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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • SECOND PART
    • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[1] Out. Para. 1/4 - SECOND PART OF THE SECOND PART (SS) (QQ[1]-189)
      • Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] Out. Para. 1/1 - PERTAINING TO WORKS (QQ[178]-182)
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Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] Out. Para. 1/1 - PERTAINING TO WORKS (QQ[178]-182)


OF THE GRACE OF MIRACLES (TWO ARTICLES)

We must next consider the grace of miracles, under which head there are two points of inquiry:

(1) Whether there is a gratuitous grace of working miracles?

(2) To whom is it becoming?


Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether there is a gratuitous grace of working miracles?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that no gratuitous grace is directed to the working
of miracles. For every grace puts something in the one to whom it is
given (Cf. FS, Q[90], A[1]). Now the working of miracles puts nothing in
the soul of the man who receives it since miracles are wrought at the
touch even of a dead body. Thus we read (4 Kgs. 13:21) that "some . . .
cast the body into the sepulchre of Eliseus. And when it had touched the
bones of Eliseus, the man came to life, and stood upon his feet."
Therefore the working of miracles does not belong to a gratuitous grace.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the gratuitous graces are from the Holy Ghost, according
to 1 Cor. 12:4, "There are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit."
Now the working of miracles is effected even by the unclean spirit,
according to Mt. 24:24, "There shall arise false Christs and false
prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders." Therefore it would
seem that the working of miracles does not belong to a gratuitous grace.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, miracles are divided into "signs," "wonders" or
"portents," and "virtues." [*Cf. 2 Thess. 2:9, where the Douay version
renders 'virtus' by 'power.' The use of the word 'virtue' in the sense of
a miracle is now obsolete, and the generic term 'miracle' is elsewhere
used in its stead: Cf. 1 Cor. 12:10,28; Heb. 2:4; Acts 2:22]. Therefore
it is unreasonable to reckon the "working of miracles" a gratuitous
grace, any more than the "working of signs" and "wonders."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the miraculous restoring to health is done by the power
of God. Therefore the grace of healing should not be distinguished from
the working of miracles.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, the working of miracles results from faith - either of
the worker, according to 1 Cor. 13:2, "If I should have all faith, so
that I could remove mountains," or of other persons for whose sake
miracles are wrought, according to Mt. 13:58, "And He wrought not many
miracles there, because of their unbelief." Therefore, if faith be
reckoned a gratuitous grace, it is superfluous to reckon in addition the
working of signs as another gratuitous grace.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The Apostle (1 Cor. 12:9,10) says that among other
gratuitous graces, "to another" is given "the grace of healing . . . to
another, the working of miracles."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As stated above (Q[177], A[1]), the Holy Ghost provides
sufficiently for the Church in matters profitable unto salvation, to
which purpose the gratuitous graces are directed. Now just as the
knowledge which a man receives from God needs to be brought to the
knowledge of others through the gift of tongues and the grace of the
word, so too the word uttered needs to be confirmed in order that it be
rendered credible. This is done by the working of miracles, according to
Mk. 16:20, "And confirming the word with signs that followed": and
reasonably so. For it is natural to man to arrive at the intelligible
truth through its sensible effects. Wherefore just as man led by his
natural reason is able to arrive at some knowledge of God through His
natural effects, so is he brought to a certain degree of supernatural
knowledge of the objects of faith by certain supernatural effects which
are called miracles. Therefore the working of miracles belongs to a
gratuitous grace.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Just as prophecy extends to whatever can be known
supernaturally, so the working of miracles extends to all things that can
be done supernaturally; the cause whereof is the divine omnipotence which
cannot be communicated to any creature. Hence it is impossible for the
principle of working miracles to be a quality abiding as a habit in the
soul. On the other hand, just as the prophet's mind is moved by divine
inspiration to know something supernaturally, so too is it possible for
the mind of the miracle worker to be moved to do something resulting in
the miraculous effect which God causes by His power. Sometimes this takes
place after prayer, as when Peter raised to life the dead Tabitha (Acts
9:40): sometimes without any previous prayer being expressed, as when
Peter by upbraiding the lying Ananias and Saphira delivered them to death
(Acts 5:4,9). Hence Gregory says (Dial. ii, 30) that "the saints work
miracles, sometimes by authority, sometimes by prayer." In either case,
however, God is the principal worker, for He uses instrumentally either
man's inward movement, or his speech, or some outward action, or again
the bodily contact of even a dead body. Thus when Josue had said as
though authoritatively (Josue 10:12): "Move not, O sun, toward Gabaon,"
it is said afterwards (Josue 10:14): "There was not before or after so
long a day, the Lord obeying the voice of a man."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Our Lord is speaking there of the miracles to be wrought at
the time of Antichrist, of which the Apostle says (2 Thess. 2:9) that the
coming of Antichrist will be "according to the working of Satan, in all
power, and signs, and lying wonders." To quote the words of Augustine (De
Civ. Dei xx, 19), "it is a matter of debate whether they are called signs
and lying wonders, because he will deceive the senses of mortals by
imaginary visions, in that he will seem to do what he does not, or
because, though they be real wonders, they will seduce into falsehood
them that believe." They are said to be real, because the things
themselves will be real, just as Pharaoh's magicians made real frogs and
real serpents; but they will not be real miracles, because they will be
done by the power of natural causes, as stated in the FP, Q[114], A[4];
whereas the working of miracles which is ascribed to a gratuitous grace,
is done by God's power for man's profit.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Two things may be considered in miracles. One is that which
is done: this is something surpassing the faculty of nature, and in this
respect miracles are called "virtues." The other thing is the purpose for
which miracles are wrought, namely the manifestation of something
supernatural, and in this respect they are commonly called "signs": but
on account of some excellence they receive the name of "wonder" or
"prodigy," as showing something from afar [procul].

