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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • SECOND PART
    • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[1] Out. Para. 1/4 - SECOND PART OF THE SECOND PART (SS) (QQ[1]-189)
      • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] Out. Para. 1/2 - OF BENEFICENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] Out. Para. 1/2 - OF BENEFICENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)

We must now consider the outward acts or effects of charity, (1)
Beneficence, (2) Almsdeeds, which are a part of beneficence, (3)
Fraternal correction, which is a kind of alms.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] Out. Para. 2/2

Under the first head there are four points of inquiry:

(1) Whether beneficence is an act of charity ?

(2) Whether we ought to be beneficent to all?

(3) Whether we ought to be more beneficent to those who are more closely
united to us?

(4) Whether beneficence is a special virtue?


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether beneficence is an act of charity?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that beneficence is not an act of charity. For
charity is chiefly directed to God. Now we cannot benefit God, according
to Job 35:7: "What shalt thou give Him? or what shall He receive of thy
hand?" Therefore beneficence is not an act of charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, beneficence consists chiefly in making gifts. But this
belongs to liberality. Therefore beneficence is an act of liberality and
not of charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, what a man gives, he gives either as being due, or as
not due. But a benefit conferred as being due belongs to justice while a
benefit conferred as not due, is gratuitous, and in this respect is an
act of mercy. Therefore every benefit conferred is either an act of
justice, or an act of mercy. Therefore it is not an act of charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Charity is a kind of friendship, as stated above (Q[23]
, A[1]). Now the Philosopher reckons among the acts of friendship (Ethic.
ix, 1) "doing good," i.e. being beneficent, "to one's friends." Therefore
it is an act of charity to do good to others.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Beneficence simply means doing good to someone. This good
may be considered in two ways, first under the general aspect of good,
and this belongs to beneficence in general, and is an act of friendship,
and, consequently, of charity: because the act of love includes goodwill
whereby a man wishes his friend well, as stated above (Q[23], A[1]; Q[27]
, A[2]). Now the will carries into effect if possible, the things it
wills, so that, consequently, the result of an act of love is that a man
is beneficent to his friend. Therefore beneficence in its general
acceptation is an act of friendship or charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] Body Para. 2/2

But if the good which one man does another, be considered under some
special aspect of good, then beneficence will assume a special character
and will belong to some special virtue.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: According to Dionysius (Div. Nom. iv), "love moves those,
whom it unites, to a mutual relationship: it turns the inferior to the
superior to be perfected thereby; it moves the superior to watch over the
inferior:" and in this respect beneficence is an effect of love. Hence it
is not for us to benefit God, but to honor Him by obeying Him, while it
is for Him, out of His love, to bestow good things on us.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Two things must be observed in the bestowal of gifts. One
is the thing given outwardly, while the other is the inward passion that
a man has in the delight of riches. It belongs to liberality to moderate
this inward passion so as to avoid excessive desire and love for riches;
for this makes a man more ready to part with his wealth. Hence, if a man
makes some great gift, while yet desiring to keep it for himself, his is
not a liberal giving. On the other hand, as regards the outward gift, the
act of beneficence belongs in general to friendship or charity. Hence it
does not detract from a man's friendship, if, through love, he give his
friend something he would like to I keep for himself; rather does this
prove the perfection of his friendship.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Just as friendship or charity sees, in the benefit
bestowed, the general aspect of good, so does justice see therein the
aspect of debt, while pity considers the relieving of distress or defect.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether we ought to do good to all?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that we are not bound to do good to all. For
Augustine says (De Doctr. Christ. i, 28) that we "are unable to do good
to everyone." Now virtue does not incline one to the impossible.
Therefore it is not necessary to do good to all.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Ecclus. 12:5) "Give to the good, and
receive not a sinner." But many men are sinners. Therefore we need not do
good to all.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, "Charity dealeth not perversely" (1 Cor. 13:4). Now to
do good to some is to deal perversely: for instance if one were to do
good to an enemy of the common weal, or if one were to do good to an
excommunicated person, since, by doing so, he would be holding communion
with him. Therefore, since beneficence is an act of charity, we ought not
to do good to all.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The Apostle says (Gal. 6:10): "Whilst we have time, let
us work good to all men."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As stated above (A[1], ad 1), beneficence is an effect of
love in so far as love moves the superior to watch over the inferior. Now
degrees among men are not unchangeable as among angels, because men are
subject to many failings, so that he who is superior in one respect, is
or may be inferior in another. Therefore, since the love of charity
extends to all, beneficence also should extend to all, but according as
time and place require: because all acts of virtue must be modified with
a view to their due circumstances.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Absolutely speaking it is impossible to do good to every
single one: yet it is true of each individual that one may be bound to do
good to him in some particular case. Hence charity binds us, though not
actually doing good to someone, to be prepared in mind to do good to
anyone if we have time to spare. There is however a good that we can do
to all, if not to each individual, at least to all in general, as when we
pray for all, for unbelievers as well as for the faithful.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: In a sinner there are two things, his guilt and his nature.
Accordingly we are bound to succor the sinner as to the maintenance of
his nature, but not so as to abet his sin, for this would be to do evil
rather than good.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The excommunicated and the enemies of the common weal are
deprived of all beneficence, in so far as this prevents them from doing
evil deeds. Yet if their nature be in urgent need of succor lest it fail,
we are bound to help them: for instance, if they be in danger of death
through hunger or thirst, or suffer some like distress, unless this be
according to the order of justice.


