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causation 17
cause 4061
caused 598
causes 1133
causest 2
causeth 1
causing 102
Frequency    [«  »]
1146 19
1145 light
1141 creature
1133 causes
1129 inasmuch
1124 prudence
1118 directed
St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

IntraText - Concordances

causes

1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1133

     Part, Question
1 1, 2 | is an order of efficient causes. There is no case ~known ( 2 1, 2 | impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go 3 1, 2 | because in all efficient causes following in order, the 4 1, 2 | first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ~ultimate, 5 1, 2 | cause. But if in efficient causes it is ~possible to go on 6 1, 2 | intermediate efficient ~causes; all of which is plainly 7 1, 2 | proved in regard to efficient causes. Therefore we cannot but 8 1, 3 | cannot unite unless something causes them ~to unite. But God 9 1, 5 | of ~which is first among causes, since an agent does not 10 1, 5 | is called ~the cause of causes. Thus goodness, as a cause, 11 1, 5 | but ~rather of the other causes. For, as Dionysius says ( 12 1, 5 | quality of the first body that causes change, ~i.e. the heavens.~ 13 1, 7 | on an infinite number of ~causes. But the multitude of hammers, 14 1, 8 | effect of fire. Now God causes this ~effect in things not 15 1, 12 | things, happens from two causes - viz. from the ~perspicuity 16 1, 13 | God is good, ~because He causes goodness; but rather, on 17 1, 13 | rather, on the contrary, He causes ~goodness in things because 18 1, 13 | equivocal, as the sun which causes heat, although the ~sun 19 1, 14 | effects in their created causes; and thus we go ~discursively 20 1, 14 | we go ~discursively from causes to things caused. Therefore 21 1, 14 | the ~effects into their causes; and then the discursion 22 1, 14 | sees the effects of created causes in the causes ~themselves, 23 1, 14 | of created causes in the causes ~themselves, much better 24 1, 14 | knowledge of the ~created causes, as is the case with us; 25 1, 14 | it is manifest that God causes things by His intellect, ~ 26 1, 14 | singular ~things by universal causes. For nothing exists in any 27 1, 14 | singular things from universal causes attain to certain forms ~ 28 1, 14 | application of universal causes to particular effects. But 29 1, 14 | only ~as they are in their causes, but also as each one of 30 1, 14 | in relation to their own causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[14] A[ 31 1, 14 | account of their proximate causes, while the knowledge of 32 1, 14 | considered in their ~own causes. Hence also this proposition, " 33 1, 14 | the parts of a sentence causes a diversity of ~enunciations; 34 1, 16 | something whereby the ~one causes, and the other indicates 35 1, 19 | order itself of active ~causes. Since both intellect and 36 1, 19 | proceed from the agent that causes them, in so far as they ~ 37 1, 19 | science seeks ~to assign causes to effects. This seems inadmissible, 38 1, 19 | to proceed from definite causes, ~for the preservation of 39 1, 19 | unreasonable to ~seek for causes secondary to the divine 40 1, 19 | contingent effects to other causes, being utterly unable to 41 1, 19 | wills effects to come from causes, all effects ~that presuppose 42 1, 19 | others on the order of other causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[19] A[ 43 1, 19 | not ~exclude intermediate causes. But the effect of a first 44 1, 19 | defect of the secondary causes. ~The will of God, therefore, 45 1, 19 | is the same with active causes as with ~formal causes. 46 1, 19 | active causes as with ~formal causes. The rule in forms is this: 47 1, 19 | same must happen in active ~causes. Something may fall outside 48 1, 19 | under which all ~particular causes are included: and if any 49 1, 19 | referred through intermediate causes to the universal influence 50 1, 19 | including within itself all causes; for then the effect could 51 1, 19 | not exclude intermediate causes that have power to produce 52 1, 19 | however all intermediate causes are inferior in power to ~ 53 1, 19 | in the order of inferior causes. Thus in the ~case of the 54 1, 19 | looked only on inferior causes ~might have said: "Lazarus 55 1, 19 | under the order of ~inferior causes, as of nature, or merit, 56 1, 19 | assign to ~intermediate causes, holding that what God produces 57 1, 19 | God produces by necessary causes ~is necessary; and what 58 1, 19 | He produces by contingent causes contingent.