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: The "grace of healing" is mentioned separately, because by
its means a benefit, namely bodily health, is conferred on man in
addition to the common benefit bestowed in all miracles, namely the
bringing of men to the knowledge of God.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[1] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: The working of miracles is ascribed to faith for two
reasons. First, because it is directed to the confirmation of faith,
secondly, because it proceeds from God's omnipotence on which faith
relies. Nevertheless, just as besides the grace of faith, the grace of
the word is necessary that people may be instructed in the faith, so too
is the grace of miracles necessary that people may be confirmed in their
faith.

(tm)Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the wicked can work miracles?

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the wicked cannot work miracles. For miracles
are wrought through prayer, as stated above (A[1], ad 1). Now the prayer
of a sinner is not granted, according to Jn. 9:31, "We know that God doth
not hear sinners," and Prov. 28:9, "He that turneth away his ear from
hearing the law, his prayer shall be an abomination." Therefore it would
seem that the wicked cannot work miracles.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, miracles are ascribed to faith, according to Mt. 17:19,
"If you have faith as a grain of mustard seed you shall say to this
mountain: Remove from hence hither, and it shall remove." Now "faith
without works is dead," according to James 2:20, so that, seemingly, it
is devoid of its proper operation. Therefore it would seem that the
wicked, since they do not good works, cannot work miracles.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, miracles are divine attestations, according to Heb. 2:4,
"God also bearing them witness by signs and wonders and divers miracles":
wherefore in the Church the canonization of certain persons is based on
the attestation of miracles. Now God cannot bear witness to a falsehood.
Therefore it would seem that wicked men cannot work miracles.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the good are more closely united to God than the wicked.
But the good do not all work miracles. Much less therefore do the wicked.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The Apostle says (1 Cor. 13:2): "If I should have all
faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am
nothing." Now whosoever has not charity is wicked, because "this gift
alone of the Holy Ghost distinguishes the children of the kingdom from
the children of perdition," as Augustine says (De Trin. xv, 18).
Therefore it would seem that even the wicked can work miracles.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, Some miracles are not true but imaginary deeds, because
they delude man by the appearance of that which is not; while others are
true deeds, yet they have not the character of a true miracle, because
they are done by the power of some natural cause. Both of these can be
done by the demons, as stated above (A[1], ad 2).

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Body Para. 2/3

True miracles cannot be wrought save by the power of God, because God
works them for man's benefit, and this in two ways: in one way for the
confirmation of truth declared, in another way in proof of a person's
holiness, which God desires to propose as an example of virtue. In the
first way miracles can be wrought by any one who preaches the true faith
and calls upon Christ's name, as even the wicked do sometimes. In this
way even the wicked can work miracles. Hence Jerome commenting on Mt.
7:22, "Have not we prophesied in Thy name?" says: "Sometimes prophesying,
the working of miracles, and the casting out of demons are accorded not
to the merit of those who do these things, but to the invoking of
Christ's name, that men may honor God, by invoking Whom such great
miracles are wrought."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] Body Para. 3/3

In the second way miracles are not wrought except by the saints, since
it is in proof of their holiness that miracles are wrought during their
lifetime or after death, either by themselves or by others. For we read
(Acts 19:11,12) that "God wrought by the hand of Paul . . . miracles" and
"even there were brought from his body to the sick, handkerchiefs . . .
and the diseases departed from them." In this way indeed there is nothing
to prevent a sinner from working miracles by invoking a saint; but the
miracle is ascribed not to him, but to the one in proof of whose holiness
such things are done.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: As stated above (Q[83], A[16]) when we were treating of
prayer, the prayer of impetration relies not on merit but on God's mercy,
which extends even to the wicked, wherefore the prayers even of sinners
are sometimes granted by God. Hence Augustine says (Tract. xliv in Joan.)
that "the blind man spoke these words before he was anointed," that is,
before he was perfectly enlightened; "since God does hear sinners." When
it is said that the prayer of one who hears not the law is an
abomination, this must be understood so far as the sinner's merit is
concerned; yet it is sometimes granted, either for the spiritual welfare
of the one who prays - as the publican was heard (Lk. 18:14) - or for the
good of others and for God's glory.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Faith without works is said to be dead, as regards the
believer, who lives not, by faith, with the life of grace. But nothing
hinders a living thing from working through a dead instrument, as a man
through a stick. It is thus that God works while employing instrumentally
the faith of a sinner.

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Miracles are always true witnesses to the purpose for which
they are wrought. Hence wicked men who teach a false doctrine never work
true miracles in confirmation of their teaching, although sometimes they
may do so in praise of Christ's name which they invoke, and by the power
of the sacraments which they administer. If they teach a true doctrine,
sometimes they work true miracles as confirming their teaching, but not
as an attestation of holiness. Hence Augustine says (QQ. lxxxiii, qu.
79): "Magicians work miracles in one way, good Christians in another,
wicked Christians in another. Magicians by private compact with the
demons, good Christians by their manifest righteousness, evil Christians
by the outward signs of righteousness."

Aquin.: SMT SS Q[178] A[2] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: As Augustine says (QQ. lxxxiii, qu. 79), "the reason why
these are not granted to all holy men is lest by a most baneful error the
weak be deceived into thinking such deeds to imply greater gifts than the
deeds of righteousness whereby eternal life is obtained."






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