefore, 38 1, 63 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 2: Further, a moral act seems to be more closely 39 1, 63 | than nature is; because a moral act is preparatory to grace. 40 1, 64 | Further, according to Gregory (Moral. xxxi), many vices spring ~ 41 1, 65 | Further, Gregory says (Moral. iv) that man can be reinstated 42 1, 83 | which the consideration of moral ~matters belongs. But of 43 1, 83 | while asleep, against the moral law, is ~not imputed to 44 1, 85 | contingent things, as the moral sciences, the objects of 45 1, 88 | Aristotle, Ethic. v, 8: Magn. ~Moral. i, 34).~Aquin.: SMT FP 46 1, 88 | distinct in knowledge" (Moral. xii). Augustine seems ~ 47 1, 94 | soul are restrained by the moral ~virtues. But in Adam the 48 1, 94 | virtues. But in Adam the moral virtues were perfect. Therefore 49 1, 94 | Reply OBJ 3: Perfection of moral virtue does not wholly take 50 1, 95 | equal. For Gregory says (Moral. xxi): "Where there is no 51 1, 99 | righteousness. For Gregory says (Moral. iv) on the ~words of Job 52 1, 103 | power, as Gregory says (Moral. ~xvi).~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[ 53 1, 106 | another. For ~Gregory says (Moral. xviii) that, in the state 54 1, 106 | But, as Gregory says ~(Moral. ii): "It is fitting that 55 1, 106 | this fact when he says ~(Moral. ii): "To other eyes we 56 1, 106 | Further, Gregory says (Moral. ii): "God speaks to the 57 1, 106 | comprehend; thus Gregory says (Moral. ii) that "the angels ~speak 58 1, 106 | according to what Gregory says ~(Moral. ii): "The less one desires, 59 1, 111 | Wherefore Gregory says (Moral. ~ii) that "the angels do 60 1, 111 | numbering of ~His soldiers?" (Moral. xvii): "Those powers assist, 61 1, 111 | assist. Hence Gregory says (Moral. ii) that "those who are 62 1, 111 | assistants; for, as Gregory says (Moral. ii), "though he has ~lost 63 1, 111 | Further, Gregory says (Moral. xvii) that "there are more 64 1, 112 | But according to Gregory (Moral. xvii), the prince of the 65 1, 118 | for, according to Gregory (Moral. xxxii): "All things were ~ 66 2, 1 | said properly of man," ~moral acts properly speaking receive 67 2, 1 | species from the end, for ~moral acts are the same as human 68 2, 1 | species to the human or moral act.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[1] 69 2, 1 | per se" terminus. Now ~moral ends are accidental to a 70 2, 1 | diverse, considered in their moral species, and conversely.~ 71 2, 7 | agent to act. Wherefore the moral act is specified chiefly 72 2, 18 | a circumstance places a moral action in the species of 73 2, 18 | better or worse, ~places the moral action in the species of 74 2, 18 | the primary goodness of a moral action is derived from its ~ 75 2, 18 | so the primary evil in moral actions is that which is 76 2, 18 | in natural things and in moral actions.~Aquin.: SMT FS 77 2, 18 | seem that good and evil in moral actions do not make a ~difference 78 2, 18 | actions ~are called human or moral, inasmuch as they proceed 79 2, 18 | against reason, diversify the moral ~species.~Aquin.: SMT FS 80 2, 18 | and then it can specify ~a moral act. And it must needs be 81 2, 18 | the other; but then the moral action is contained ~under 82 2, 18 | considered in respect to the moral conditions that are added 83 2, 18 | reason, in regard to which moral actions receive their species.~ 84 2, 18 | action, which is called moral, takes its ~species from 85 2, 18 | but this does not imply moral goodness or malice, which 86 2, 18 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, moral good belongs to virtue, 87 2, 18 | belongs to virtue, while moral evil belongs ~to vice. But 88 2, 18 | reason of this is because a moral action, as stated above ( 89 2, 18 | properly speaking, is not moral or human; ~since this depends 90 2, 18 | apart from the genus of moral actions.