~Aquin.: SMT 59 1, 19 | referred ~only to secondary causes, this must be independent 60 1, 19 | He has attached necessary causes, that cannot fail; but to 61 1, 19 | defectible and contingent causes, from which arise contingent 62 1, 19 | not because the proximate causes are contingent that the ~ 63 1, 19 | God prepared ~contingent causes for them, it being His will 64 1, 20 | lover outside himself, and ~causes him to pass, as it were, 65 1, 21 | intense than that of second ~causes. For this reason does God 66 1, 22 | universal and particular ~causes. A thing can escape the 67 1, 22 | Since then, all particular causes are included ~under the 68 1, 22 | all things, all secondary causes ~would be withdrawn.~Aquin.: 69 1, 22 | smallest; and whatsoever causes He assigns ~to certain effects, 70 1, 22 | species, and ~universal causes. The second providence, 71 1, 22 | the action of secondary causes; which are the executors 72 1, 22 | indissoluble connection of causes." It seems therefore that ~ 73 1, 22 | for some things ~necessary causes, so that they happen of 74 1, 22 | for others contingent ~causes, that they may happen by 75 1, 22 | nature of ~their proximate causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[22] A[ 76 1, 22 | under the foresight ~of causes that provide only for some 77 1, 23 | For every action of itself causes passion. If therefore ~predestination 78 1, 23 | the operation of secondary causes, as was above shown (Q[22], 79 1, 23 | nature of the proximate causes, which divine providence ~ 80 1, 23 | do away with ~secondary causes but so provides effects, 81 1, 23 | the order of secondary ~causes falls also under providence. 82 1, 23 | such a way that natural causes are directed to bring about ~ 83 1, 23 | He employs intermediary causes, in order that the beauty 84 1, 23 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: Secondary causes cannot escape the order 85 1, 25 | in reference to inferior ~causes, as the wisdom of this world 86 1, 25 | reference either ~to higher causes, or to inferior causes, 87 1, 25 | higher causes, or to inferior causes, but in reference to itself. 88 1, 25 | as to be done by inferior causes ~are said to be possible 89 1, 25 | reference to those inferior causes. For it is ~according to 90 1, 33 | principle." For in all kinds of causes there is always to be found 91 1, 36 | the Father. ~But "whatever causes a thing to be such is yet 92 1, 39 | or ~material cause; which causes are in all cases distinguished 93 1, 39 | things of which they are the causes. For nothing can be its 94 1, 39 | which is first among the causes. Therefore this relation ~ 95 1, 39 | cause (though the first of causes) be ~appropriated to the 96 1, 42 | are said to ~be like their causes, inasmuch as they have the 97 1, 42 | they have the form of their causes; but ~not conversely, for 98 1, 44 | there are ~other exemplar causes?~(4) Whether He is the final 99 1, 44 | necessary principles are the causes of ~necessary conclusions. 100 1, 44 | they assigned ~certain causes for these accidental changes, 101 1, 44 | attributed to certain universal causes, ~such as the oblique circle [* 102 1, 44 | assigned particular efficient causes to things. Then others there 103 1, 44 | exemplars. Therefore exemplar causes exist besides God.~Aquin.: 104 1, 44 | final cause is the first of causes. If, therefore, ~God is 105 1, 45 | So also nature ~itself causes natural things as regards 106 1, 45 | effects from particular ~causes, which necessarily presuppose 107 1, 45 | more universal and ~prior causes. Now among all effects the 108 1, 45 | except forasmuch as it causes "being" in ~"this": and 109 1, 46 | Therefore in ~efficient causes there could be an infinite 110 1, 46 | Reply OBJ 7: In efficient causes it is impossible to proceed 111 1, 46 | be an infinite number of causes that are ~"per se" required 112 1, 46 | accidentally" as regards efficient ~causes; for instance, if all the 113 1, 46 | for instance, if all the causes thus infinitely multiplied 114 1, 46 | hold one grade in efficient causes - viz. the grade of ~a particular 115 1, 47 | has been ascribed to many ~causes. For some attributed the 116 1, 47 | the heavenly ~body, which causes movement, and inasmuch as 117 1, 47 | concurrence of many active causes; and such an effect we can 118 1, 49 | consider the special kinds of causes, we see that the agent, ~ 119 1, 49 | this it also accidentally causes the other. But ~if there 120 1, 49 | the goodness of the fire causes evil to the ~water, and 121 1, 49 | good as to his nature, causes an act morally evil. And, ~ 122 1, 49 | sometimes that one contrary causes another by accident: for ~ 123 1, 49 | corruption and defect, ~causes by its power that corruption 124 1, 49 | as it were ~by accident, causes the corruptions of things, 125 1, 49 | contrary effects have contrary causes. But contrariety ~is found 126 1, 49 | considered only the particular ~causes of particular effects. For 127 1, 49 | two contrary particular causes of two ~contrary particular 128 1, 49 | these ~contrary particular causes to the universal common 129 1, 49 | extended the contrariety of causes even to the first principles. 