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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • SECOND PART
    • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[1] Out. Para. 1/4 - SECOND PART OF THE SECOND PART (SS) (QQ[1]-189)
      • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE GIFT OF FEAR (TWELVE ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE GIFT OF FEAR (TWELVE ARTICLES)

We must now consider the gift of fear, about which there are twelve
points of inquiry:

(1) Whether God is to be feared?

(2) Of the division of fear into filial, initial, servile and worldly;

(3) Whether worldly fear is always evil?

(4) Whether servile fear is good?

(5) Whether it is substantially the same as filial fear?

(6) Whether servile fear departs when charity comes?

(7) Whether fear is the beginning of wisdom?

(8) Whether initial fear is substantially the same as filial fear?

(9) Whether fear is a gift of the Holy Ghost?

(10) Whether it grows when charity grows?

(11) Whether it remains in heaven?

(12) Which of the beatitudes and fruits correspond to it?


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether God can be feared?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that God cannot be feared. For the object of fear
is a future evil, as stated above (FS, Q[41], AA[2],3). But God is free
of all evil, since He is goodness itself. Therefore God cannot be feared.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, fear is opposed to hope. Now we hope in God. Therefore
we cannot fear Him at the same time.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, as the Philosopher states (Rhet. ii, 5), "we fear those
things whence evil comes to us." But evil comes to us, not from God, but
from ourselves, according to Osee 13:9: "Destruction is thy own, O
Israel: thy help is . . . in Me." Therefore God is not to be feared.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written (Jer. 10:7): "Who shall not fear Thee, O
King of nations?" and (Malachi 1:6): "If I be a master, where is My fear?"

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Just as hope has two objects, one of which is the future
good itself, that one expects to obtain, while the other is someone's
help, through whom one expects to obtain what one hopes for, so, too,
fear may have two objects, one of which is the very evil which a man
shrinks from, while the other is that from which the evil may come.
Accordingly, in the first way God, Who is goodness itself, cannot be an
object of fear; but He can be an object of fear in the second way, in so
far as there may come to us some evil either from Him or in relation to
Him.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Body Para. 2/3

From Him there comes the evil of punishment, but this is evil not
absolutely but relatively, and, absolutely speaking, is a good. Because,
since a thing is said to be good through being ordered to an end, while
evil implies lack of this order, that which excludes the order to the
last end is altogether evil, and such is the evil of fault. On the other
hand the evil of punishment is indeed an evil, in so far as it is the
privation of some particular good, yet absolutely speaking, it is a good,
in so far as it is ordained to the last end.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] Body Para. 3/3

In relation to God the evil of fault can come to us, if we be separated
from Him: and in this way God can and ought to be feared.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This objection considers the object of fear as being the
evil which a man shuns.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: In God, we may consider both His justice, in respect of
which He punishes those who sin, and His mercy, in respect of which He
sets us free: in us the consideration of His justice gives rise to fear,
but the consideration of His mercy gives rise to hope, so that,
accordingly, God is the object of both hope and fear, but under different
aspects.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The evil of fault is not from God as its author but from
us, in for far as we forsake God: while the evil of punishment is from
God as its author, in so far as it has character of a good, since it is
something just, through being inflicted on us justly; although originally
this is due to the demerit of sin: thus it is written (Wis. 1:13,16):
"God made not death . . . but the wicked with works and words have called
it to them."


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether fear is fittingly divided into filial, initial, servile and
worldly fear?
Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that fear is unfittingly divided into filial,
initial, servile and worldly fear. For Damascene says (De Fide Orth. ii,
15) that there are six kinds of fear, viz. "laziness, shamefacedness,"
etc. of which we have treated above (FS, Q[41], A[4]), and which are not
mentioned in the division in question. Therefore this division of fear
seems unfitting.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, each of these fears is either good or evil. But there is
a fear, viz. natural fear, which is neither morally good, since it is in
the demons, according to James 2:19, "The devils . . . believe and
tremble," nor evil, since it is in Christ, according to Mk. 14:33, Jesus
"began to fear and be heavy." Therefore the aforesaid division of fear is
insufficient.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the relation of son to father differs from that of wife
to husband, and this again from that of servant to master. Now filial
fear, which is that of the son in comparison with his father, is distinct
from servile fear, which is that of the servant in comparison with his
master. Therefore chaste fear, which seems to be that of the wife in
comparison with her husband, ought to be distinguished from all these
other fears.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, even as servile fear fears punishment, so do initial and
worldly fear. Therefore no distinction should be made between them.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, even as concupiscence is about some good, so is fear
about some evil. Now "concupiscence of the eyes," which is the desire for
things of this world, is distinct from "concupiscence of the flesh,"
which is the desire for one's own pleasure. Therefore "worldly fear,"
whereby one fears to lose external goods, is distinct from "human fear,"
whereby one fears harm to one's own person.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary stands the authority of the Master (Sent. iii, D, 34).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, We are speaking of fear now, in so far as it makes us
turn, so to speak, to God or away from Him. For, since the object of fear
is an evil, sometimes, on account of the evils he fears, man withdraws
from God, and this is called human fear; while sometimes, on account of
the evils he fears, he turns to God and adheres to Him. This latter evil
is twofold, viz. evil of punishment, and evil of fault.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] Body Para. 2/2