~Aquin.: SMT FS 91 2, 18 | a circumstance places a moral action in the species of 92 2, 18 | circumstance cannot place a moral action in ~the species of 93 2, 18 | accidents in relation to the moral ~action, as stated above ( 94 2, 18 | circumstance does not place a moral ~action in a species of 95 2, 18 | circumstance. But place makes a moral action ~to be in a certain 96 2, 18 | Therefore a circumstance makes a moral action to be ~specifically 97 2, 18 | forms, so the species of moral actions are constituted 98 2, 18 | it must needs specify the moral action whether ~good or 99 2, 18 | circumstance that places the moral action ~in the species of 100 2, 18 | several, ~even disparate, moral species, as said above ( 101 2, 18 | better or worse, places a ~moral action in a species of good 102 2, 18 | specific differences of moral ~actions. Therefore that 103 2, 18 | goodness or ~malice of a moral action, causes a specific 104 2, 18 | circumstance that makes a moral action better or worse, 105 2, 18 | species ~of good or evil to a moral action, in so far as it 106 2, 18 | circumstance, from which the moral ~action takes its species 107 2, 18 | circumstance that makes a moral action ~better or worse, 108 2, 19 | Therefore it cannot give moral goodness to the will. Therefore 109 2, 19 | the will. Therefore the moral ~goodness of the will does 110 2, 19 | with reason, it enters the moral order, ~and causes moral 111 2, 19 | moral order, ~and causes moral goodness in the act of the 112 2, 19 | the principle of human and moral acts, as stated above (Q[ 113 2, 19 | sometimes not. And since moral good and evil consist in 114 2, 19 | takes away the ~character of moral good and evil; but not, 115 2, 19 | must needs follow; so in moral matters, given one absurdity, ~ 116 2, 20 | behave aright." Therefore moral good and evil ~are first 117 2, 20 | are ~differences of the moral act. Now differences make 118 2, 20 | Since ~therefore an act is moral from being voluntary, it 119 2, 20 | power is distinct from the moral virtue in the power ~commanded, 120 2, 20 | to form one thing in the moral order, as stated ~above ( 121 2, 20 | stated in Ethic. vi, 12, a moral virtue is ordained to ~the 122 2, 20 | one, considered in the moral order; and vice versa, as 123 2, 20 | actions, considered in the moral order, if a change take 124 2, 20 | will is the principle of moral actions. If ~therefore we 125 2, 20 | consider one action in the moral order, it is impossible 126 2, 20 | one as to natural ~and not moral unity, it can be both good 127 2, 20 | not one in the ~point of moral unity.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 128 2, 20 | and passion belong to the moral order, in so far as ~they 129 2, 21 | Further, just as sin occurs in moral actions, so does it happen ~ 130 2, 21 | any reason for ~blaming a moral action, in the fact that 131 2, 21 | productions of ~art, and to moral actions. In matters of art, 132 2, 21 | devised by reason: whereas in moral ~matters, it is directed 133 2, 21 | man. On the other hand, in moral matters, where ~we take 134 2, 21 | sin, both as man and as a moral being. Hence the Philosopher 135 2, 21 | in prudence, as in the moral virtues," which prudence 136 2, 24 | of inquiry: ~(1) Whether moral good and evil can be found 137 2, 24 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether moral good and evil can be found 138 2, 24 | morally good or ~evil. For moral good and evil are proper 139 2, 24 | connection with human, i.e. moral, good or evil.~Aquin.: SMT 140 2, 24 | praised and blamed for ~moral good and evil. Therefore 141 2, 24 | appetite, thus there is no moral good ~or evil in them, since 142 2, 24 | the ~reason and will, then moral good and evil are in them. 143 2, 24 | decreases the goodness of a ~moral action. For anything that 144 2, 24 | depends the goodness of a moral act, consequently decreases 145 2, 24 | decreases the goodness ~of the moral act. But every passion hinders 146 2, 24 | decreases the goodness of a moral act.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[24] 147 2, 24 | OBJ 3: Further, just as moral evil depends on its relation 148 2, 24 | to reason, so ~also does moral good. But moral evil is 149 2, 24 | also does moral good. But moral evil is lessened by passion: 150 2, 24 | obedient to reason lessens the moral good. Therefore a ~passion 151 2, 24 | the soul does not lessen moral good.