130 1, 49 | their own contrary proper causes; as ~above the contrary 131 1, 49 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 6: In the causes of evil we do not proceed 132 1, 50 | such diversity of matter causes diversity not merely ~of 133 1, 52 | impossible for two complete causes to be the causes ~immediately 134 1, 52 | complete causes to be the causes ~immediately of one and 135 1, 52 | evident in every class of ~causes: for there is one proximate 136 1, 54 | to something ~beyond, and causes passion in it, as burning 137 1, 57 | but in their universal causes, to which all particular 138 1, 57 | merely in ~its universal causes, is not to know it as singular, 139 1, 57 | form. And for as much as He causes, does He know; for ~His 140 1, 57 | His essence, by which He causes all things, God is the ~ 141 1, 57 | necessarily ~from their causes, are known with sure knowledge; 142 1, 57 | which proceed from their causes in the majority ~of cases, 143 1, 57 | as they understand the causes of things both more universally 144 1, 57 | penetrate more deeply into the causes of an ~ailment can pronounce 145 1, 57 | which proceed from their causes in the minority of cases 146 1, 57 | future things except in their causes, or by ~God's revelation. 147 1, 58 | can syllogize, and know causes in effects; all of ~which 148 1, 58 | and they see effects in causes, and causes in effects: 149 1, 58 | see effects in causes, and causes in effects: yet ~they do 150 1, 58 | way, by ~syllogizing from causes to effect, or from effect 151 1, 58 | multitude of things understood causes ~composition, but a multitude 152 1, 65 | effects shows diversity of causes, since ~like always produces 153 1, 69 | plants and trees in their causes, ~that is, it received then 154 1, 69 | production of plants in their ~causes, within the earth, took 155 1, 69 | things in their origin or causes, and from ~this work He 156 1, 69 | third day, but in their ~causes only. However, in accordance 157 1, 70 | through their sensible causes, and conversely. Hence nothing 158 1, 70 | says "signs," rather than ~"causes," to guard against idolatry.~ 159 1, 73 | existed previously in its ~causes, as to nature, at the first 160 1, 73 | matter but also in their causes, as those ~individual creatures 161 1, 73 | existed previously in their causes, in the works of the six 162 1, 73 | to labor, which movement ~causes. But, as God produced His 163 1, 73 | produced in their ~first causes, but after being thus produced, 164 1, 75 | thing ~moved, inasmuch as it causes it to be in act. But, as 165 1, 75 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: The form causes matter to be, and so does 166 1, 75 | agent; ~wherefore the agent causes matter to be, so far as 167 1, 76 | the relation of ~universal causes to universals is like the 168 1, 76 | the relation of particular causes ~to individuals. But it 169 1, 76 | except the agent, which causes matter to be in act, as 170 1, 77 | considers the different kinds of causes. Therefore the ~powers of 171 1, 77 | genus, the ~substantial form causes existence in its subject. 172 1, 39 | or ~material cause; which causes are in all cases distinguished 173 1, 39 | things of which they are the causes. For nothing can be its 174 1, 39 | which is first among the causes. Therefore this relation ~ 175 1, 39 | cause (though the first of causes) be ~appropriated to the 176 1, 42 | are said to ~be like their causes, inasmuch as they have the 177 1, 42 | they have the form of their causes; but ~not conversely, for 178 1, 45 | there are ~other exemplar causes?~(4) Whether He is the final 179 1, 45 | necessary principles are the causes of ~necessary conclusions. 180 1, 45 | they assigned ~certain causes for these accidental changes, 181 1, 45 | attributed to certain universal causes, ~such as the oblique circle [* 182 1, 45 | assigned particular efficient causes to things. Then others there 183 1, 45 | exemplars. Therefore exemplar causes exist besides God.