Accordingly if a man turn to God and adhere to Him, through fear of
punishment, it will be servile fear; but if it be on account of fear of
committing a fault, it will be filial fear, for it becomes a child to
fear offending its father. If, however, it be on account of both, it will
be initial fear, which is between both these fears. As to whether it is
possible to fear the evil of fault, the question has been treated above
(FS, Q[42], A[3]) when we were considering the passion of fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Damascene divides fear as a passion of the soul: whereas
this division of fear is taken from its relation to God, as explained
above.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Moral good consists chiefly in turning to God, while moral
evil consists chiefly in turning away from Him: wherefore all the fears
mentioned above imply either moral evil or moral good. Now natural fear
is presupposed to moral good and evil, and so it is not numbered among
these kinds of fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The relation of servant to master is based on the power
which the master exercises over the servant; whereas, on the contrary,
the relation of a son to his father or of a wife to her husband is based
on the son's affection towards his father to whom he submits himself, or
on the wife's affection towards her husband to whom she binds herself in
the union of love. Hence filial and chaste fear amount to the same,
because by the love of charity God becomes our Father, according to Rm.
8:15, "You have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry:
Abba [Father]"; and by this same charity He is called our spouse,
according to 2 Cor. 11:2, "I have espoused you to one husband, that I may
present you as a chaste virgin to Christ": whereas servile fear has no
connection with these, since it does not include charity in its
definition.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: These three fears regard punishment but in different ways.
For worldly or human fear regards a punishment which turns man away from
God, and which God's enemies sometimes inflict or threaten: whereas
servile and initial fear regard a punishment whereby men are drawn to
God, and which is inflicted or threatened by God. Servile fear regards
this punishment chiefly, while initial fear regards it secondarily.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[2] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: It amounts to the same whether man turns away from God
through fear of losing his worldly goods, or through fear of forfeiting
the well-being of his body, since external goods belong to the body.
Hence both these fears are reckoned as one here, although they fear
different evils, even as they correspond to the desire of different
goods. This diversity causes a specific diversity of sins, all of which
alike however lead man away from God.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether worldly fear is always evil?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that worldly fear is not always evil. Because
regard for men seems to be a kind of human fear. Now some are blamed for
having no regard for man, for instance, the unjust judge of whom we read
(Lk. 18:2) that he "feared not God, nor regarded man." Therefore it seems
that worldly fear is not always evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, worldly fear seems to have reference to the punishments
inflicted by the secular power. Now such like punishments incite us to
good actions, according to Rm. 13:3, "Wilt thou not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise from the same."
Therefore worldly fear is not always evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, it seems that what is in us naturally, is not evil,
since our natural gifts are from God. Now it is natural to man to fear
detriment to his body, and loss of his worldly goods, whereby the present
life is supported. Therefore it seems that worldly fear is not always
evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Our Lord said (Mt. 10:28): "Fear ye not them that kill
the body," thus forbidding worldly fear. Now nothing but what is evil is
forbidden by God. Therefore worldly fear is evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As shown above (FS, Q[1], A[3]; FS, Q[18], A[1]; FS,
Q[54], A[2]) moral acts and habits take their name and species from their
objects. Now the proper object of the appetite's movement is the final
good: so that, in consequence, every appetitive movement is both
specified and named from its proper end. For if anyone were to describe
covetousness as love of work because men work on account of covetousness,
this description would be incorrect, since the covetous man seeks work
not as end but as a means: the end that he seeks is wealth, wherefore
covetousness is rightly described as the desire or the love of wealth,
and this is evil. Accordingly worldly love is, properly speaking, the
love whereby a man trusts in the world as his end, so that worldly love
is always evil. Now fear is born of love, since man fears the loss of
what he loves, as Augustine states (Qq. lxxxiii, qu. 33). Now worldly
fear is that which arises from worldly love as from an evil root, for
which reason worldly fear is always evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: One may have regard for men in two ways. First in so far as
there is in them something divine, for instance, the good of grace or of
virtue, or at least of the natural image of God: and in this way those
are blamed who have no regard for man. Secondly, one may have regard for
men as being in opposition to God, and thus it is praiseworthy to have no
regard for men, according as we read of Elias or Eliseus (Ecclus. 48:13):
"In his days he feared not the prince."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: When the secular power inflicts punishment in order to
withdraw men from sin, it is acting as God's minister, according to Rm.
13:4, "For he is God's minister, an avenger to execute wrath upon him
that doth evil." To fear the secular power in this way is part, not of
worldly fear, but of servile or initial fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: It is natural for man to shrink from detriment to his own
body and loss of worldly goods, but to forsake justice on that account is
contrary to natural reason. Hence the Philosopher says (Ethic. iii, 1)
that there are certain things, viz. sinful deeds, which no fear should
drive us to do, since to do such things is worse than to suffer any
punishment whatever.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether servile fear is good?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that servile fear is not good. For if the use of a
thing is evil, the thing itself is evil. Now the use of servile fear is
evil, for according to a gloss on Rm. 8:15, "if a man do anything through
fear, although the deed be good, it is not well done." Therefore servile
fear is not good.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, no good grows from a sinful root. Now servile fear grows
from a sinful root, because when commenting on Job 3:11, "Why did I not
die in the womb?" Gregory says (Moral. iv, 25): "When a man dreads the
punishment which confronts him for his sin and no longer loves the
friendship of God which he has lost, his fear is born of pride, not of
humility." Therefore servile fear is evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, just as mercenary love is opposed to the love of
charity, so is servile fear, apparently, opposed to chaste fear. But
mercenary love is always evil. Therefore servile fear is also.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Nothing evil is from the Holy Ghost. But servile fear
is from the Holy Ghost, since a gloss on Rm. 8:15, "You have not received
the spirit of bondage," etc. says: "It is the one same spirit that
bestows two fears, viz. servile and chaste fear." Therefore servile fear
is not evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, It is owing to its servility that servile fear may be
evil. For servitude is opposed to freedom. Since, then, "what is free is
cause of itself" (Metaph. i, 2), a slave is one who does not act as cause
of his own action, but as though moved from without. Now whoever does a
thing through love, does it of himself so to speak, because it is by his
own inclination that he is moved to act: so that it is contrary to the
very notion of servility that one should act from love. Consequently
servile fear as such is contrary to charity: so that if servility were
essential to fear, servile fear would be evil simply, even as adultery is
evil simply, because that which makes it contrary to charity belongs to
its very species.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] Body Para. 2/2