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[24] 152 2, 24 | belongs to ~the perfection of moral good, that the actions of 153 2, 24 | belongs to the perfection of moral or human good, that the 154 2, 24 | belong to the perfection of moral ~good, that man should be 155 2, 24 | which the goodness of the moral act depends, ~they diminish 156 2, 24 | and so ~indicates greater moral goodness. Secondly, by way 157 2, 24 | to its species. Because moral good and evil depend on 158 2, 24 | found ~in other animals. But moral good is in man alone. Therefore 159 2, 24 | natural genus; and thus moral ~good and evil have no connection 160 2, 24 | Secondly, according to its moral genus, inasmuch as it is 161 2, 24 | controlled by reason. In this way moral good and evil can belong 162 2, 24 | is a ~certain likeness of moral good in them, in regard 163 2, 32 | Dei xxii, 31 [*Gregory, ~Moral. iv.] that "oftentimes in 164 2, 34 | rule by which to judge of moral ~good and evil?~Aquin.: 165 2, 34 | For good and evil in the moral order depend on ~agreement 166 2, 34 | rests ~up aloft: so, in the moral order, there is a good pleasure, 167 2, 34 | conjugal ~intercourse has no moral malice, since it is neither 168 2, 34 | proceeds from a kind of moral malice, namely, from the ~ 169 2, 34 | pleasure is good in the moral order which depends on the ~ 170 2, 34 | rule by which to judge of moral good ~or evil?~Aquin.: SMT 171 2, 34 | not the measure or rule of moral ~good and evil. Because " 172 2, 34 | the first thing in the ~moral genus, for it is preceded 173 2, 34 | of goodness and malice in moral matters.~Aquin.: SMT FS 174 2, 34 | the rule and measure of moral goodness and malice.~Aquin.: 175 2, 34 | Para. 1/2~I answer that, Moral goodness or malice depends 176 2, 34 | appetite are not the rule ~of moral goodness and malice; since 177 2, 46 | OBJ 3: Further, Gregory (Moral. xxi, 4) gives three degrees 178 2, 48 | members. For, as Gregory says (Moral. v, 30) "the heart that ~ 179 2, 48 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. v, 30) that anger "withdraws 180 2, 48 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. v, 30) that "when anger 181 2, 48 | Wherefore Gregory says (Moral. v, 30): "Sometimes when 182 2, 51 | habit: just as the habits of moral virtue are caused in the ~ 183 2, 51 | principle than the habit of moral virtue produced in the appetitive 184 2, 53 | Some, however, viz. the ~moral virtues, are in the appetitive 185 2, 53 | evident that a habit of moral virtue ~makes a man ready 186 2, 56 | a condition required for moral virtue, ~inasmuch as moral 187 2, 56 | moral virtue, ~inasmuch as moral virtue works according to 188 2, 56 | according to right reason. But moral ~virtue is essentially in 189 2, 56 | Further, "the principal act of moral virtue is choice" (Ethic. ~ 190 2, 56 | Q[13], A[2]). ~Therefore moral virtue is not in the irascible 191 2, 56 | and this belongs to the moral virtue; and the preferential ~ 192 2, 56 | powers. And therefore those moral ~virtues which are concerned 193 2, 56 | are either intellectual or moral (Ethic. ~ii, 1). Now all 194 2, 56 | Ethic. ~ii, 1). Now all the moral virtues are in the appetite; 195 2, 56 | is either intellectual or moral (Ethic. i, ~13; ii, 1). 196 2, 56 | and not in the will: while moral virtue is subjected in the ~ 197 2, 56 | is in the will must be a moral ~virtue, unless it be theological, 198 2, 57 | intellectual virtues; (2) the moral virtues; (3) the theological 199 2, 57 | charity: thus Gregory says (Moral. vi) that the "contemplative 200 2, 57 | will, which is perfected by moral virtue; and for this ~reason 201 2, 57 | virtue of art; namely, a ~moral virtue, in so far as the 202 2, 57 | good use of art requires a moral virtue. ~For it is evident 203 2, 57 | prudence there is need of a ~moral virtue, which rectifies 204 2, 58 | OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES ( 205 2, 58 | ARTICLES)~We must now consider moral virtues. We shall speak ( 206 2, 58 | Whether every virtue is a moral virtue?~(2) Whether moral 207 2, 58 | moral virtue?~(2) Whether moral virtue differs from intellectual 208 2, 58 | adequately divided into moral and intellectual ~virtue?~( 209 2, 58 | 4) Whether there can be moral without intellectual virtue?~( 210 2, 58 | be intellectual without moral ~virtue?~Aquin.: SMT FS 211 2, 58 | Whether every virtue is a moral virtue?