~Aquin.: 184 1, 45 | final cause is the first of causes. If, therefore, ~God is 185 1, 46 | So also nature ~itself causes natural things as regards 186 1, 46 | effects from particular ~causes, which necessarily presuppose 187 1, 46 | more universal and ~prior causes. Now among all effects the 188 1, 46 | except forasmuch as it causes "being" in ~"this": and 189 1, 47 | Therefore in ~efficient causes there could be an infinite 190 1, 47 | Reply OBJ 7: In efficient causes it is impossible to proceed 191 1, 47 | be an infinite number of causes that are ~"per se" required 192 1, 47 | accidentally" as regards efficient ~causes; for instance, if all the 193 1, 47 | for instance, if all the causes thus infinitely multiplied 194 1, 47 | hold one grade in efficient causes - viz. the grade of ~a particular 195 1, 48 | has been ascribed to many ~causes. For some attributed the 196 1, 48 | the heavenly ~body, which causes movement, and inasmuch as 197 1, 48 | concurrence of many active causes; and such an effect we can 198 1, 50 | consider the special kinds of causes, we see that the agent, ~ 199 1, 50 | this it also accidentally causes the other. But ~if there 200 1, 50 | the goodness of the fire causes evil to the ~water, and 201 1, 50 | good as to his nature, causes an act morally evil. And, ~ 202 1, 50 | sometimes that one contrary causes another by accident: for ~ 203 1, 50 | corruption and defect, ~causes by its power that corruption 204 1, 50 | as it were ~by accident, causes the corruptions of things, 205 1, 50 | contrary effects have contrary causes. But contrariety ~is found 206 1, 50 | considered only the particular ~causes of particular effects. For 207 1, 50 | two contrary particular causes of two ~contrary particular 208 1, 50 | these ~contrary particular causes to the universal common 209 1, 50 | extended the contrariety of causes even to the first principles. 210 1, 50 | their own contrary proper causes; as ~above the contrary 211 1, 50 | 1/1~Reply OBJ 6: In the causes of evil we do not proceed 212 1, 51 | such diversity of matter causes diversity not merely ~of 213 1, 53 | impossible for two complete causes to be the causes ~immediately 214 1, 53 | complete causes to be the causes ~immediately of one and 215 1, 53 | evident in every class of ~causes: for there is one proximate 216 1, 55 | to something ~beyond, and causes passion in it, as burning 217 1, 58 | but in their universal causes, to which all particular 218 1, 58 | merely in ~its universal causes, is not to know it as singular, 219 1, 58 | form. And for as much as He causes, does He know; for ~His 220 1, 58 | His essence, by which He causes all things, God is the ~ 221 1, 58 | necessarily ~from their causes, are known with sure knowledge; 222 1, 58 | which proceed from their causes in the majority ~of cases, 223 1, 58 | as they understand the causes of things both more universally 224 1, 58 | penetrate more deeply into the causes of an ailment can pronounce 225 1, 58 | which proceed from their causes in the minority of cases 226 1, 58 | future things except in their causes, or by ~God's revelation. 227 1, 59 | can syllogize, and know causes in effects; all of ~which 228 1, 59 | and they see effects in causes, and causes in effects: 229 1, 59 | see effects in causes, and causes in effects: yet ~they do 230 1, 59 | way, by ~syllogizing from causes to effect, or from effect 231 1, 59 | multitude of things understood causes ~composition, but a multitude 232 1, 66 | effects shows diversity of causes, since ~like always produces 233 1, 70 | plants and trees in their causes, ~that is, it received then 234 1, 70 | production of plants in their ~causes, within the earth, took 235 1, 70 | things in their origin or causes, and from ~this work He 236 1, 70 | third day, but in their ~causes only. However, in accordance 237 1, 71 | through their sensible causes, and conversely. Hence nothing 238 1, 71 | says "signs," rather than ~"causes," to guard against idolatry.~ 239 1, 72 | existed previously in its ~causes, as to nature, at the first 240 1, 72 | matter but also in their causes, as those ~individual creatures 241 1, 72 | existed previously in their causes, in the works of the six 242 1, 72 | to labor, which movement ~causes. But, as God produced His 243 1, 72 | produced in their ~first causes, but after being thus produced, 244 1, 74 | thing ~moved, inasmuch as it causes it to be in act. But, as 245 1, 74 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: The form causes matter to be, and so does 246 1, 74 | agent; ~wherefore the agent causes matter to be, so far as 247 1, 75 | the relation of ~universal causes to universals is like the 248 1, 75 | the relation of particular causes ~to individuals. But it 249 1, 75 | except the agent, which causes matter to be in act, as 250 1, 76 | considers the different kinds of causes. Therefore the ~powers of 251 1, 76 | genus, the ~substantial form causes existence in its subject. 