This servility, however, does not belong to the species of servile fear,
even as neither does lifelessness to the species of lifeless faith. For
the species of a moral habit or act is taken from the object. Now the
object of servile fear is punishment, and it is by accident that, either
the good to which the punishment is contrary, is loved as the last end,
and that consequently the punishment is feared as the greatest evil,
which is the case with one who is devoid of charity, or that the
punishment is directed to God as its end, and that, consequently, it is
not feared as the greatest evil, which is the case with one who has
charity. For the species of a habit is not destroyed through its object
or end being directed to a further end. Consequently servile fear is
substantially good, but is servility is evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This saying of Augustine is to be applied to a man who does
something through servile fear as such, so that he loves not justice, and
fears nothing but the punishment.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Servile fear as to its substance is not born of pride, but
its servility is, inasmuch as man is unwilling, by love, to subject his
affections to the yoke of justice.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Mercenary love is that whereby God is loved for the sake of
worldly goods, and this is, of itself, contrary to charity, so that
mercenary love is always evil. But servile fear, as to its substance,
implies merely fear of punishment, whether or not this be feared as the
principal evil.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether servile fear is substantially the same as filial fear?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that servile fear is substantially the same as
filial fear. For filial fear is to servile fear the same apparently as
living faith is to lifeless faith, since the one is accompanied by mortal
sin and the other not. Now living faith and lifeless faith are
substantially the same. Therefore servile and filial fear are
substantially the same.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, habits are diversified by their objects. Now the same
thing is the object of servile and of filial fear, since they both fear
God. Therefore servile and filial fear are substantially the same.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, just as man hopes to enjoy God and to obtain favors from
Him, so does he fear to be separated from God and to be punished by Him.
Now it is the same hope whereby we hope to enjoy God, and to receive
other favors from Him, as stated above (Q[17], A[2], ad 2). Therefore
filial fear, whereby we fear separation from God, is the same as servile
fear whereby we fear His punishments.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine (In prim. canon. Joan. Tract. ix) says that
there are two fears, one servile, another filial or chaste fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, The proper object of fear is evil. And since acts and
habits are diversified by their objects, as shown above (FS, Q[54], A[2]
), it follows of necessity that different kinds of fear correspond to
different kinds of evil.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] Body Para. 2/2

