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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • FIRST PART (FP: QQ 1-119)
      • Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] Out. Para. 1/4 - HOW ONE CREATURE MOVES ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] Out. Para. 1/4 - HOW ONE CREATURE MOVES ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)


We next consider how one creature moves another. This consideration will
be threefold: (1) How the angels move, who are purely spiritual
creatures; (2) How bodies move; (3) How man moves, who is composed of a
spiritual and a corporeal nature.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] Out. Para. 2/4

Concerning the first point, there are three things to be considered: (1)
How an angel acts on an angel; (2) How an angel acts on a corporeal
nature; (3) How an angel acts on man.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] Out. Para. 3/4

The first of these raises the question of the enlightenment and speech
of the angels; and of their mutual coordination, both of the good and of the bad angels.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] Out. Para. 4/4

Concerning their enlightenment there are four points of inquiry:

(1) Whether one angel moves the intellect of another by enlightenment?

(2) Whether one angel moves the will of another?
(3) Whether an inferior angel can enlighten a superior angel?

(4) Whether a superior angel enlightens an inferior angel in all that he
knows himself?


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether one angel enlightens another?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that one angel does not enlighten another. For the
angels possess now the same beatitude which we hope to obtain. But one
man will not then enlighten another, according to Jer. 31:34: "They shall
teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother."
Therefore neither does an angel enlighten another now.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, light in the angels is threefold; of nature, of grace, and of glory. But an angel is enlightened in the light of nature by the
Creator; in the light of grace by the Justifier; in the light of glory by
the Beatifier; all of which comes from God. Therefore one angel does not
enlighten another.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, light is a form in the mind. But the rational mind is
"informed by God alone, without created intervention," as Augustine says
(QQ. 83, qu. 51). Therefore one angel does not enlighten the mind of
another.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. viii) that "the angels of
the second hierarchy are cleansed, enlightened and perfected by the
angels of the first hierarchy."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, One angel enlightens another. To make this clear, we must
observe that intellectual light is nothing else than a manifestation of
truth, according to Eph. 5:13: "All that is made manifest is light."
Hence to enlighten means nothing else but to communicate to others the
manifestation of the known truth; according to the Apostle (Eph. 3:8):
"To me the least of all the saints is given this grace . . . to enlighten
all men, that they may see what is the dispensation of the mystery which
hath been hidden from eternity in God." Therefore one angel is said to
enlighten another by manifesting the truth which he knows himself. Hence
Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. vii): "Theologians plainly show that the
orders of the heavenly beings are taught Divine science by the higher
minds."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] Body Para. 2/2

Now since two things concur in the intellectual operation, as we have
said (Q[105], A[3]), namely, the intellectual power, and the likeness of
the thing understood; in both of these one angel can notify the known
truth to another. First, by strengthening his intellectual power; for
just as the power of an imperfect body is strengthened by the
neighborhood of a more perfect body - for instance, the less hot is made
hotter by the presence of what is hotter; so the intellectual power of an
inferior angel is strengthened by the superior angel turning to him:
since in spiritual things, for one thing to turn to another, corresponds
to neighborhood in corporeal things. Secondly, one angel manifests the
truth to another as regards the likeness of the thing understood. For the
superior angel receives the knowledge of truth by a kind of universal
conception, to receive which the inferior angel's intellect is not
sufficiently powerful, for it is natural to him to receive truth in a
more particular manner. Therefore the superior angel distinguishes, in a
way, the truth which he conceives universally, so that it can be grasped
by the inferior angel; and thus he proposes it to his knowledge. Thus it
is with us that the teacher, in order to adapt himself to others, divides
into many points the knowledge which he possesses in the universal. This
is thus expressed by Dionysius (Coel. Hier. xv): "Every intellectual
substance with provident power divides and multiplies the uniform
knowledge bestowed on it by one nearer to God, so as to lead its
inferiors upwards by analogy."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: All the angels, both inferior and superior, see the Essence
of God immediately, and in this respect one does not teach another. It is
of this truth that the prophet speaks; wherefore he adds: "They shall
teach no more every man his brother, saying: 'Know the Lord': for all
shall know Me, from the least of them even to the greatest." But all the
types of the Divine works, which are known in God as in their cause, God
knows in Himself, because He comprehends Himself; but of others who see
God, each one knows the more types, the more perfectly he sees God. Hence
a superior angel knows more about the types of the Divine works than an
inferior angel, and concerning these the former enlightens the latter;
and as to this Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv) that the angels "are
enlightened by the types of existing things."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: An angel does not enlighten another by giving him the light
of nature, grace, or glory; but by strengthening his natural light, and
by manifesting to him the truth concerning the state of nature, of grace,
and of glory, as explained above.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The rational mind is formed immediately by God, either as
the image from the exemplar, forasmuch as it is made to the image of God
alone; or as the subject by the ultimate perfecting form: for the created
mind is always considered to be unformed, except it adhere to the first
truth; while the other kinds of enlightenment that proceed from man or
angel, are, as it were, dispositions to this ultimate form.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether one angel moves another angel's will?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that one angel can move another angel's will.
Because, according to Dionysius quoted above (A[1]), as one angel
enlightens another, so does he cleanse and perfect another. But cleansing
and perfecting seem to belong to the will: for the former seems to point
to the stain of sin which appertains to will; while to be perfected is to
obtain an end, which is the object of the will. Therefore an angel can
move another angel's will.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, as Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. vii): "The names of the
angels designate their properties." Now the Seraphim are so called
because they "kindle" or "give heat": and this is by love which belongs
to the will. Therefore one angel moves another angel's will.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the Philosopher says (De Anima iii, 11) that the higher
appetite moves the lower. But as the intellect of the superior angel is
higher, so also is his will. It seems, therefore, that the superior angel
can change the will of another angel.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, To him it belongs to change the will, to whom it
belongs to bestow righteousness: for righteousness is the rightness of
the will. But God alone bestows righteousness. Therefore one angel
cannot change another angel's will.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, As was said above (Q[105], A[4]), the will is changed in
two ways; on the part of the object, and on the part of the power. On the
part of the object, both the good itself which is the object of the will,
moves the will, as the appetible moves the appetite; and he who points
out the object, as, for instance, one who proves something to be good.
But as we have said above (Q[105], A[4]), other goods in a measure
incline the will, yet nothing sufficiently moves the will save the
universal good, and that is God. And this good He alone shows, that it
may be seen by the blessed, Who, when Moses asked: "Show me Thy glory,"
answered: "I will show thee all good" (Ex. 33:18,19). Therefore an angel
does not move the will sufficiently, either as the object or as showing
the object. But he inclines the will as something lovable, and as
manifesting some created good ordered to God's goodness. And thus he can
incline the will to the love of the creature or of God, by way of
persuasion.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] Body Para. 2/2