252 1, 78 | besides the universal active causes, each ~one is endowed with 253 1, 78 | derived from those universal ~causes: for the sun alone does 254 1, 78 | For it is customary ~for causes and effects to be called 255 1, 81 | mover, then, of necessity causes movement in the thing ~movable, 256 1, 82 | the first cause, Who moves causes both natural and ~voluntary. 257 1, 82 | just as by moving natural causes He does not prevent their ~ 258 1, 82 | so by moving voluntary causes He does not deprive ~their 259 1, 82 | whatever ~produced by corporeal causes, which cannot affect the 260 1, 83 | through moving and ~material causes. Secondly, because it seems 261 1, 83 | the spirit, but the spirit causes it in itself." Therefore 262 1, 83 | spoken above (Q[79], AA[3],4) causes the phantasms received from 263 1, 84 | OBJ 4: Further, we know causes and principles by their 264 1, 84 | at times through sensible causes we become ~acquainted with 265 1, 84 | of ~intelligible species causes a certain vicissitude of 266 1, 84 | principles ~and ultimate causes understands it better than 267 1, 84 | it ~only to its proximate causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[85] A[ 268 1, 84 | disposition of matter, causes not a specific but only 269 1, 84 | principles and intelligible causes. But in ~perfect knowledge, 270 1, 84 | resolve ~principles into their causes."~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[85] A[ 271 1, 85 | would know the ~universal causes of all effects, and would 272 1, 85 | spiritual and corporeal ~causes; of spiritual causes, when 273 1, 85 | corporeal ~causes; of spiritual causes, when by Divine power the 274 1, 85 | impressions of spiritual causes when it is ~withdrawn from 275 1, 85 | from ~superior corporeal causes. For it is clear that superior 276 1, 85 | influence of the heavenly bodies causes the ~imagination to be affected, 277 1, 86 | very fact ~of its presence causes the act whereby it is known. 278 1, 86 | belongs to the ~order of final causes, whereas medicine belongs 279 1, 86 | the order of efficient ~causes. So of two things belonging 280 1, 87 | OBJ 2: Further, whatever causes a thing to be such is more 281 1, 87 | 2: The axiom, "Whatever causes a thing to be such is more 282 1, 88 | things pre-exist in their causes or are known by Divine revelation. 283 1, 88 | justly, that is, pleasurably, causes the habit of political ~ 284 1, 90 | movement of the heavens causes natural changes; but not ~ 285 1, 92 | contingent ~images of their causes." But God is the cause not 286 1, 92 | contingent images ~of their causes"; that is, as much as they 287 1, 92 | for oneness in quality ~causes likeness, as the Philosopher 288 1, 96 | finally dies from ~natural causes. Against this defect man 289 1, 98 | secure a proffered pleasure causes ~affliction. But if children 290 1, 102 | makes some of them to be causes of others in government; 291 1, 102 | compared to ~their proximate causes, which may fail in their 292 1, 103 | beings: for the builder causes ~the house in its "becoming," 293 1, 103 | man begets man, and ~fire causes fire. Thus whenever a natural 294 1, 103 | the agent ceases which causes the "becoming" of the effect: 295 1, 103 | its being. But all created causes do not seem to ~cause their 296 1, 103 | of certain intermediate causes. Therefore He ~also keeps 297 1, 103 | being by means of certain causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[104] A[ 298 1, 103 | corporeal things there are ~many causes which hinder the action 299 1, 103 | when we have a ~series of causes depending on one another, 300 1, 103 | secondary way on all the middle causes. Therefore the ~first cause 301 1, 103 | be referred to the middle causes in a secondary way; and 302 1, 103 | is ascribed to the higher causes: thus the ~Philosopher says ( 303 1, 103 | being, by means of certain causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[104] A[ 304 1, 104 | on determinate particular causes; as we have ~seen above ( 305 1, 104 | only by means of particular causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[105] A[ 306 1, 104 | The fact that secondary causes are ordered to determinate ~ 307 1, 104 | since God ordains other causes to ~certain effects He can 308 1, 104 | moved immediately by created causes, we ~cannot possibly doubt 309 1, 104 | there are few kinds ~of causes; matter is not a principle 310 1, 104 | to the ~multiplicity of causes, there results a multiplicity 311 1, 104 | the ~order of secondary causes; but, on the contrary, this 312 1, 104 | the effects of secondary ~causes without them, or by producing 313 1, 104 | effects to which secondary ~causes do not extend. So Augustine 314 1, 104 | which God does outside those causes which we know, ~are called 315 1, 107 | on the universal created ~causes which in some way are already 316 1, 107 | things as depending on their causes; which mode belongs to the ~ 317 1, 107 | second in the ~universal causes; and third in their application 318 1, 107 | ignorant of the order of the ~causes. So, since the inferior 319 1, 109 | when ~an effect of natural causes is produced outside the 320 1, 110 | is from God alone, Who ~causes the will.