Now the evil of punishment, from which servile fear shrinks, differs
specifically from evil of fault, which filial fear shuns, as shown above
(A[2]). Hence it is evident that servile and filial fear are not the same
substantially but differ specifically.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Living and lifeless faith differ, not as regards the
object, since each of them believes God and believes in a God, but in
respect of something extrinsic, viz. the presence or absence of charity,
and so they do not differ substantially. On the other hand, servile and
filial fear differ as to their objects: and hence the comparison fails.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Servile fear and filial fear do not regard God in the same
light. For servile fear looks upon God as the cause of the infliction of
punishment, whereas filial fear looks upon Him, not as the active cause
of guilt, but rather as the term wherefrom it shrinks to be separated by
guilt. Consequently the identity of object, viz. God, does not prove a
specific identity of fear, since also natural movements differ
specifically according to their different relationships to some one term,
for movement from whiteness is not specifically the same as movement
towards whiteness.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[5] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Hope looks upon God as the principle not only of the
enjoyment of God, but also of any other favor whatever. This cannot be
said of fear; and so there is no comparison.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether servile fear remains with charity?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that servile fear does not remain with charity. For
Augustine says (In prim. canon. Joan. Tract. ix) that "when charity takes
up its abode, it drives away fear which had prepared a place for it."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by
the Holy Ghost, Who is given to us" (Rm. 5:5). Now "where the Spirit of
the Lord is, there is liberty" (2 Cor. 3:17). Since then freedom excludes
servitude, it seems that servile fear is driven away when charity comes.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, servile fear is caused by self-love, in so far as
punishment diminishes one's own good. Now love of God drives away
self-love, for it makes us despise ourselves: thus Augustine testifies
(De Civ. Dei xiv, 28) that "the love of God unto the contempt of self
builds up the city of God." Therefore it seems that servile fear is
driven out when charity comes.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Servile fear is a gift of the Holy Ghost, as stated
above (A[4]). Now the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not forfeited through
the advent of charity, whereby the Holy Ghost dwells in us. Therefore
servile fear is not driven out when charity comes.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Servile fear proceeds from self-love, because it is fear
of punishment which is detrimental to one's own good. Hence the fear of
punishment is consistent with charity, in the same way as self-love is:
because it comes to the same that a man love his own good and that he
fear to be deprived of it.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Body Para. 2/3

Now self-love may stand in a threefold relationship to charity. In one
way it is contrary to charity, when a man places his end in the love of
his own good. In another way it is included in charity, when a man loves
himself for the sake of God and in God. In a third way, it is indeed
distinct from charity, but is not contrary thereto, as when a man loves
himself from the point of view of his own good, yet not so as to place
his end in this his own good: even as one may have another special love
for one's neighbor, besides the love of charity which is founded on God,
when we love him by reason of usefulness, consanguinity, or some other
human consideration, which, however, is referable to charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] Body Para. 3/3

Accordingly fear of punishment is, in one way, included in charity,
because separation from God is a punishment, which charity shuns
exceedingly; so that this belongs to chaste fear. In another way, it is
contrary to charity, when a man shrinks from the punishment that is
opposed to his natural good, as being the principal evil in opposition to
the good which he loves as an end; and in this way fear of punishment is
not consistent with charity. In another way fear of punishment is indeed
substantially distinct from chaste fear, when, to wit, a man fears a
penal evil, not because it separates him from God, but because it is
hurtful to his own good, and yet he does not place his end in this good,
so that neither does he dread this evil as being the principal evil. Such
fear of punishment is consistent with charity; but it is not called
servile, except when punishment is dreaded as a principal evil, as
explained above (AA[2],4). Hence fear considered as servile, does not
remain with charity, but the substance of servile fear can remain with
charity, even as self-love can remain with charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[6] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Augustine is speaking of fear considered as servile: and
such is the sense of the two other objections.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether fear is the beginning of wisdom?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that fear is not the beginning of wisdom. For the
beginning of a thing is a part thereof. But fear is not a part of
wisdom, since fear is seated in the appetitive faculty, while wisdom is
in the intellect. Therefore it seems that fear is not the beginning of
wisdom.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, nothing is the beginning of itself. "Now fear of the
Lord, that is wisdom," according to Job 28:28. Therefore it seems that
fear of God is not the beginning of wisdom.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, nothing is prior to the beginning. But something is
prior to fear, since faith precedes fear. Therefore it seems that fear is
not the beginning of wisdom.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written in the Ps. 110:10: "The fear of the Lord
is the beginning of wisdom."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, A thing may be called the beginning of wisdom in two
ways: in one way because it is the beginning of wisdom itself as to its
essence; in another way, as to its effect. Thus the beginning of an art
as to its essence consists in the principles from which that art
proceeds, while the beginning of an art as to its effect is that
wherefrom it begins to operate: for instance we might say that the
beginning of the art of building is the foundation because that is where
the builder begins his work.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] Body Para. 2/2

