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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • Aquin.: SMT XP Q[1] Out. Para. 1/2 SUPPLEMENT (XP): TO THE THIRD PART OF THE SUMMA THEOLOGICA OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS GATHERED FROM HIS COMMENTARY ON BOOK IV OF THE SENTENCES (QQ[1] -99) OF THE PARTS OF PENANCE, IN PARTICULAR, AND FIRST OF CONTRITION (THREE ARTICLES)
      • Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE EFFECT OF CONFESSION (FIVE ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE EFFECT OF CONFESSION (FIVE ARTICLES)

We must now consider the effect of confession: under which head there
are five points of inquiry:

(1) Whether confession delivers one from the death of sin?

(2) Whether confession delivers one in any way from punishment?

(3) Whether confession opens Paradise to us?

(4) Whether confession gives hope of salvation?

(5) Whether a general confession blots out mortal sins that one has
forgotten?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether confession delivers one from the death of sin?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that confession does not deliver one from the death
of sin. For confession follows contrition. But contrition sufficiently
blots out guilt. Therefore confession does not deliver one from the death
of sin.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, just as mortal sin is a fault, so is venial. Now
confession renders venial that which was mortal before, as stated in the
text (Sent. iv, D, 17). Therefore confession does not blot out guilt, but
one guilt is changed into another.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Confession is part of the sacrament of Penance. But
Penance deliver from guilt. Therefore confession does also.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Penance, as a sacrament, is perfected chiefly in
confession, because by the latter a man submits to the ministers of the
Church, who are the dispensers of the sacraments: for contrition has the
desire of confession united thereto, and satisfaction is enjoined
according to the judgment of the priest who hears the confession. And
since in the sacrament of Penance, as in Baptism, that grace is infused
whereby sins are forgiven, therefore confession in virtue of the
absolution granted remits guilt, even as Baptism does. Now Baptism
delivers one from the death of sin, not only by being received actually,
but also by being received in desire, as is evident with regard to those
who approach the sacrament of Baptism after being already sanctified. And
unless a man offers an obstacle, he receives, through the very fact of
being baptized, grace whereby his sins are remitted, if they are not
already remitted. The same is to be said of confession, to which
absolution is added because it delivered the penitent from guilt through
being previously in his desire. Afterwards at the time of actual
confession and absolution he receives an increase of grace, and
forgiveness of sins would also be granted to him, if his previous sorrow
for sin was not sufficient for contrition, and if at the time he offered
no obstacle to grace. Consequently just as it is said of Baptism that it
delivers from death, so can it be said of confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Contrition has the desire of confession attached to it, and
therefore it delivers penitents from death in the same way as the desire
of Baptism delivers those who are going to be baptized.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: In the text venial does not designate guilt, but punishment
that is easily expiated. and so it does not follow that one guilt is
changed into another but that it is wholly done away. For "venial" is
taken in three senses [*Cf. FS, Q[88], A[2]]: first, for what is venial
generically, e.g. an idle word: secondly, for what is venial in its
cause, i.e. having within itself a motive of pardon, e.g. sins due to
weakness: thirdly, for what is venial in the result, in which sense it is
understood here, because the result of confession is that man's past
guilt is pardoned.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether confession delivers from punishment in some way?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that confession nowise delivers from punishment.
For sin deserves no punishment but what is either eternal or temporal.
Now eternal punishment is remitted by contrition, and temporal punishment
by satisfaction. Therefore nothing of the punishment is remitted by
confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, "the will is taken for the deed" [*Cf. Can. Magna
Pietas, De Poenit., Dist. i], as stated in the text (Sent. iv, D, 17).
Now he that is contrite has the intention to confess. wherefore his
intention avails him as though he had already confessed, and so the
confession which he makes afterwards remits no part of the punishment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Confession is a penal work. But all penal works expiate
the punishment due to sin. Therefore confession does also.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Confession together with absolution has the power to
deliver from punishment, for two reasons. First, from the power of
absolution itself: and thus the very desire of absolution delivers a man
from eternal punishment, as also from the guilt. Now this punishment is
one of condemnation and total banishment: and when a man is delivered
therefrom he still remains bound to a temporal punishment, in so far as
punishment is a cleansing and perfecting remedy; and so this punishment
remains to be suffered in Purgatory by those who also have been delivered
from the punishment of hell. Which temporal punishment is beyond the
powers of the penitent dwelling in this world, but is so far diminished
by the power of the keys, that it is within the ability of the penitent,
and he is able, by making satisfaction, to cleanse himself in this life.
Secondly, confession diminishes the punishment in virtue of the very
nature of the act of the one who confesses, for this act has the
punishment of shame attached to it, so that the oftener one confesses the
same sins, the more is the punishment diminished.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] Body Para. 2/2

