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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • FIRST PART (FP: QQ 1-119)
      • Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] Out. Para. 1/1 - THE ORDERING OF THE BAD ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] Out. Para. 1/1 - THE ORDERING OF THE BAD ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)

We now consider the ordering of the bad angels; concerning which there
are four points of inquiry:

(1) Whether there are orders among the demons?

(2) Whether among them there is precedence?

(3) Whether one enlightens another?

(4) Whether they are subject to the precedence of the good angels?


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether there are orders among the demons?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that there are no orders among the demons. For
order belongs to good, as also mode, and species, as Augustine says (De
Nat. Boni iii); and on the contrary, disorder belongs to evil. But there
is nothing disorderly in the good angels. Therefore in the bad angels
there are no orders.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the angelic orders are contained under a hierarchy. But
the demons are not in a hierarchy, which is defined as a holy
principality; for they are void of all holiness. Therefore among the
demons there are no orders.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the demons fell from every one of the angelic orders; as
is commonly supposed. Therefore, if some demons are said to belong to an
order, as falling from that order, it would seem necessary to give them
the names of each of those orders. But we never find that they are called
"Seraphim," or "Thrones," or "Dominations." Therefore on the same ground
they are not to be placed in any other order.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The Apostle says (Eph. 6:12): "Our wrestling . . . is
against principalities and powers, against the rulers of the world of
this darkness."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, As explained above (Q[108], AA[4],7,8), order in the
angels is considered both according to the grade of nature; and according
to that of grace. Now grace has a twofold state, the imperfect, which is
that of merit; and the perfect, which is that of consummate glory.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] Body Para. 2/2

If therefore we consider the angelic orders in the light of the
perfection of glory, then the demons are not in the angelic orders, and
never were. But if we consider them in relation to imperfect grace, in
that view the demons were at the time in the orders of angels, but fell
away from them, according to what was said above (Q[62], A[3]), that all
the angels were created in grace. But if we consider them in the light of
nature, in that view they are still in those orders; because they have
not lost their natural gifts; as Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv).