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 212 2, 58 | seem that every virtue is a moral virtue. Because moral ~virtue 213 2, 58 | a moral virtue. Because moral ~virtue is so called from 214 2, 58 | Therefore every virtue ~is a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 215 2, 58 | says (Ethic. ii, 6) that moral virtue is ~"a habit of choosing 216 2, 58 | Therefore every ~virtue is a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 217 2, 58 | Therefore every virtue is a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 218 2, 58 | and understanding are not ~moral virtues: and yet they are 219 2, 58 | Therefore not every virtue is a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 220 2, 58 | able ~to discover what a "moral" virtue is. Now "mos" has 221 2, 58 | A[1] Body Para. 2/2~Now "moral" virtue is so called from " 222 2, 58 | Therefore not every virtue is a ~moral virtue, but only those that 223 2, 58 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether moral virtue differs from intellectual 224 2, 58 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtue does not differ from 225 2, 58 | intellectual virtue. Therefore moral ~and intellectual virtue 226 2, 58 | intellectual virtue. Therefore moral virtue should not be ~distinguished 227 2, 58 | Ethic. vi, 13. Therefore moral virtue does not ~differ 228 2, 58 | included in the definition of ~moral virtue: for the Philosopher 229 2, 58 | says (Ethic. ii, 6) that "moral virtue ~is a habit of choosing 230 2, 58 | reason that fixes the mean of moral ~virtue, belongs to an intellectual 231 2, 58 | Ethic. vi, 13. ~Therefore moral virtue does not differ from 232 2, 58 | call intellectual; some moral."~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 233 2, 58 | disposed by means of a habit of moral virtue. And so moral differs 234 2, 58 | of moral virtue. And so moral differs from intellectual 235 2, 58 | partakes of reason, so are moral ~habits to be considered 236 2, 58 | included ~in the definition of moral virtue, not as part of its 237 2, 58 | participation to all the moral virtues, in ~so far as they 238 2, 58 | adequately divided into moral and intellectual?~Aquin.: 239 2, 58 | adequately divided into moral ~and intellectual. For prudence 240 2, 58 | seems to be a mean between moral and ~intellectual virtue, 241 2, 58 | cardinal ~virtues, which are moral virtues, as we shall show 242 2, 58 | divided into intellectual and ~moral, as though there were no 243 2, 58 | virtues. Yet neither are they moral virtues; since ~they do 244 2, 58 | divided into ~intellectual and moral.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 245 2, 58 | 3,5). Neither are they moral virtues; since they are 246 2, 58 | are the chief concern of moral virtue. Therefore virtue ~ 247 2, 58 | divided into intellectual and moral.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 248 2, 58 | twofold, intellectual and moral."~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 249 2, 58 | appetite, it will be a ~moral virtue. It follows therefore 250 2, 58 | either ~intellectual or moral.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[58] A[ 251 2, 58 | something in common with the ~moral virtues: for it is right 252 2, 58 | it is reckoned with the ~moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS 253 2, 58 | itself well in respect of moral matters, presupposes ~a 254 2, 58 | 1/1~Whether there can be moral without intellectual virtue?~ 255 2, 58 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral can be without intellectual 256 2, 58 | intellectual virtue. ~Because moral virtue, as Cicero says ( 257 2, 58 | in a man there may be a ~moral virtue like a second nature, 258 2, 58 | Therefore it seems ~that moral virtue can be without intellectual.~ 259 2, 58 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 3: Further moral virtue makes us inclined 260 2, 58 | do good works. Therefore moral virtues can be without ~ 261 2, 58 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. xxii) that "the other virtues, ~ 262 2, 58 | Q[57], A[5]). ~Therefore moral virtues cannot be without 263 2, 58 | Para. 1/1~I answer that, Moral virtue can be without some 264 2, 58 | understanding and ~prudence. Moral virtue cannot be without 265 2, 58 | end; and this is done by moral virtue, which inclines the 266 2, 58 | Wherefore there can be no moral virtue ~without prudence: 267 2, 58 | But the inclination of moral virtue is with choice: and ~ 268 2, 58 | And consequently, although moral virtue be not right reason, 269 2, 58 | be intellectual without moral virtue?