~Aquin.: SMT FP 321 1, 114 | heavenly bodies are the causes of what is done here by ~ 322 1, 114 | separate forms are the ~causes of forms that exist in matter. 323 1, 114 | beginning, as in "universal causes." Thirdly, they are ~in 324 1, 114 | are produced by ~universal causes, for instance in this plant, 325 1, 114 | animal, as in ~"particular causes." Fourthly, they are in 326 1, 114 | the primordial universal causes to the first effects produced.~ 327 1, 114 | itself pregnant ~with the causes of unborn things." Nevertheless, 328 1, 114 | its presence or ~absence causes variety in the generation 329 1, 114 | heavenly ~bodies are the causes of all that takes place 330 1, 114 | follow of necessity. For some causes are so ordered to ~their 331 1, 114 | the clashing of these two causes, inasmuch as it is ~accidental, 332 1, 114 | results from this clashing of ~causes is not to be reduced to 333 1, 114 | The heavenly bodies are causes of effects that take place ~ 334 1, 114 | means of particular inferior causes, which can ~fail in their 335 1, 114 | nevertheless the clashing ~of two causes, being accidental, is not 336 1, 115 | as compared to inferior causes, which, if compared to some 337 1, 115 | compared to their proximate causes: but not if compared to ~ 338 1, 115 | effects through mediate causes. ~We can therefore consider 339 1, 115 | as being in the ~mediate causes ordered by God to the production 340 1, 115 | that fate is in the created causes themselves, as ordered by 341 1, 115 | ordering itself of second causes, which Augustine (De ~Civ. 342 1, 115 | 8) calls the "series of causes," has not the nature of 343 1, 115 | i.e. order, of second causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[116] A[ 344 1, 115 | just as much as the second ~causes themselves, the ordering 345 1, 115 | effects, or to the mediate causes, this ~fate is multiple. 346 1, 115 | The disposition of second causes which we call fate, can ~ 347 1, 115 | in regard to the second causes, which ~are thus disposed 348 1, 115 | itself or dispositions of causes is in itself necessary, 349 1, 115 | considered in regard to second causes, ~is changeable; but as 350 1, 115 | the ordering of second ~causes to effects foreseen by God. 351 1, 115 | therefore, is subject to ~second causes, is subject also to fate. 352 1, 115 | is not subject to second causes, neither is it subject ~ 353 1, 115 | is bound up with second causes.~Aquin.: SMT FP Q[116] A[ 354 1, 115 | God by ~means of second causes; for this reason they are 355 1, 115 | from changeable created causes. And these, ~therefore, 356 1, 116 | saying that the ~teacher causes knowledge in the learner, 357 1, 116 | demonstration is a ~syllogism that causes knowledge." In this way 358 1, 116 | this way a demonstrator causes his ~hearer to know.~Aquin.: 359 2, 1 | For if, in a ~number of causes ordained to one another, 360 2, 1 | also. Now the first of all causes ~is the final cause. The 361 2, 1 | is clear that particular causes are moved by a ~universal 362 2, 1 | proceed to infinitude in causes of movement, because then 363 2, 1 | accidentally; for ~accidental causes are indeterminate. And in 364 2, 1 | clear that secondary moving causes do not move save inasmuch 365 2, 2 | are due rather to external causes, and in most cases to ~fortune; 366 2, 2 | will ~and reason, that it causes him to despise other goods. 367 2, 2 | to the body, and ~which causes bodily delight through being 368 2, 3 | desire is one of wonder, and causes inquiry, as is ~stated in 369 2, 4 | 2: The very sight of God causes delight. Consequently, he 370 2, 4 | and this relation alone ~causes a search for the end. To 371 2, 5 | Happiness is due to one of ~two causes. First, on the part of the 372 2, 6 | will?~(5) Whether violence causes involuntariness?~(6) Whether 373 2, 6 | involuntariness?~(6) Whether fear causes involuntariness?~(7) Whether 374 2, 6 | 7) Whether concupiscence causes involuntariness?