But on the part of the power the will cannot be moved at all save by
God. For the operation of the will is a certain inclination of the willer
to the thing willed. And He alone can change this inclination, Who
bestowed on the creature the power to will: just as that agent alone can
change the natural inclination, which can give the power to which follows
that natural inclination. Now God alone gave to the creature the power to
will, because He alone is the author of the intellectual nature.
Therefore an angel cannot move another angel's will.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Cleansing and perfecting are to be understood according to
the mode of enlightenment. And since God enlightens by changing the
intellect and will, He cleanses by removing defects of intellect and
will, and perfects unto the end of the intellect and will. But the
enlightenment caused by an angel concerns the intellect, as explained
above (A[1]); therefore an angel is to be understood as cleansing from
the defect of nescience in the intellect; and as perfecting unto the
consummate end of the intellect, and this is the knowledge of truth. Thus
Dionysius says (Eccl. Hier. vi): that "in the heavenly hierarchy the
chastening of the inferior essence is an enlightening of things unknown,
that leads them to more perfect knowledge." For instance, we might say
that corporeal sight is cleansed by the removal of darkness; enlightened
by the diffusion of light; and perfected by being brought to the
perception of the colored object.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: One angel can induce another to love God by persuasion as
explained above.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The Philosopher speaks of the lower sensitive appetite
which can be moved by the superior intellectual appetite, because it
belongs to the same nature of the soul, and because the inferior appetite
is a power in a corporeal organ. But this does not apply to the angels.



Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether an inferior angel can enlighten a superior angel?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that an inferior angel can enlighten a superior
angel. For the ecclesiastical hierarchy is derived from, and represents
the heavenly hierarchy; and hence the heavenly Jerusalem is called "our
mother" (Gal. 4:26). But in the Church even superiors are enlightened and
taught by their inferiors, as the Apostle says (1 Cor. 14:31): "You may
all prophesy one by one, that all may learn and all may be exhorted."
Therefore, likewise in the heavenly hierarchy, the superiors can be
enlightened by inferiors.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, as the order of corporeal substances depends on the will
of God, so also does the order of spiritual substances. But, as was said
above (Q[105], A[6]), God sometimes acts outside the order of corporeal
substances. Therefore He also sometimes acts outside the order of
spiritual substances, by enlightening inferior otherwise than through
their superiors. Therefore in that way the inferiors enlightened by God
can enlighten superiors.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, one angel enlightens the other to whom he turns, as was
above explained (A[1]). But since this turning to another is voluntary,
the highest angel can turn to the lowest passing over the others.
Therefore he can enlighten him immediately; and thus the latter can
enlighten his superiors.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Dionysius says that "this is the Divine unalterable
law, that inferior things are led to God by the superior" (Coel. Hier.
iv; Eccl. Hier. v).