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 270 2, 58 | be intellectual without moral ~virtue. Because perfection 271 2, 58 | reason, does not depend on moral virtue, which is a perfection 272 2, 58 | prudence can be without the moral ~virtue, although of all 273 2, 58 | seems most akin to ~the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS 274 2, 58 | counsel without having the moral ~virtues. Therefore prudence 275 2, 58 | prudence can be without a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 276 2, 58 | evil is directly opposed to moral virtue; ~and yet it is not 277 2, 58 | anything that can be without moral virtue. ~Now it is contrary 278 2, 58 | prudence cannot be without moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 279 2, 58 | prudence cannot, be ~without moral virtue. The reason for this 280 2, 58 | the end. This is done ~by moral virtue: for the virtuous 281 2, 58 | prudence, ~requires man to have moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 282 2, 58 | which is the principle in moral matters: in the ~former 283 2, 58 | removed; and this is done by moral virtue.~ 284 2, 59 | 59] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF MORAL VIRTUE IN RELATION TO THE 285 2, 59 | consider the difference of one moral virtue from another. ~And 286 2, 59 | another. ~And since those moral virtues which are about 287 2, 59 | the different kinds of moral virtue in ~relation to the 288 2, 59 | of ~inquiry:~(1) Whether moral virtue is a passion?~(2) 289 2, 59 | 2) Whether there can be moral virtue with passion?~(3) 290 2, 59 | sorrow is compatible with moral virtue? ~(4) Whether every 291 2, 59 | virtue? ~(4) Whether every moral virtue is about a passion?~( 292 2, 59 | 5) Whether there can be moral virtue without passion?~ 293 2, 59 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether moral virtue is a passion?~Aquin.: 294 2, 59 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtue is a passion. Because 295 2, 59 | genus as the extremes. But moral virtue is a mean between 296 2, 59 | two ~passions. Therefore moral virtue is a passion.~Aquin.: 297 2, 59 | Therefore a passion may be a moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 298 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~I answer that, Moral virtue cannot be a passion. 299 2, 59 | above (Q[22], A[3]): whereas moral virtue is not a ~movement, 300 2, 59 | Hence the definition of moral virtue (Ethic. ii, 6) ~states 301 2, 59 | 1/1~Whether there can be moral virtue with passion?~Aquin.: 302 2, 59 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtue cannot be with passion. 303 2, 59 | same applies to all the moral virtues. Therefore all moral ~ 304 2, 59 | moral virtues. Therefore all moral ~virtues are without passion.~ 305 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~OBJ 3: Further, moral virtue requires perfect 306 2, 59 | passion is incompatible with moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 307 2, 59 | praiseworthy is incompatible with moral virtue. Therefore moral ~ 308 2, 59 | moral virtue. Therefore moral ~virtue does not exclude 309 2, 59 | passions are compatible with moral ~virtue, if they be reduced 310 2, 59 | sorrow is compatible with moral virtue?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 311 2, 59 | sorrow is compatible ~with moral virtue in the same way as 312 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~Whether all the moral virtues are about the passions?~ 313 2, 59 | would seem that all the moral virtues are about the passions. ~ 314 2, 59 | says (Ethic. ii, 3) that "moral virtue is about ~objects 315 2, 59 | 2). Therefore all ~the moral virtues are about the passions.~ 316 2, 59 | Further, the subject of the moral virtues is a faculty which 317 2, 59 | A[3]). ~Therefore every moral virtue is about the passions.~ 318 2, 59 | is to be found in every moral virtue: and ~so either all 319 2, 59 | 6,10. ~Therefore all the moral virtues are about the passions.~ 320 2, 59 | contrary, Justice, which is a moral virtue, is not about the ~ 321 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~I answer that, Moral virtue perfects the appetitive 322 2, 59 | Consequently there are ~moral virtues about all matters 323 2, 59 | Therefore not all the moral virtues are about ~passions, 324 2, 59 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: The moral virtues are not all about 325 2, 59 | 1/1~Whether there can be moral virtue without passion?~ 326 2, 59 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtue can be without passion. 