~(8) Whether 375 2, 6 | involuntariness?~(8) Whether ignorance causes involuntariness?~Aquin.: 376 2, 6 | Para. 1/1~Whether violence causes involuntariness?~Aquin.: 377 2, 6 | involuntary." ~Therefore violence causes involuntariness.~Aquin.: 378 2, 6 | in this respect violence ~causes involuntariness.~Aquin.: 379 2, 6 | Para. 1/1~Whether fear causes involuntariness simply?~ 380 2, 6 | It would seem that fear causes involuntariness simply. 381 2, 6 | the will. But violence ~causes involuntariness simply. 382 2, 6 | simply. Therefore fear too causes involuntariness ~simply.~ 383 2, 6 | 1~Whether concupiscence causes involuntariness?~Aquin.: 384 2, 6 | seem that concupiscence causes involuntariness. For just ~ 385 2, 6 | concupiscence. But fear causes ~involuntariness to a certain 386 2, 6 | concupiscence. But ~fear causes involuntariness to a certain 387 2, 6 | Therefore concupiscence causes involuntariness.~Aquin.: 388 2, 6 | Para. 1/1~Whether ignorance causes involuntariness?~Aquin.: 389 2, 6 | If, therefore, ignorance causes ~involuntariness, it would 390 2, 6 | answer that, If ignorance causes involuntariness, it is in 391 2, 6 | repugnant to the will: but ~it causes "non-voluntariness," since 392 2, 6 | simply. ~Nevertheless it causes involuntariness in a certain 393 2, 6 | passer-by. Such ignorance causes involuntariness simply.~ 394 2, 7 | Ignorance of circumstances causes an act to be ~involuntary, 395 2, 7 | substance of an act. ~But the causes of an act seem to belong 396 2, 7 | in reference to the other causes. For ~the end that specifies 397 2, 9 | fitting, happens from two causes: namely, from the condition, ~ 398 2, 9 | heavenly ~bodies are not the causes of our acts." But they would 399 2, 9 | heavenly bodies are the causes of natural forms, from ~ 400 2, 10 | so ~that from necessary causes through the Divine motion, 401 2, 10 | necessity; but from contingent causes, effects follow contingently. ~ 402 2, 13 | its object, and the will ~causes the external action. Hence 403 2, 14 | derived by reasoning from causes to effects: but science 404 2, 14 | proceed synthetically, since causes are more simple than effects. 405 2, 14 | we trace to their simple causes. Now the principle in ~the 406 2, 15 | in the power of him who causes the application. ~Now the 407 2, 18 | that a difference of object causes ~a difference of species 408 2, 18 | a ~difference of objects causes a difference of species 409 2, 18 | actions. Therefore that which causes a difference in the goodness 410 2, 18 | malice of a moral action, causes a specific difference, which 411 2, 18 | and malice. Therefore it causes it to ~differ in species. 412 2, 18 | of ~its own; sometimes it causes a defect in reference to 413 2, 19 | enters the moral order, ~and causes moral goodness in the act 414 2, 19 | thing alone, which of itself causes goodness in the act; and 415 2, 19 | that, Wherever a number of causes are subordinate to one ~ 416 2, 19 | that ignorance sometimes causes an act to be involuntary, ~ 417 2, 19 | evident that ~when ignorance causes an act to be involuntary, 418 2, 19 | ignorance excuses, and ~causes the act to be involuntary.~ 419 2, 23 | apprehended as such, ~which causes pleasure or pain. But, since 420 2, 23 | another; ~rather, in fact, one causes the other. Therefore in 421 2, 23 | accordance with their active causes, ~which, in the case of 422 2, 23 | the difference in active causes may be considered in two 423 2, 23 | their ~active or motive causes in respect of their motive 424 2, 23 | place, therefore, good causes, in the appetitive power, 425 2, 23 | be not yet possessed, ~it causes in the appetite a movement 426 2, 23 | the good is obtained, it causes the appetite to ~rest, as 427 2, 25 | iv, 5) that"retaliation causes anger to cease, because 428 2, 25 | precedes joy, and hence causes it, ~according to the Apostle ( 429 2, 25 | because the pleasure intended ~causes desire and love. For pleasure 430 2, 25 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: Pleasure causes love, in so far as it precedes 431 2, 25 | something may be due to two causes: one is the mere aptitude 432 2, 25 | as an effect ~from the causes that precede it, it is from 433 2, 27 | the first kind of likeness causes love of friendship or ~well-being. 434 2, 27 | second kind of ~likeness causes love of concupiscence, or 435 2, 27 | Para. 1/1~Reply OBJ 3: Hope causes or increases love; both 436 2, 27 | of pleasure, ~because it causes pleasure; and by reason 437 2, 28 | love. There is union ~which causes love; and this is substantial 438 2, 28 | it seems that every love ~causes ecstasy.