Now, since wisdom is the knowledge of Divine things, as we shall state
further on (Q[45], A[1]), it is considered by us in one way, and in
another way by philosophers. For, seeing that our life is ordained to the
enjoyment of God, and is directed thereto according to a participation of
the Divine Nature, conferred on us through grace, wisdom, as we look at
it, is considered not only as being cognizant of God, as it is with the
philosophers, but also as directing human conduct; since this is directed
not only by the human law, but also by the Divine law, as Augustine shows
(De Trin. xii, 14). Accordingly the beginning of wisdom as to its essence
consists in the first principles of wisdom, i.e. the articles of faith,
and in this sense faith is said to be the beginning of wisdom. But as
regards the effect, the beginning of wisdom is the point where wisdom
begins to work, and in this way fear is the beginning of wisdom, yet
servile fear in one way, and filial fear, in another. For servile fear is
like a principle disposing a man to wisdom from without, in so far as he
refrains from sin through fear of punishment, and is thus fashioned for
the effect of wisdom, according to Ecclus. 1:27, "The fear of the Lord
driveth out sin." On the other hand, chaste or filial fear is the
beginning of wisdom, as being the first effect of wisdom. For since the
regulation of human conduct by the Divine law belongs to wisdom, in order
to make a beginning, man must first of all fear God and submit himself to
Him: for the result will be that in all things he will be ruled by God.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This argument proves that fear is not the beginning of
wisdom as to the essence of wisdom.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The fear of God is compared to a man's whole life that is
ruled by God's wisdom, as the root to the tree: hence it is written
(Ecclus. 1:25): "The root of wisdom is to fear the Lord, for [Vulg.:
'and'] the branches thereof are longlived." Consequently, as the root is
said to be virtually the tree, so the fear of God is said to be wisdom.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[7] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: As stated above, faith is the beginning of wisdom in one
way, and fear, in another. Hence it is written (Ecclus. 25:16): "The fear
of God is the beginning of love: and the beginning of faith is to be fast
joined to it."


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether initial fear differs substantially from filial fear?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that initial fear differs substantially from filial
fear. For filial fear is caused by love. Now initial fear is the
beginning of love, according to Ecclus. 25:16, "The fear of God is the
beginning of love." Therefore initial fear is distinct from filial fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, initial fear dreads punishment, which is the object of
servile fear, so that initial and servile fear would seem to be the same.
But servile fear is distinct from filial fear. Therefore initial fear
also is substantially distinct from initial fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, a mean differs in the same ratio from both the extremes.
Now initial fear is the mean between servile and filial fear. Therefore
it differs from both filial and servile fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Perfect and imperfect do not diversify the substance of
a thing. Now initial and filial fear differ in respect of perfection and
imperfection of charity, as Augustine states (In prim. canon. Joan.
Tract. ix). Therefore initial fear does not differ substantially from
filial fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Initial fear is so called because it is a beginning
[initium]. Since, however, both servile and filial fear are, in some way,
the beginning of wisdom, each may be called in some way, initial.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] Body Para. 2/2

It is not in this sense, however, that we are to understand initial fear
in so far as it is distinct from servile and filial fear, but in the
sense according to which it belongs to the state of beginners, in whom
there is a beginning of filial fear resulting from a beginning of
charity, although they do not possess the perfection of filial fear,
because they have not yet attained to the perfection of charity.
Consequently initial fear stands in the same relation to filial fear as
imperfect to perfect charity. Now perfect and imperfect charity differ,
not as to essence but as to state. Therefore we must conclude that
initial fear, as we understand it here, does not differ essentially from
filial fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The fear which is a beginning of love is servile fear,
which is the herald of charity, just as the bristle introduces the
thread, as Augustine states (Tract. ix in Ep. i Joan.). Or else, if it be
referred to initial fear, this is said to be the beginning of love, not
absolutely, but relatively to the state of perfect charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Initial fear does not dread punishment as its proper
object, but as having something of servile fear connected with it: for
this servile fear, as to its substance, remains indeed, with charity, its
servility being cast aside; whereas its act remains with imperfect
charity in the man who is moved to perform good actions not only through
love of justice, but also through fear of punishment, though this same
act ceases in the man who has perfect charity, which "casteth out fear,"
according to 1 Jn. 4:18.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[8] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Initial fear is a mean between servile and filial fear, not
as between two things of the same genus, but as the imperfect is a mean
between a perfect being and a non-being, as stated in Metaph. ii, for it
is the same substantially as the perfect being, while it differs
altogether from non-being.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether fear is a gift of the Holy Ghost?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that fear is not a gift of the Holy Ghost. For no
gift of the Holy Ghost is opposed to a virtue, which is also from the
Holy Ghost; else the Holy Ghost would be in opposition to Himself. Now
fear is opposed to hope, which is a virtue. Therefore fear is not a gift
of the Holy Ghost.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is proper to a theological virtue to have God for its
object. But fear has God for its object, in so far as God is feared.
Therefore fear is not a gift, but a theological virtue.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, fear arises from love. But love is reckoned a
theological virtue. Therefore fear also is a theological virtue, being
connected with the same matter, as it were.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, Gregory says (Moral. ii, 49) that "fear is bestowed as a
remedy against pride." But the virtue of humility is opposed to pride.
Therefore again, fear is a kind of virtue.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, the gifts are more perfect than the virtues, since they
are bestowed in support of the virtues as Gregory says (Moral. ii, 49).
Now hope is more perfect than fear, since hope regards good, while fear
regards evil. Since, then, hope is a virtue, it should not be said that
fear is a gift.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The fear of the Lord is numbered among the seven gifts
of the Holy Ghost (Is. 11:3).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Fear is of several kinds, as stated above (A[2]). Now it
is not "human fear," according to Augustine (De Gratia et Lib. Arb.
xviii), "that is a gift of God" - for it was by this fear that Peter
denied Christ - but that fear of which it was said (Mt. 10:28): "Fear Him
that can destroy both soul and body into hell."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Body Para. 2/3