327 2, 59 | passion. For the ~more perfect moral virtue is, the more does 328 2, 59 | appetite, it is plain that moral virtues, which are about ~ 329 2, 59 | otherwise it would follow that moral virtue ~makes the sensitive 330 2, 59 | 5] Body Para. 2/2~Those moral virtues, however, which 331 2, 60 | Out. Para. 1/1 - HOW THE MORAL VIRTUES DIFFER FROM ONE 332 2, 60 | must now consider how the moral virtues differ from one 333 2, 60 | Whether there is only one moral virtue?~(2) Whether those 334 2, 60 | virtue?~(2) Whether those moral virtues which are about 335 2, 60 | Whether there is but one moral virtue about operations?~( 336 2, 60 | Whether there are different moral virtues about different 337 2, 60 | passions?~(5) Whether the moral virtues differ in point 338 2, 60 | Whether there is only one moral virtue?~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 339 2, 60 | seem that there is only one moral virtue. Because just ~as 340 2, 60 | just ~as the direction of moral actions belongs to reason 341 2, 60 | which is the subject of moral virtues. But there is only 342 2, 60 | intellectual virtue to direct all moral acts, viz. prudence. Therefore ~ 343 2, 60 | Therefore ~there is also but one moral virtue to give all moral 344 2, 60 | moral virtue to give all moral acts their ~respective inclinations.~ 345 2, 60 | aspect of the good to which moral virtue is directed, is one 346 2, 60 | seemingly, there is but one moral ~virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS 347 2, 60 | but one common end of all ~moral virtues, viz. happiness, 348 2, 60 | infinite in number. But the moral virtues themselves are not 349 2, 60 | But the subject of the moral virtues is the appetitive ~ 350 2, 60 | there cannot be only one ~moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 351 2, 60 | Q[58], AA[1],2,3), the moral virtues are ~habits of the 352 2, 60 | Now it is evident that in moral matters the reason holds 353 2, 60 | so that it follows that moral virtues are of various species 354 2, 60 | reason is truth. Now in all moral ~matters, which are contingent 355 2, 60 | 3 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Moral matters do not receive their 356 2, 60 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether moral virtues about operations 357 2, 60 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtues are not divided 358 2, 60 | says (Ethic. ii, 3) that moral virtue is "an operative 359 2, 60 | also. Therefore the same moral virtues ~are about both 360 2, 60 | effects; and in this way every moral virtue has ~some good operations 361 2, 60 | operation may be compared to moral virtue as the matter about ~ 362 2, 60 | and in this sense those moral virtues which ~are about 363 2, 60 | Whether there is only one moral virtue about operations?~ 364 2, 60 | seem that there is but one moral virtue about ~operations. 365 2, 60 | cause diversity among the ~moral virtues: for the Philosopher 366 2, 60 | not cause a diversity of moral ~virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS 367 2, 60 | Further, if there are various moral virtues about various ~operations, 368 2, 60 | operations, diversity of moral virtues would needs follow 369 2, 60 | contrary, Religion is a moral virtue distinct from piety, 370 2, 60 | 1~I answer that, All the moral virtues that are about operations 371 2, 60 | Whether there are different moral virtues about different 372 2, 60 | there are not different moral virtues about ~different 373 2, 60 | Therefore there is but one moral virtue ~about all the passions.~ 374 2, 60 | if there were different moral virtues about different ~ 375 2, 60 | follow that there are as many moral virtues as ~passions. But 376 2, 60 | case: since there is one moral ~virtue about contrary passions; 377 2, 60 | is no need for ~different moral virtues about different 378 2, 60 | there are not different moral ~virtues about different 379 2, 60 | said that there is only one moral virtue ~about all the passions: 380 2, 60 | suffice for a diversity of moral virtues. First, because 381 2, 60 | same virtue. Because, since moral ~virtue consists in a kind 382 2, 60 | do not require different moral ~virtues, because their 383 2, 60 | suffice for ~the unity of moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 384 2, 60 | passions there is but one moral virtue, which, like