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether we ought to do good to those rather who are more closely united
to us?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that we are nor bound to do good to those rather
who are more closely united to us. For it is written (Lk. 14:12): "When
thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren,
nor thy kinsmen." Now these are the most closely united to us. Therefore
we are not bound to do good to those rather who are more closely united
to us, but preferably to strangers and to those who are in want: hence
the text goes on: "But, when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the
maimed," etc.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, to help another in the battle is an act of very great
goodness. But a soldier on the battlefield is bound to help a
fellow-soldier who is a stranger rather than a kinsman who is a foe.
Therefore in doing acts of kindness we are not bound to give the
preference to those who are most closely united to us.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1
OBJ 3: Further, we should pay what is due before conferring gratuitous
favors. But it is a man's duty to be good to those who have been good to
him. Therefore we ought to do good to our benefactors rather than to
those who are closely united to us.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, a man ought to love his parents more than his children,
as stated above (Q[26], A[9]). Yet a man ought to be more beneficent to
his children, since "neither ought the children to lay up for the
parents," according to 2 Cor. 12:14. Therefore we are not bound to be
more beneficent to those who are more closely united to us.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Augustine says (De Doctr. Christ. i, 28): "Since one
cannot do good to all, we ought to consider those chiefly who by reason
of place, time or any other circumstance, by a kind of chance are more
closely united to us."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Grace and virtue imitate the order of nature, which is
established by Divine wisdom. Now the order of nature is such that every
natural agent pours forth its activity first and most of all on the
things which are nearest to it: thus fire heats most what is next to it.
In like manner God pours forth the gifts of His goodness first and most
plentifully on the substances which are nearest to Him, as Dionysius
declares (Coel. Hier. vii). But the bestowal of benefits is an act of
charity towards others. Therefore we ought to be most beneficent towards
those who are most closely connected with us.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] Body Para. 2/2