Again servile fear is not to be reckoned among the seven gifts of the
Holy Ghost, though it is from Him, because according to Augustine (De
Nat. et Grat. lvii) it is compatible with the will to sin: whereas the
gifts of the Holy Ghost are incompatible with the will to sin, as they
are inseparable from charity, as stated above (FS, Q[68], A[5]).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] Body Para. 3/3

It follows, therefore, that the fear of God, which is numbered among the
seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, is filial or chaste fear. For it was
stated above (FS, Q[68], AA[1],3) that the gifts of the Holy Ghost are
certain habitual perfections of the soul's powers, whereby these are
rendered amenable to the motion of the Holy Ghost, just as, by the moral
virtues, the appetitive powers are rendered amenable to the motion of
reason. Now for a thing to be amenable to the motion of a certain mover,
the first condition required is that it be a non-resistant subject of
that mover, because resistance of the movable subject to the mover
hinders the movement. This is what filial or chaste fear does, since
thereby we revere God and avoid separating ourselves from Him. Hence,
according to Augustine (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4) filial fear holds
the first place, as it were, among the gifts of the Holy Ghost, in the
ascending order, and the last place, in the descending order.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Filial fear is not opposed to the virtue of hope: since
thereby we fear, not that we may fail of what we hope to obtain by God's
help, but lest we withdraw ourselves from this help. Wherefore filial
fear and hope cling together, and perfect one another.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The proper and principal object of fear is the evil
shunned, and in this way, as stated above (A[1]), God cannot be an object
of fear. Yet He is, in this way, the object of hope and the other
theological virtues, since, by the virtue of hope, we trust in God's
help, not only to obtain any other goods, but, chiefly, to obtain God
Himself, as the principal good. The same evidently applies to the other
theological virtues.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: From the fact that love is the origin of fear, it does not
follow that the fear of God is not a distinct habit from charity which is
the love of God, since love is the origin of all the emotions, and yet we
are perfected by different habits in respect of different emotions. Yet
love is more of a virtue than fear is, because love regards good, to
which virtue is principally directed by reason of its own nature, as was
shown above (FS, Q[55], AA[3],4); for which reason hope is also reckoned
as a virtue; whereas fear principally regards evil, the avoidance of
which it denotes, wherefore it is something less than a theological
virtue.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] R.O. 4 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 4: According to Ecclus. 10:14, "the beginning of the pride of
man is to fall off from God," that is to refuse submission to God, and
this is opposed to filial fear, which reveres God. Thus fear cuts off the
source of pride for which reason it is bestowed as a remedy against
pride. Yet it does not follow that it is the same as the virtue of
humility, but that it is its origin. For the gifts of the Holy Ghost are
the origin of the intellectual and moral virtues, as stated above (FS,
Q[68], A[4]), while the theological virtues are the origin of the gifts,
as stated above (FS, Q[69], A[4], ad 3).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[9] R.O. 4 Para. 2/2

This suffices for the Reply to the Fifth Objection.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether fear decreases when charity increases?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It seems that fear decreases when charity increases. For
Augustine says (In prim. canon. Joan. Tract. ix): "The more charity
increases, the more fear decreases."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, fear decreases when hope increases. But charity
increases when hope increases, as stated above (Q[17], A[8]). Therefore
fear decreases when charity increases.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, love implies union, whereas fear implies separation. Now
separation decreases when union increases. Therefore fear decreases when
the love of charity increases.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine says (Qq. lxxxiii, qu. 36) that "the fear of
God not only begins but also perfects wisdom, whereby we love God above
all things, and our neighbor as ourselves."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Fear is twofold, as stated above (AA[2],4); one is filial
fear, whereby a son fears to offend his father or to be separated from
him; the other is servile fear, whereby one fears punishment.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Body Para. 2/3