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Good can exist without evil; whereas evil cannot exist
without good (Q[49], A[3]); so there is order in the demons, as
possessing a good nature.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: If we consider the ordering of the demons on the part of
God Who orders them, it is sacred; for He uses the demons for Himself;
but on the part of the demons' will it is not a sacred thing, because
they abuse their nature for evil.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The name "Seraphim" is given from the ardor of charity; and
the name "Thrones" from the Divine indwelling; and the name "Dominations"
imports a certain liberty; all of which are opposed to sin; and therefore
these names are not given to the angels who sinned.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether among the demons there is precedence?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that there is no precedence among the demons. For
every precedence is according to some order of justice. But the demons
are wholly fallen from justice. Therefore there is no precedence among
them.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, there is no precedence where obedience and subjection do
not exist. But these cannot be without concord; which is not to be found
among the demons, according to the text, "Among the proud there are
always contentions" (Prov. 13:10). Therefore there is no precedence among
the demons.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: If there be precedence among them it is either according to
nature, or according to their sin or punishment. But it is not according
to their nature, for subjection and service do not come from nature but
from subsequent sin; neither is it according to sin or punishment,
because in that case the superior demons who have sinned the most
grievously, would be subject to the inferior. Therefore there is no
precedence among the demons.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, On 1 Cor. 15:24 the gloss says: "While the world lasts,
angels will preside over angels, men over men, and demons over demons."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Since action follows the nature of a thing, where natures
are subordinate, actions also must be subordinate to each other. Thus it
is in corporeal things, for as the inferior bodies by natural order are
below the heavenly bodies, their actions and movements are subject to the
actions and movements of the heavenly bodies. Now it is plain from what
we have said (A[1]), that the demons are by natural order subject to
others; and hence their actions are subject to the action of those above
them, and this is what we mean by precedence - that the action of the
subject should be under the action of the prelate. So the very natural
disposition of the demons requires that there should be authority among
them. This agrees too with Divine wisdom, which leaves nothing
inordinate, which "reacheth from end to end mightily, and ordereth all
things sweetly" (Wis. 8:1).
Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The authority of the demons is not founded on their
justice, but on the justice of God ordering all things.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The concord of the demons, whereby some obey others, does
not arise from mutual friendships, but from their common wickedness
whereby they hate men, and fight against God's justice. For it belongs to
wicked men to be joined to and subject to those whom they see to be
stronger, in order to carry out their own wickedness.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The demons are not equal in nature; and so among them there
exists a natural precedence; which is not the case with men, who are
naturally equal. That the inferior are subject to the superior, is not
for the benefit of the superior, but rather to their detriment; because
since to do evil belongs in a pre-eminent degree to unhappiness, it
follows that to preside in evil is to be more unhappy.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether there is enlightenment in the demons?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that enlightenment is in the demons. For
enlightenment means the manifestation of the truth. But one demon can
manifest truth to another, because the superior excel in natural
knowledge. Therefore the superior demons can enlighten the inferior.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, a body abounding in light can enlighten a body deficient
in light, as the sun enlightens the moon. But the superior demons abound
in the participation of natural light. Therefore it seems that the
superior demons can enlighten the inferior.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Enlightenment is not without cleansing and perfecting,
as stated above (Q[106], A[1]). But to cleanse does not befit the demons,
according to the words: "What can be made clean by the unclean?" (Ecclus.
34:4). Therefore neither can they enlighten.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, There can be no enlightenment properly speaking among the
demons. For, as above explained (Q[107], A[2]), enlightenment properly
speaking is the manifestation of the truth in reference to God, Who
enlightens every intellect. Another kind of manifestation of the truth is
speech, as when one angel manifests his concept to another. Now the
demon's perversity does not lead one to order another to God, but rather
to lead away from the Divine order; and so one demon does not enlighten
another; but one can make known his mental concept to another by way of
speech.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Not every kind of manifestation of the truth is
enlightenment, but only that which is above described.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: According to what belongs to natural knowledge, there is no
necessary manifestation of the truth either in the angels, or in the
demons, because, as above explained (Q[55], A[2]; Q[58], A[2]; Q[79],
A[2]), they know from the first all that belongs to their natural
knowledge. So the greater fulness of natural light in the superior demons
does not prove that they can enlighten others.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the good angels have precedence over the bad angels?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the good angels have no precedence over the
bad angels. For the angels' precedence is especially connected with
enlightenment. But the bad angels, being darkness, are not enlightened by
the good angels. Therefore the good angels do not rule over the bad.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, superiors are responsible as regards negligence for the
evil deeds of their subjects. But the demons do much evil. Therefore if
they are subject to the good angels, it seems that negligence is to be
charged to the good angels; which cannot be admitted.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the angels' precedence follows upon the order of nature,
as above explained (A[2]). But if the demons fell from every order, as is
commonly said, many of the demons are superior to many good angels in the
natural order. Therefore the good angels have no precedence over all the
bad angels.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. iii), that "the treacherous
and sinful spirit of life is ruled by the rational, pious, and just
spirit of life"; and Gregory says (Hom. xxxiv) that "the Powers are the
angels to whose charge are subjected the hostile powers."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The whole order of precedence is first and originally in
God; and it is shared by creatures accordingly as they are the nearer to
God. For those creatures, which are more perfect and nearer to God, have
the power to act on others. Now the greatest perfection and that which
brings them nearest to God belongs to the creatures who enjoy God, as the
holy angels; of which perfection the demons are deprived; and therefore
the good angels have precedence over the bad, and these are ruled by them.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Many things concerning Divine mysteries are made known by
the holy angels to the bad angels, whenever the Divine justice requires
the demons to do anything for the punishment of the evil; or for the
trial of the good; as in human affairs the judge's assessors make known
his sentence to the executioners. This revelation, if compared to the
angelic revealers, can be called an enlightenment, forasmuch as they
direct it to God; but it is not an enlightenment on the part of the
demons, for these do not direct it to God; but to the fulfilment of their
own wickedness.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The holy angels are the ministers of the Divine wisdom.
Hence as the Divine wisdom permits some evil to be done by bad angels or
men, for the sake of the good that follows; so also the good angels do
not entirely restrain the bad from inflicting harm.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[109] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: An angel who is inferior in the natural order presides over
demons, although these may be naturally superior; because the power of
Divine justice to which the good angels cleave, is stronger than the
natural power of the angels. Hence likewise among men, "the spiritual man
judgeth all things" (1 Cor. 2:15), and the Philosopher says (Ethic. iii,
4; x, 5) that "the virtuous man is the rule and measure of all human
acts."





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