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The inferior angels never enlighten the superior, but are
always enlightened by them. The reason is, because, as above explained
(Q[105], A[6]), one order is under another, as cause is under cause; and
hence as cause is ordered to cause, so is order to order. Therefore there
is no incongruity if sometimes anything is done outside the order of the
inferior cause, to be ordered to the superior cause, as in human affairs
the command of the president is passed over from obedience to the prince.
So it happens that God works miraculously outside the order of corporeal
nature, that men may be ordered to the knowledge of Him. But the passing
over of the order that belongs to spiritual substances in no way belongs
to the ordering of men to God; since the angelic operations are not made
known to us; as are the operations of sensible bodies. Thus the order
which belongs to spiritual substances is never passed over by God; so
that the inferiors are always moved by the superior, and not conversely.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The ecclesiastical hierarchy imitates the heavenly in some
degree, but by a perfect likeness. For in the heavenly hierarchy the
perfection of the order is in proportion to its nearness to God; so that
those who are the nearer to God are the more sublime in grade, and more
clear in knowledge; and on that account the superiors are never
enlightened by the inferiors, whereas in the ecclesiastical hierarchy,
sometimes those who are the nearer to God in sanctity, are in the lowest
grade, and are not conspicuous for science; and some also are eminent in
one kind of science, and fail in another; and on that account superiors
may be taught by inferiors.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: As above explained, there is no similarity between what God
does outside the order of corporeal nature, and that of spiritual nature.
Hence the argument does not hold.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: An angel turns voluntarily to enlighten another angel, but
the angel's will is ever regulated by the Divine law which made the order
in the angels.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the superior angel enlightens the inferior as regards all he
himself knows?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the superior angel does not enlighten the
inferior concerning all he himself knows. For Dionysius says (Coel. Hier.
xii) that the superior angels have a more universal knowledge; and the
inferior a more particular and individual knowledge. But more is
contained under a universal knowledge than under a particular knowledge.
Therefore not all that the superior angels know, is known by the
inferior, through these being enlightened by the former.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the Master of the Sentences (ii, D, 11) says that the superior angels had long known the Mystery of the Incarnation, whereas
the inferior angels did not know it until it was accomplished. Thus we
find that on some of the angels inquiring, as it were, in ignorance: "Who
is this King of glory?" other angels, who knew, answered: "The Lord of
Hosts, He is the King of glory," as Dionysius expounds (Coel. Hier. vii).
But this would not apply if the superior angels enlightened the inferior
concerning all they know themselves. Therefore they do not do so.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, if the superior angels enlighten the inferior about all
they know, nothing that the superior angels know would be unknown to the
inferior angels. Therefore the superior angels could communicate nothing
more to the inferior; which appears open to objection. Therefore the
superior angels enlighten the inferior in all things.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Gregory [*Peter Lombard, Sent. ii, D, ix; Cf. Gregory,
Hom. xxxiv, in Ev.] says: "In that heavenly country, though there are
some excellent gifts, yet nothing is held individually." And Dionysius
says: "Each heavenly essence communicates to the inferior the gift
derived from the superior" (Coel. Hier. xv), as quoted above (A[1]).

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Every creature participates in the Divine goodness, so as
to diffuse the good it possesses to others; for it is of the nature of
good to communicate itself to others. Hence also corporeal agents give
their likeness to others so far as they can. So the more an agent is
established in the share of the Divine goodness, so much the more does it
strive to transmit its perfections to others as far as possible. Hence
the Blessed Peter admonishes those who by grace share in the Divine
goodness; saying: "As every man hath received grace, ministering the same
one to another; as good stewards of the manifold grace of God" (1 Pt.
4:10). Much more therefore do the holy angels, who enjoy the plenitude of
participation of the Divine goodness, impart the same to those below them.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] Body Para. 2/2

Nevertheless this gift is not received so excellently by the inferior as
by the superior angels; and therefore the superior ever remain in a
higher order, and have a more perfect knowledge; as the master
understands the same thing better than the pupil who learns from him.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The knowledge of the superior angels is said to be more
universal as regards the more eminent mode of knowledge.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The Master's words are not to be understood as if the
inferior angels were entirely ignorant of the Mystery of the Incarnation
but that they did not know it as fully as the superior angels; and that
they progressed in the knowledge of it afterwards when the Mystery was
accomplished.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[106] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Till the Judgment Day some new things are always being
revealed by God to the highest angels, concerning the course of the
world, and especially the salvation of the elect. Hence there is always
something for the superior angels to make known to the inferior.





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