This suffices for the Reply to the First Objection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The will is not taken for the deed, if this is done by
another, as in the case of Baptism: for the will to receive Baptism is
not worth as much as the reception of Baptism. But a man's will is taken
for the deed, when the latter is something done by him, entirely. Again,
this is true of the essential reward, but not of the removal of
punishment and the like, which come under the head of accidental and
secondary reward. Consequently one who has confessed and received
absolution will be less punished in Purgatory than one who has gone no
further than contrition.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether confession opens paradise?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that confession does not open Paradise. For
different sacraments have different effects. But it is the effect of
Baptism to open Paradise. Therefore it is not the effect of confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is impossible to enter by a closed door before it be
opened. But a dying man can enter heaven before making his confession.
Therefore confession does not open Paradise.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, Confession makes a man submit to the keys of the
Church. But Paradise is opened by those keys. Therefore it is opened by
confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Guilt and the debt of punishment prevent a man from
entering into Paradise: and since confession removes these obstacles, as
shown above (AA[1],2), it is said to open Paradise.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Although Baptism and Penance are different sacraments, they
act in virtue of Christ's one Passion, whereby a way was opened unto
Paradise.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: If the dying man was in mortal sin Paradise was closed to
him before he conceived the desire to confess his sin, although
afterwards it was opened by contrition implying a desire for confession,
even before he actually confessed. Nevertheless the obstacle of the debt
of punishment was not entirely removed before confession and satisfaction.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether confession gives hope of salvation?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that hope of salvation should not be reckoned an
effect of confession. For hope arises from all meritorious acts.
Therefore, seemingly, it is not the proper effect of confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, we arrive at hope through tribulation, as appears from
Rm. 5:3,4. Now man suffers tribulation chiefly in satisfaction.
Therefore, satisfaction rather than confession gives hope of salvation.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary," Confession makes a man more humble and more wary," as
the Master states in the text (Sent. iv, D, 17). But the result of this
is that man conceives a hope of salvation. Therefore it is the effect of
confession to give hope of salvation.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, We can have no hope for the forgiveness of our sins
except through Christ: and since by confession a man submits to the keys
of the Church which derive their power from Christ's Passion, therefore
do we say that confession gives hope of salvation.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: It is not our actions, but the grace of our Redeemer, that
is the principal cause of the hope of salvation: and since confession
relies upon the grace of our Redeemer, it gives hope of salvation, not
only as a meritorious act, but also as part of a sacrament.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Tribulation gives hope of salvation, by making us exercise
our own virtue, and by paying off the debt of punishment: while
confession does so also in the way mentioned above.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether a general confession suffices to blot out forgotten mortal sins?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that a general confession does not suffice to blot
out forgotten mortal sins. For there is no necessity to confess again a
sin which has been blotted out by confession. If, therefore, forgotten
sins were forgiven by a general confession, there would be no need to
confess them when they are called to mind.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, whoever is not conscious of sin, either is not guilty of
sin, or has forgotten his sin. If, therefore, mortal sins are forgiven by
a general confession, whoever is not conscious of a mortal sin, can be
certain that he is free from mortal sin, whenever he makes a general
confession: which is contrary to what the Apostle says (1 Cor. 4:4), "I
am not conscious to myself of anything, yet am I not hereby justified."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, no man profits by neglect. Now a man cannot forget a
mortal sin without neglect, before it is forgiven him. Therefore he does
not profit by his forgetfulness so that the sin is forgiven him without
special mention thereof in confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, that which the penitent knows nothing about is further
from his knowledge than that which he has forgotten. Now a general
confession does not blot out sins committed through ignorance, else
heretics, who are not aware that certain things they have done are
sinful, and certain simple people, would be absolved by a general
confession, which is false. Therefore a general confession does not take
away forgotten sins.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Ps. 33:6): "Come ye to Him and be
enlightened, and your faces shall not be confounded." Now he who
confesses all the sins of which he is conscious, approaches to God as
much as he can: nor can more be required for him. Therefore he will not
be confounded by being repelled, but will be forgiven.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, he that confesses is pardoned unless he be insincere. But he
who confesses all the sins that he calls to mind, is not insincere
through forgetting some, because he suffers from ignorance of fact, which
excuses from sin. Therefore he receives forgiveness, and then the sins
which he has forgotten, are loosened, since it is wicked to hope for half
a pardon.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Confession produces its effect, on the presupposition
that there is contrition which blots out guilt: so that confession is
directly ordained to the remission of punishment, which it causes in
virtue of the shame which it includes, and by the power of the keys to
which a man submits by confessing. Now it happens sometimes that by
previous contrition a sin has been blotted out as to the guilt, either in
a general way (if it was not remembered at the time) or in particular
(and yet is forgotten before confession): and then general sacramental
confession works for the remission of the punishment in virtue of the
keys, to which man submits by confessing, provided he offers no obstacle
so far as he is concerned: but so far as the shame of confessing a sin
diminishes its punishment, the punishment for the sin for which a man
does not express his shame, through failing to confess it to the priest,
is not diminished.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: In sacramental confession, not only is absolution required,
but also the judgment of the priest who imposes satisfaction is awaited.
Wherefore although the latter has given absolution, nevertheless the
penitent is bound to confess in order to supply what was wanting to the
sacramental confession.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: As stated above, confession does not produce its effect,
unless contrition be presupposed; concerning which no man can know
whether it be true contrition, even as neither can one know for certain
if he has grace. Consequently a man cannot know for certain whether a
forgotten sin has been forgiven him in a general confession, although he
may think so on account of certain conjectural signs.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: He does not profit by his neglect, since he does not
receive such full pardon, as he would otherwise have received, nor is his
merit so great. Moreover he is bound to confess the sin when he calls it
to mind.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[10] A[5] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Ignorance of the law does not excuse, because it is a sin
by itself: but ignorance of fact does excuse. Therefore if a man omits to
confess a sin, because he does not know it to be a sin, through ignorance
of the Divine law, he is not excused from insincerity. on the other hand,
he would be excused, if he did not know it to be a sin, through being
unaware of some particular circumstance, for instance, if he had
knowledge of another's wife, thinking her his own. Now forgetfulness of
an act of sin comes under the head of ignorance of fact, wherefore it
excuses from the sin of insincerity in confession, which is an obstacle
to the fruit of absolution and confession.





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