Now filial fear must needs increase when charity increases, even as an
effect increases with the increase of its cause. For the more one loves a
man, the more one fears to offend him and to be separated from him.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] Body Para. 3/3

On the other hand servile fear, as regards its servility, is entirely
cast out when charity comes, although the fear of punishment remains as
to its substance, as stated above (A[6]). This fear decreases as charity
increases, chiefly as regards its act, since the more a man loves God,
the less he fears punishment; first, because he thinks less of his own
good, to which punishment is opposed; secondly, because, the faster he
clings, the more confident he is of the reward, and, consequently the
less fearful of punishment.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Augustine speaks there of the fear of punishment.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: It is fear of punishment that decreases when hope
increases; but with the increase of the latter filial fear increases,
because the more certainly a man expects to obtain a good by another's
help, the more he fears to offend him or to be separated from him.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[10] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Filial fear does not imply separation from God, but
submission to Him, and shuns separation from that submission. Yet, in a
way, it implies separation, in the point of not presuming to equal
oneself to Him, and of submitting to Him, which separation is to be
observed even in charity, in so far as a man loves God more than himself
and more than aught else. Hence the increase of the love of charity
implies not a decrease but an increase in the reverence of fear.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether fear remains in heaven?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that fear does not remain in heaven. For it is
written (Prov. 1:33): "He . . . shall enjoy abundance, without fear of
evils," which is to be understood as referring to those who already enjoy
wisdom in everlasting happiness. Now every fear is about some evil, since
evil is the object of fear, as stated above (AA[2],5; FS, Q[42], A[1]).
Therefore there will be no fear in heaven.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, in heaven men will be conformed to God, according to 1
Jn. 3:2, "When He shall appear, we shall be like to Him." But God fears
nothing. Therefore, in heaven, men will have no fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, hope is more perfect than fear, since hope regards good,
and fear, evil. Now hope will not be in heaven. Therefore neither will
there be fear in heaven.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, It is written (Ps. 18:10): "The fear of the Lord is
holy, enduring for ever and ever."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Servile fear, or fear of punishment, will by no means be
in heaven, since such a fear is excluded by the security which is
essential to everlasting happiness, as stated above (FS, Q[5], A[4]).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Body Para. 2/3

But regard to filial fear, as it increases with the increase of charity,
so is it perfected when charity is made perfect; hence, in heaven, it
will not have quite the same act as it has now.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] Body Para. 3/3