a second ~ 385 2, 60 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the moral virtues differ in point 386 2, 60 | It would seem that the moral virtues do not differ according 387 2, 60 | of operations. Now those moral virtues that are ~about 388 2, 60 | Therefore neither do those ~moral virtues that are about passions 389 2, 60 | diversify the species of moral virtue: so that there is ~ 390 2, 60 | so that there is ~but one moral virtue about all objects 391 2, 60 | applies to others. Therefore moral virtue is not diversified 392 2, 60 | Aristotle, there are ten ~moral virtues about the passions, 393 2, 60 | Consequently there are various moral virtues about ~desires, 394 2, 61 | inquiry:~(1) Whether the moral virtues should be called 395 2, 61 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the moral virtues should be called 396 2, 61 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtues should not be called 397 2, 61 | about the end; while the moral virtues are about ~the means. 398 2, 61 | virtues, rather than the moral ~virtues, should be called 399 2, 61 | essentially rational: whereas the moral virtues ~belong to that 400 2, 61 | principal, rather than ~the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS 401 2, 61 | fortitude." But these ~are moral virtues. Therefore the moral 402 2, 61 | moral virtues. Therefore the moral virtues are cardinal virtues.~ 403 2, 61 | principal virtues. Such are the moral virtues, and ~prudence alone, 404 2, 61 | is also something of ~a moral virtue, as was clearly shown 405 2, 61 | fittingly placed ~among the moral virtues.~Aquin.: SMT FS 406 2, 61 | prudence, rank ~before the moral virtues, in the point of 407 2, 61 | directing principle of the other moral virtues, as is ~clear from 408 2, 61 | principal virtues are, in a way, moral virtues. Now ~we are directed 409 2, 61 | Now ~we are directed to moral works both by the practical 410 2, 61 | contrary, Gregory says (Moral. ii): "The entire structure 411 2, 61 | another. For Gregory says (Moral. xxii, 1): "There is ~no 412 2, 61 | it is ~fitting that every moral virtue, from the fact that 413 2, 61 | to the fact that it is a "moral virtue" partaking of reason, ~ 414 2, 61 | habit, and virtue, and moral virtue.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 415 2, 62 | from the intellectual ~and moral virtues?~(3) How many, and 416 2, 62 | from the intellectual and ~moral virtues?~Aquin.: SMT FS 417 2, 62 | are not distinct from ~the moral and intellectual virtues. 418 2, 62 | appetitive part, are called moral. Therefore, the theological 419 2, 62 | are not distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues.~ 420 2, 62 | theological virtue. Therefore the moral virtues are not distinct 421 2, 62 | while the intellectual and moral virtues are in proportion ~ 422 2, 62 | of the intellectual and moral ~virtues is something comprehensible 423 2, 62 | specifically distinct from the moral and ~intellectual virtues.~ 424 2, 62 | 1: The intellectual and moral virtues perfect man's intellect ~ 425 2, 62 | than the ~intellectual and moral virtues. Now faith is not 426 2, 62 | is not reckoned among the moral ~virtues, but is something 427 2, 63 | habituation?~(3) Whether any moral virtues are in us by infusion?~( 428 2, 63 | nurseries of intellectual and moral ~virtues, and in so far 429 2, 63 | ways, both intellectual and moral virtues are in ~us by way 430 2, 63 | rectification belongs to moral ~virtue. Accordingly human 431 2, 63 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether any moral virtues are in us by infusion?~ 432 2, 63 | mean." Now intellectual and moral virtues can be ~caused in 433 2, 63 | virtues, intellectual and moral, that are acquired by ~our 434 2, 63 | theological virtues, what ~the moral and intellectual virtues 435 2, 63 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Some moral and intellectual virtues 436 2, 63 | end. Therefore the infused moral or intellectual ~virtue 437 2, 63 | way, too, ~those infused moral virtues, whereby men behave 438 2, 64 | of ~inquiry:~(1) Whether moral virtue observes the mean?~( 439 2, 64 | 2) Whether the mean of moral virtue is the real mean 440 2, 64 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether moral virtues observe the mean?