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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • FIRST PART (FP: QQ 1-119)
      • Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE ASSAULTS OF THE DEMONS (FIVE ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE ASSAULTS OF THE DEMONS (FIVE ARTICLES)

We now consider the assaults of the demons. Under this head there are
five points of inquiry:

(1) Whether men are assailed by the demons?

(2) Whether to tempt is proper to the devil?

(3) Whether all the sins of men are to be set down to the assaults or
temptations of the demons?

(4) Whether they can work real miracles for the purpose of leading men
astray?

(5) Whether the demons who are overcome by men, are hindered from making
further assaults?


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether men are assailed by the demons?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that men are not assailed by the demons. For angels
are sent by God to guard man. But demons are not sent by God: for the
demons' intention is the loss of souls; whereas God's is the salvation of
souls. Therefore demons are not deputed to assail man.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is not a fair fight, for the weak to be set against
the strong, and the ignorant against the astute. But men are weak and
ignorant, whereas the demons are strong and astute. It is not therefore
to be permitted by God, the author of all justice, that men should be
assailed by demons.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the assaults of the flesh and the world are enough for
man's exercise. But God permits His elect to be assailed that they may be
exercised. Therefore there is no need for them to be assailed by the
demons.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The Apostle says (Eph. 6:12): "Our wrestling is not
against flesh and blood; but against Principalities and Powers, against
the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirits of wickedness in the high places."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Two things may be considered in the assault of the
demons - the assault itself, and the ordering thereof. The assault itself
is due to the malice of the demons, who through envy endeavor to hinder
man's progress; and through pride usurp a semblance of Divine power, by
deputing certain ministers to assail man, as the angels of God in their
various offices minister to man's salvation. But the ordering of the
assault is from God, Who knows how to make orderly use of evil by
ordering it to good. On the other hand, in regard to the angels, both
their guardianship and the ordering thereof are to be referred to God as
their first author.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The wicked angels assail men in two ways. Firstly by
instigating them to sin; and thus they are not sent by God to assail us,
but are sometimes permitted to do so according to God's just judgments.
But sometimes their assault is a punishment to man: and thus they are
sent by God; as the lying spirit was sent to punish Achab, King of
Israel, as is related in 3 Kgs. 22:20. For punishment is referred to God
as its first author. Nevertheless the demons who are sent to punish, do
so with an intention other than that for which they are sent; for they
punish from hatred or envy; whereas they are sent by God on account of
His justice.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: In order that the conditions of the fight be not unequal,
there is as regards man the promised recompense, to be gained principally
through the grace of God, secondarily through the guardianship of the
angels. Wherefore (4 Kgs. 6:16), Eliseus said to his servant: "Fear not,
for there are more with us than with them."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The assault of the flesh and the world would suffice for
the exercise of human weakness: but it does not suffice for the demon's
malice, which makes use of both the above in assailing men. But by the
Divine ordinance this tends to the glory of the elect.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether to tempt is proper to the devil?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that to tempt is not proper to the devil. For God
is said to tempt, according to Gn. 22:1, "God tempted Abraham." Moreover
man is tempted by the flesh and the world. Again, man is said to tempt
God, and to tempt man. Therefore it is not proper to the devil to tempt.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, to tempt is a sign of ignorance. But the demons know
what happens among men. Therefore the demons do not tempt.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, temptation is the road to sin. Now sin dwells in the
will. Since therefore the demons cannot change man's will, as appears
from what has been said above (Q[111], A[2]), it seems that it is not in
their province to tempt.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written (1 Thess. 3:5): "Lest perhaps he that
tempteth should have tempted you": to which the gloss adds, "that is, the
devil, whose office it is to tempt."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Body Para. 1/4

I answer that, To tempt is, properly speaking, to make trial of
something. Now we make trial of something in order to know something
about it: hence the immediate end of every tempter is knowledge. But
sometimes another end, either good or bad, is sought to be acquired
through that knowledge; a good end, when, for instance, one desires to
know of someone, what sort of a man he is as to knowledge, or virtue,
with a view to his promotion; a bad end, when that knowledge is sought
with the purpose of deceiving or ruining him.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Body Para. 2/4

From this we can gather how various beings are said to tempt in various
ways. For man is said to tempt, sometimes indeed merely for the sake of
knowing something; and for this reason it is a sin to tempt God; for man,
being uncertain as it were, presumes to make an experiment of God's
power. Sometimes too he tempts in order to help, sometimes in order to
hurt. The devil, however, always tempts in order to hurt by urging man
into sin. In this sense it is said to be his proper office to tempt: for
thought at times man tempts thus, he does this as minister of the devil.
God is said to tempt that He may know, in the same sense as that is said
to know which makes others to know. Hence it is written (Dt. 13:3): "The
Lord your God trieth you, that it may appear whether you love him."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Body Para. 3/4