Now one man's connection with another may be measured in reference to
the various matters in which men are engaged together; (thus the
intercourse of kinsmen is in natural matters, that of fellow-citizens is
in civic matters, that of the faithful is in spiritual matters, and so
forth): and various benefits should be conferred in various ways
according to these various connections, because we ought in preference to
bestow on each one such benefits as pertain to the matter in which,
speaking simply, he is most closely connected with us. And yet this may
vary according to the various requirements of time, place, or matter in
hand: because in certain cases one ought, for instance, to succor a
stranger, in extreme necessity, rather than one's own father, if he is
not in such urgent need.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Our Lord did not absolutely forbid us to invite our friends
and kinsmen to eat with us, but to invite them so that they may invite us
in return, since that would be an act not of charity but of cupidity. The
case may occur, however, that one ought rather to invite strangers, on
account of their greater want. For it must be understood that, other
things being equal, one ought to succor those rather who are most closely
connected with us. And if of two, one be more closely connected, and the
other in greater want, it is not possible to decide, by any general rule,
which of them we ought to help rather than the other, since there are
various degrees of want as well as of connection: and the matter requires
the judgment of a prudent man.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The common good of many is more Godlike than the good of an
individual. Wherefore it is a virtuous action for a man to endanger even
his own life, either for the spiritual or for the temporal common good of
his country. Since therefore men engage together in warlike acts in order
to safeguard the common weal, the soldier who with this in view succors
his comrade, succors him not as a private individual, but with a view to
the welfare of his country as a whole: wherefore it is not a matter for
wonder if a stranger be preferred to one who is a blood relation.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 3: A thing may be due in two ways. There is one which should
be reckoned, not among the goods of the debtor, but rather as belonging
to the person to whom it is due: for instance, a man may have another's
goods, whether in money or in kind, either because he has stolen them, or
because he has received them on loan or in deposit or in some other way.
In this case a man ought to pay what he owes, rather than benefit his
connections out of it, unless perchance the case be so urgent that it
would be lawful for him to take another's property in order to relieve
the one who is in need. Yet, again, this would not apply if the creditor
were in equal distress: in which case, however, the claims on either side
would have to be weighed with regard to such other conditions as a
prudent man would take into consideration, because, on account of the
different particular cases, as the Philosopher states (Ethic. ix, 2), it
is impossible to lay down a general rule.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 2/2

The other kind of due is one which is reckoned among the goods of the
debtor and not of the creditor; for instance, a thing may be due, not
because justice requires it, but on account of a certain moral equity, as
in the case of benefits received gratis. Now no benefactor confers a
benefit equal to that which a man receives from his parents: wherefore in
paying back benefits received, we should give the first place to our
parents before all others, unless, on the other side, there be such
weightier motives, as need or some other circumstance, for instance the
common good of the Church or state. In other cases we must take to
account the connection and the benefit received; and here again no
general rule can laid down.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[3] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Parents are like superiors, and so a parent's love tends to
conferring benefits, while the children's love tends to honor their
parents. Nevertheless in a case of extreme urgency it would be lawful to
abandon one's children rather than one's parents, to abandon whom it is
by no means lawful, on account of the obligation we lie under towards
them for the benefits we have received from them, as the Philosopher
states (Ethic. iii, 14).


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether beneficence is a special virtue?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that beneficence is a special virtue. For precepts
are directed to virtue, since lawgivers purpose to make men virtuous
(Ethic. i 9,13; ii, 1). Now beneficence and love are prescribed as
distinct from one another, for it is written (Mt. 4:44): "Love your
enemies, do good to them that hate you." Therefore beneficence is a
virtue distinct from charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, vices are opposed to virtues. Now there are opposed to
beneficence certain vices whereby a hurt is inflicted on our neighbor,
for instance, rapine, theft and so forth. Therefore beneficence is a
special virtue.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1
OBJ 3: Further, charity is not divided into several species: whereas
there would seem to be several kinds of beneficence, according to the
various kinds of benefits. Therefore beneficence is a distinct virtue
from charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The internal and the external act do not require
different virtues. Now beneficence and goodwill differ only as external
and internal act, since beneficence is the execution of goodwill.
Therefore as goodwill is not a distinct virtue from charity, so neither
is beneficence.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Virtues differ according to the different aspects of
their objects. Now the formal aspect of the object of charity and of
beneficence is the same, since both virtues regard the common aspect of
good, as explained above (A[1]). Wherefore beneficence is not a distinct
virtue from charity, but denotes an act of charity.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Precepts are given, not about habits but about acts of
virtue: wherefore distinction of precept denotes distinction, not of
habits, but of acts.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 2: Even as all benefits conferred on our neighbor, if we
consider them under the common aspect of good, are to be traced to love,
so all hurts considered under the common aspect of evil, are to be traced
to hatred. But if we consider these same things under certain special
aspects of good or of evil, they are to be traced to certain special
virtues or vices, and in this way also there are various kinds of
benefits.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[31] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 2/2

Hence the Reply to the Third Objection is evident.





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