~ 441 2, 64 | OBJ 1: It would seem that moral virtue does not observe 442 2, 64 | limit of power." Therefore moral virtue does not ~observe 443 2, 64 | is not a mean. Now some moral virtues tend ~to a maximum: 444 2, 64 | 3. ~Therefore not every moral virtue observes the mean.~ 445 2, 64 | if it is essential to a moral virtue to observe the ~mean, 446 2, 64 | mean, it follows that a moral virtue is not perfected, 447 2, 64 | something extreme. Now some moral virtues ~are perfected by 448 2, 64 | that it is not essential to moral ~virtue that it should observe 449 2, 64 | says (Ethic. ii, 6) that "moral virtue ~is a habit of choosing 450 2, 64 | direct man to good. Now moral virtue is properly a ~perfection 451 2, 64 | evident that the good of moral virtue consists in ~conformity 452 2, 64 | Therefore it is ~evident that moral virtue observes the mean.~ 453 2, 64 | 1 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 1: Moral virtue derives goodness 454 2, 64 | If therefore we ~compare moral virtue to reason, then, 455 2, 64 | deformity. ~But if we consider moral virtue in respect of its 456 2, 64 | 1/1~Whether the mean of moral virtue is the real mean, 457 2, 64 | would seem that the mean of moral virtue is not the rational ~ 458 2, 64 | real mean. For the good of moral virtue consists in its ~ 459 2, 64 | themselves. Therefore the mean of moral virtue is a real mean.~Aquin.: 460 2, 64 | power of apprehension. But moral virtue ~does not observe 461 2, 64 | passions. Therefore the mean of moral virtue is not the ~rational, 462 2, 64 | 3. Therefore the mean of moral virtue is not the ~rational, 463 2, 64 | says (Ethic. ii, 6) that "moral virtue ~observes the mean 464 2, 64 | mean: in this sense, ~since moral virtue perfects not the 465 2, 64 | appetitive power, the mean of moral virtue is not the rational 466 2, 64 | this sense every mean of moral ~virtue is a rational mean, 467 2, 64 | as above stated (A[1]), moral virtue is ~said to observe 468 2, 64 | in which case the mean of moral virtue is the real mean, 469 2, 64 | the mean in all ~the other moral virtues. The reason for 470 2, 64 | nor ~less. But the other moral virtues deal with interior 471 2, 64 | observe the ~mean. Because moral virtue observes the mean 472 2, 64 | 2: Further, the mean of moral virtue is fixed by an intellectual ~ 473 2, 64 | intellectual ~virtue, like moral virtue, is directed to the 474 2, 64 | of reason is the mean of moral virtue, and also the mean 475 2, 64 | ruling and measuring, of moral virtue, as ruled ~and measured 476 2, 64 | 2: Further, the mean of moral virtue depends on the appetite 477 2, 64 | good of intellectual and moral virtues consists in a ~mean 478 2, 64 | 2 Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 2: Moral and intellectual virtues 479 2, 65 | inquiry:~(1) Whether the moral virtues are connected with 480 2, 65 | another?~(2) Whether the moral virtues can be without charity?~( 481 2, 65 | Thes. Para. 1/1~Whether the moral virtues are connected with 482 2, 65 | It would seem that the moral virtues are not connected 483 2, 65 | with one ~another. Because moral virtues are sometimes caused 484 2, 65 | is possible to have one moral virtue without another.~ 485 2, 65 | magnificence and magnanimity are moral virtues. Now a ~man may 486 2, 65 | Now a ~man may have other moral virtues without having magnificence 487 2, 65 | magnanimous." Therefore the moral virtues are not ~connected 488 2, 65 | OBJ 3: Further, as the moral virtues perfect the appetitive 489 2, 65 | Neither, therefore, are the moral ~virtues connected with 490 2, 65 | 1~OBJ 4: Further, if the moral virtues are mutually connected, 491 2, 65 | suffice to connect the moral virtues together. For, seemingly, 492 2, 65 | to be done. Therefore the moral ~virtues are not necessarily 493 2, 65 | another": and Gregory says ~(Moral. xxii, 1) that "one virtue 494 2, 65 | Para. 1/3~I answer that, Moral virtue may be considered 495 2, 65 | imperfect. An imperfect moral virtue, temperance for instance, 496 2, 65 | habituation. If ~we take the moral virtues in this way, they 497 2, 65 | Para. 2/3~But the perfect moral virtue is a habit that inclines 498 2, 65 | deed well; and if we take moral virtues in this way, we 499 2, 65 | connection by Gregory, who says (Moral. xxii, 1) that "a virtue ~ 500 2, 65 | above (Q[58], A[4]), ~no moral virtue can be without prudence;


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