In order to make this clear, we must observe that the proper object of
fear is a possible evil, just as the proper object of hope is a possible
good: and since the movement of fear is like one of avoidance, fear
implies avoidance of a possible arduous evil, for little evils inspire no
fear. Now as a thing's good consists in its staying in its own order, so
a thing's evil consists in forsaking its order. Again, the order of a
rational creature is that it should be under God and above other
creatures. Hence, just as it is an evil for a rational creature to
submit, by love, to a lower creature, so too is it an evil for it, if it
submit not to God, by presumptuously revolt against Him or contemn Him.
Now this evil is possible to a rational creature considered as to its
nature on account of the natural flexibility of the free-will; whereas in
the blessed, it becomes impossible, by reason of the perfection of glory.
Therefore the avoidance of this evil that consists in non-subjection to
God, and is possible to nature, but impossible in the state of bliss,
will be in heaven; while in this life there is avoidance of this evil as
of something altogether possible. Hence Gregory, expounding the words of
Job (26:11), "The pillars of heaven tremble, and dread at His beck," says
(Moral. xvii, 29): "The heavenly powers that gaze on Him without ceasing,
tremble while contemplating: but their awe, lest it should be of a penal
nature, is one not of fear but of wonder," because, to wit, they wonder
at God's supereminence and incomprehensibility. Augustine also (De Civ.
Dei xiv, 9) in this sense, admits fear in heaven, although he leaves the
question doubtful. "If," he says, "this chaste fear that endureth for
ever and ever is to be in the future life, it will not be a fear that is
afraid of an evil which might possibly occur, but a fear that holds fast
to a good which we cannot lose. For when we love the good which we have
acquired, with an unchangeable love, without doubt, if it is allowable to
say so, our fear is sure of avoiding evil. Because chaste fear denotes a
will that cannot consent to sin, and whereby we avoid sin without
trembling lest, in our weakness, we fall, and possess ourselves in the
tranquillity born of charity. Else, if no kind of fear is possible there,
perhaps fear is said to endure for ever and ever, because that which fear
will lead us to, will be everlasting."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The passage quoted excludes from the blessed, the fear that
denotes solicitude, and anxiety about evil, but not the fear which is
accompanied by security.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: As Dionysius says (Div. Nom. ix) "the same things are both
like and unlike God. They are like by reason of a variable imitation of
the Inimitable" - that is, because, so far as they can, they imitate God
Who cannot be imitated perfectly - "they are unlike because they are the
effects of a Cause of Whom they fall short infinitely and immeasurably."
Hence, if there be no fear in God (since there is none above Him to whom
He may be subject) it does not follow that there is none in the blessed,
whose happiness consists in perfect subjection to God.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[11] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Hope implies a certain defect, namely the futurity of
happiness, which ceases when happiness is present: whereas fear implies a
natural defect in a creature, in so far as it is infinitely distant from
God, and this defect will remain even in heaven. Hence fear will not be
cast out altogether.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether poverty of spirit is the beatitude corresponding to the gift of
fear?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that poverty of spirit is not the beatitude
corresponding to the gift of fear. For fear is the beginning of the
spiritual life, as explained above (A[7]): whereas poverty belongs to the
perfection of the spiritual life, according to Mt. 19:21, "If thou wilt
be perfect, go sell what thou hast, and give to the poor." Therefore
poverty of spirit does not correspond to the gift of fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Ps. 118:120): "Pierce Thou my flesh with
Thy fear," whence it seems to follow that it belongs to fear to restrain
the flesh. But the curbing of the flesh seems to belong rather to the
beatitude of mourning. Therefore the beatitude of mourning corresponds to
the gift of fear, rather than the beatitude of poverty.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the gift of fear corresponds to the virtue of hope, as
stated above (A[9], ad 1). Now the last beatitude which is, "Blessed are
the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God," seems
above all to correspond to hope, because according to Rm. 5:2, "we . . .
glory in the hope of the glory of the sons of God." Therefore that
beatitude corresponds to the gift of fear, rather than poverty of spirit.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, it was stated above (FS, Q[70], A[2]) that the fruits
correspond to the beatitudes. Now none of the fruits correspond to the
gift of fear. Neither, therefore, does any of the beatitudes.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine says (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4): "The fear
of the Lord is befitting the humble of whom it is said: Blessed are the
poor in spirit."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Poverty of spirit properly corresponds to fear. Because,
since it belongs to filial fear to show reverence and submission to God,
whatever results from this submission belongs to the gift of fear. Now
from the very fact that a man submits to God, it follows that he ceases
to seek greatness either in himself or in another but seeks it only in
God. For that would be inconsistent with perfect subjection to God,
wherefore it is written (Ps. 19:8): "Some trust in chariots and some in
horses; but we will call upon the name of . . . our God." It follows that
if a man fear God perfectly, he does not, by pride, seek greatness either
in himself or in external goods, viz. honors and riches. In either case,
this proceeds from poverty of spirit, in so far as the latter denotes
either the voiding of a puffed up and proud spirit, according to
Augustine's interpretation (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4), or the
renunciation of worldly goods which is done in spirit, i.e. by one's own
will, through the instigation of the Holy Spirit, according to the
expounding of Ambrose on Lk. 6:20 and Jerome on Mt. 5:3.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Since a beatitude is an act of perfect virtue, all the
beatitudes belong to the perfection of spiritual life. And this
perfection seems to require that whoever would strive to obtain a perfect
share of spiritual goods, needs to begin by despising earthly goods,
wherefore fear holds the first place among the gifts. Perfection,
however, does not consist in the renunciation itself of temporal goods;
since this is the way to perfection: whereas filial fear, to which the
beatitude of poverty corresponds, is consistent with the perfection of
wisdom, as stated above (AA[7],10).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The undue exaltation of man either in himself or in another
is more directly opposed to that submission to God which is the result of
filial fear, than is external pleasure. Yet this is, in consequence,
opposed to fear, since whoever fears God and is subject to Him, takes no
delight in things other than God. Nevertheless, pleasure is not
concerned, as exaltation is, with the arduous character of a thing which
fear regards: and so the beatitude of poverty corresponds to fear
directly, and the beatitude of mourning, consequently.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Hope denotes a movement by way of a relation of tendency to
a term, whereas fear implies movement by way of a relation of withdrawal
from a term: wherefore the last beatitude which is the term of spiritual
perfection, fittingly corresponds to hope, by way of ultimate object;
while the first beatitude, which implies withdrawal from external things
which hinder submission to God, fittingly corresponds to fear.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[19] A[12] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: As regards the fruits, it seems that those things
correspond to the gift of fear, which pertain to the moderate use of
temporal things or to abstinence therefrom; such are modesty, continency
and chastity.





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