The flesh and the world are said to tempt as the instruments or matter
of temptations; inasmuch as one can know what sort of man someone is,
according as he follows or resists the desires of the flesh, and
according as he despises worldly advantages and adversity: of which
things the devil also makes use in tempting.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] Body Para. 4/4

Thus the reply to the first objection is clear.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The demons know what happens outwardly among men; but the
inward disposition of man God alone knows, Who is the "weigher of
spirits" (Prov. 16:2). It is this disposition that makes man more prone
to one vice than to another: hence the devil tempts, in order to explore
this inward disposition of man, so that he may tempt him to that vice to
which he is most prone.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Although a demon cannot change the will, yet, as stated
above (Q[111], A[3]), he can change the inferior powers of man, in a
certain degree: by which powers, though the will cannot be forced, it can
nevertheless be inclined.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether all sins are due to the temptation of the devil?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1
OBJ 1: It would seem that all sins are due to the temptation of the
devil. For Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv) that "the multitude of demons is
the cause of all evils, both to themselves and to others." And Damascene
says (De Fide Orth. ii, 4) that "all malice and all uncleanness have been
devised by the devil."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, of every sinner can be said what the Lord said of the
Jews (Jn. 8:44): "You are of your father the devil." But this was in as
far as they sinned through the devil's instigation. Therefore every sin
is due to the devil's instigation.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, as angels are deputed to guard men, so demons are
deputed to assail men. But every good thing we do is due to the
suggestion of the good angels: because the Divine gifts are borne to us
by the angels. Therefore all the evil we do, is due to the instigation of
the devil.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written (De Eccl. Dogmat. xlix): "Not all our
evil thoughts are stirred up by the devil, but sometimes they arise from
the movement of our free-will."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, One thing can be the cause of another in two ways;
directly and indirectly. Indirectly as when an agent is the cause of a
disposition to a certain effect, it is said to be the occasional and
indirect cause of that effect: for instance, we might say that he who
dries the wood is the cause of the wood burning. In this way we must
admit that the devil is the cause of all our sins; because he it was who
instigated the first man to sin, from whose sin there resulted a
proneness to sin in the whole human race: and in this sense we must take
the words of Damascene and Dionysius.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Body Para. 2/3

But a thing is said to be the direct cause of something, when its action
tends directly thereunto. And in this way the devil is not the cause of
every sin: for all sins are not committed at the devil's instigation, but
some are due to the free-will and the corruption of the flesh. For, as
Origen says (Peri Archon iii), even if there were no devil, men would
have the desire for food and love and such like pleasures; with regard to
which many disorders may arise unless those desires are curbed by reason,
especially if we presuppose the corruption of our natures. Now it is in
the power of the free-will to curb this appetite and keep it in order.
Consequently there is no need for all sins to be due to the instigation
of the devil. But those sins which are due thereto man perpetrates
"through being deceived by the same blandishments as were our first
parents," as Isidore says (De Summo Bono ii).

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] Body Para. 3/3

Thus the answer to the first objection is clear.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: When man commits sin without being thereto instigated by
the devil, he nevertheless becomes a child of the devil thereby, in so
far as he imitates him who was the first to sin.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Man can of his own accord fall into sin: but he cannot
advance in merit without the Divine assistance, which is borne to man by
the ministry of the angels. For this reason the angels take part in all
our good works: whereas all our sins are not due to the demons'
instigation. Nevertheless there is no kind of sin which is not sometimes
due to the demons' suggestion.


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether demons can lead men astray by means of real miracles?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the demons cannot lead men astray by means of
real miracles. For the activity of the demons will show itself especially
in the works of Antichrist. But as the Apostle says (2 Thess. 2:9), his
"coming is according to the working of Satan, in all power, and signs,
and lying wonders." Much more therefore at other times do the demons
perform lying wonders.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, true miracles are wrought by some corporeal change. But
demons are unable to change the nature of a body; for Augustine says (De
Civ. Dei xviii, 18): "I cannot believe that the human body can receive
the limbs of a beast by means of a demon's art or power." Therefore the
demons cannot work real miracles.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1
OBJ 3: Further, an argument is useless which may prove both ways. If
therefore real miracles can be wrought by demons, to persuade one of what
is false, they will be useless to confirm the teaching of the faith. This
is unfitting; for it is written (Mk. 16:20): "The Lord working withal,
and confirming the word with signs that followed."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine says (Q[83]; [*Lib. xxi, Sent. sent 4, among
the supposititious works of St. Augustine]): "Often by means of the magic
art miracles are wrought like those which are wrought by the servants of
God."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, As is clear from what has been said above (Q[110], A[4]),
if we take a miracle in the strict sense, the demons cannot work
miracles, nor can any creature, but God alone: since in the strict sense
a miracle is something done outside the order of the entire created
nature, under which order every power of a creature is contained. But
sometimes miracle may be taken in a wide sense, for whatever exceeds the
human power and experience. And thus demons can work miracles, that is,
things which rouse man's astonishment, by reason of their being beyond
his power and outside his sphere of knowledge. For even a man by doing
what is beyond the power and knowledge of another, leads him to marvel at
what he has done, so that in a way he seems to that man to have worked a
miracle.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Body Para. 2/2