~Aquin.: SMT FS 439 2, 28 | when it is intense, it causes a man to be moved against ~ 440 2, 28 | that languishes. But love causes languor: for it is ~written ( 441 2, 28 | corruptive effect. But love causes fervor: for Dionysius (Coel. ~ 442 2, 28 | the same time by contrary ~causes. But some things are done 443 2, 28 | passions, which are ~proximate causes, are not superfluous.~Aquin.: 444 2, 29 | reality, one precedes, and causes the other; e.g. the species 445 2, 30 | nature of the active object, ~causes a material difference of 446 2, 30 | regard ~to its active power causes a formal diversity of passions, 447 2, 30 | according as it is ~present, it causes the faculty to find rest 448 2, 30 | according as ~it is absent, it causes the faculty to be moved 449 2, 30 | object of sensible pleasure causes love, inasmuch as, so to 450 2, 30 | the appetite to itself; it causes concupiscence, ~inasmuch 451 2, 30 | faculty to itself; and it causes ~pleasure, inasmuch as, 452 2, 31 | Delight in itself; (2) The causes of delight; (3) ~Its effects; ( 453 2, 31 | is subject to changeable causes, in ~this respect, to be 454 2, 31 | 1~Reply OBJ 3: Pleasure causes carnal love in one way; 455 2, 31 | But "whatever is ~violent causes grief" (Metaph. v, 5). Therefore 456 2, 31 | difference in the formal object causes a specific difference in 457 2, 32 | We must now consider the causes of pleasure: and under this 458 2, 32 | pleasure?~(4) Whether sadness causes pleasure?~(5) Whether the 459 2, 32 | 1~Reply OBJ 2: Movement causes toil and fatigue, when it 460 2, 32 | It is not thus that it causes pleasure, but by removing ~ 461 2, 32 | Whether hope and memory causes pleasure?~Aquin.: SMT FS 462 2, 32 | of contraries. But hope ~causes affliction, according to 463 2, 32 | appraising of a future good, causes pleasure; whereas, inasmuch 464 2, 32 | absence of that good, it causes affliction.~Aquin.: SMT 465 2, 32 | Para. 1/1~Whether sadness causes pleasure?~Aquin.: SMT FS 466 2, 32 | cause pleasure. For nothing ~causes its own contrary. But sadness 467 2, 32 | sadness, as actually existing, causes pleasure, ~inasmuch as it 468 2, 32 | loved, the absence of which ~causes sadness; and yet the mere 469 2, 32 | which is cold sometimes causes heat," as stated in ~Phys. 470 2, 32 | effects proceed from contrary causes. But man ~takes a natural 471 2, 32 | as being one with us, causes pleasure; just at it causes 472 2, 32 | causes pleasure; just at it causes love, as stated ~above ( 473 2, 32 | good, thus accidentally it causes disgust or sadness, ~not 474 2, 32 | or any bodily pleasure, ~causes disgust. Secondly, by being 475 2, 32 | wonder hinders rather than causes pleasure.~Aquin.: SMT FS 476 2, 32 | since more perfect operation causes more perfect pleasure.~ 477 2, 33 | pleasure?~(2) Whether pleasure causes thirst or desire for itself?~( 478 2, 33 | Para. 1/1~Whether pleasure causes thirst or desire for itself?~ 479 2, 33 | desire. But pleasure often ~causes distaste. Therefore it does 480 2, 33 | is it the operation that ~causes pleasure: nor again as form, 481 2, 33 | ii, 3 two things may be causes of one ~another, if one 482 2, 35 | occasioned by blows or other such causes, which are contrary to the 483 2, 36 | Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE CAUSES OF SORROW OR PAIN (FOUR 484 2, 36 | We must now consider the causes of sorrow: under which head 485 2, 36 | the possession of good ~causes the inclination of the appetite 486 2, 36 | presence of an obstacle, desire causes sorrow.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 487 2, 36 | Not every kind of union causes perfect goodness, but only ~ 488 2, 36 | inclinations of the soul are the causes of ~the movements of appetite. 489 2, 36 | Reply OBJ 1: A greater power causes sorrow, as acting not potentially ~ 490 2, 36 | cannot bring about that which causes sorrow.~Aquin.: SMT FS Q[ 491 2, 36 | External agents can be the causes of appetitive movements, ~ 492 2, 37 | 1~OBJ 2: Further, sorrow causes desire in many cases, as 493 2, 37 | Ethic. ~vii, 14. But desire causes intensity of action. Therefore 494 2, 38 | OBJ 2: Further, that which causes sorrow does not assuage 495 2, 38 | OBJ 3: When there are two causes inclining to contrary movements, ~ 496 2, 38 | absent friend, there are two causes producing contrary movements. 497 2, 38 | things known, knowledge ~causes sorrow: but on the part 498 2, 38 | contemplation of truth, it causes ~pleasure.~Aquin.: SMT FS 499 2, 38 | to ensue from contrary ~causes. But these, being bodily 500 2, 38 | to its normal ~state, are causes of pleasure; for this is


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