It is to be noted, however, that although these works of demons which
appear marvelous to us are not real miracles, they are sometimes
nevertheless something real. Thus the magicians of Pharaoh by the demons'
power produced real serpents and frogs. And "when fire came down from
heaven and at one blow consumed Job's servants and sheep; when the storm
struck down his house and with it his children - these were the work of
Satan, not phantoms"; as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 19).

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: As Augustine says in the same place, the works of
Antichrist may be called lying wonders, "either because he will deceive
men's senses by means of phantoms, so that he will not really do what he will seem to do; or because, if he work real prodigies, they will lead
those into falsehood who believe in him."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 2: As we have said above (Q[110], A[2]), corporeal matter does
not obey either good or bad angels at their will, so that demons be able
by their power to transmute matter from one form to another; but they can
employ certain seeds that exist in the elements of the world, in order to
produce these effects, as Augustine says (De Trin. iii, 8,9). Therefore
it must be admitted that all the transformation of corporeal things which
can be produced by certain natural powers, to which we must assign the
seeds above mentioned, can alike be produced by the operation of the
demons, by the employment of these seeds; such as the transformation of
certain things into serpents or frogs, which can be produced by
putrefaction. On the contrary, those transformations which cannot be
produced by the power of nature, cannot in reality be effected by the
operation of the demons; for instance, that the human body be changed
into the body of a beast, or that the body of a dead man return to life.
And if at times something of this sort seems to be effected by the
operation of demons, it is not real but a mere semblance of reality.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 2/2

Now this may happen in two ways. Firstly, from within; in this way a
demon can work on man's imagination and even on his corporeal senses, so
that something seems otherwise that it is, as explained above (Q[111],
AA[3],4). It is said indeed that this can be done sometimes by the power
of certain bodies. Secondly, from without: for just as he can from the
air form a body of any form and shape, and assume it so as to appear in
it visibly: so, in the same way he can clothe any corporeal thing with
any corporeal form, so as to appear therein. This is what Augustine says
(De Civ. Dei xviii, 18): "Man's imagination, which whether thinking or
dreaming, takes the forms of an innumerable number of things, appears to
other men's senses, as it were embodied in the semblance of some animal."
This not to be understood as though the imagination itself or the images
formed therein were identified with that which appears embodied to the
senses of another man: but that the demon, who forms an image in a man's
imagination, can offer the same picture to another man's senses.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: As Augustine says (QQ. 83, qu. 79): "When magicians do what
holy men do, they do it for a different end and by a different right. The
former do it for their own glory; the latter, for the glory of God: the
former, by certain private compacts; the latter by the evident assistance
and command of God, to Whom every creature is subject."


Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether a demon who is overcome by man, is for this reason hindered from
making further assaults?

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that a demon who is overcome by a man, is not for
that reason hindered from any further assault. For Christ overcame the
tempter most effectively. Yet afterwards the demon assailed Him by
instigating the Jews to kill Him. Therefore it is not true that the devil
when conquered ceases his assaults.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, to inflict punishment on one who has been worsted in a
fight, is to incite him to a sharper attack. But this is not befitting
God's mercy. Therefore the conquered demons are not prevented from
further assaults.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written (Mt. 4:11): "Then the devil left Him,"
i.e. Christ Who overcame.

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Some say that when once a demon has been overcome he can
no more tempt any man at all, neither to the same nor to any other sin.
And others say that he can tempt others, but not the same man. This seems
more probable as long as we understand it to be so for a certain
definite time: wherefore (Lk. 4:13) it is written: "All temptation being
ended, the devil departed from Him for a time." There are two reasons for
this. One is on the part of God's clemency; for as Chrysostom says (Super
Matt. Hom. v) [*In the Opus Imperfectum, among his supposititious works],
"the devil does not tempt man for just as long as he likes, but for as
long as God allows; for although He allows him to tempt for a short time,
He orders him off on account of our weakness." The other reason is taken
from the astuteness of the devil. As to this, Ambrose says on Lk. 4:13:
"The devil is afraid of persisting, because he shrinks from frequent
defeat." That the devil does nevertheless sometimes return to the
assault, is apparent from Mt. 12:44: "I will return into my house from
whence I came out."

Aquin.: SMT FP Q[114] A[4] Body Para. 2/2

From what has been said, the objections can easily be solved.





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