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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • Aquin.: SMT XP Q[1] Out. Para. 1/2 SUPPLEMENT (XP): TO THE THIRD PART OF THE SUMMA THEOLOGICA OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS GATHERED FROM HIS COMMENTARY ON BOOK IV OF THE SENTENCES (QQ[1] -99) OF THE PARTS OF PENANCE, IN PARTICULAR, AND FIRST OF CONTRITION (THREE ARTICLES)
      • Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF PRAYERS WITH REGARD TO THE SAINTS IN HEAVEN (THREE ARTICLES)
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Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF PRAYERS WITH REGARD TO THE SAINTS IN HEAVEN (THREE ARTICLES)

We must now consider prayer with regard to the saints in heaven. Under
this head there are three points of inquiry:

(1) Whether the saints have knowledge of our prayers?

(2) Whether we should beseech them to pray for us?

(3) Whether the prayers they pour forth for us are always granted?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the saints have knowledge of our prayers?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the saints have no knowledge of our prayers.
For a gloss on Is. 62:16, "Thou art our father and Abraham hath not known
us, and Israel hath been ignorant of us," says that "the dead saints
know not what the living, even their own children, are doing." This is
taken from Augustine (De Cura pro Mort. xiii), where he quotes the
aforesaid authority, and the following are his words: "If such great men
as the patriarchs knew not what was happening to the people begotten of
them, how can the dead occupy themselves in watching and helping the
affairs and actions of the living?" Therefore the saints cannot be
cognizant of our prayers.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the following words are addressed to King Joas (4 Kgs.
22:20): "Therefore" (i.e. because thou hast wept before Me), "I will
gather thee to thy fathers . . . that thy eyes may not see all the evils
which I will bring upon this place." But Joas would have gained no such
advantage from his death if he were to know after death what was
happening to his people. Therefore the saints after death know not our
actions, and thus they are not cognizant of our prayers.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the more perfect a man is in charity, the more he
succors his neighbor when the latter is in danger. Now the saints, in
this life, watch over their neighbor, especially their kinsfolk, when
these are in danger, and manifestly assist them. Since then, after death,
their charity is much greater, if they were cognizant of our deeds, much
more would they watch over their friends and kindred and assist them in
their needs: and yet, seemingly, they do not. Therefore it would seem
that our deeds and prayers are not known to them.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, even as the saints after death see the Word, so do the
angels of whom it is stated (Mt. 18:10) that "their angels in heaven
always see the face of My Father." Yet the angels through seeing the Word
do not therefore know all things, since the lower angels are cleansed
from their lack of knowledge by the higher angels [*Cf. FP, Q[106], A[1]
], as Dionysius declares (Coel. Hier. vii). Therefore although the saints
see the Word, they do not see therein our prayers and other things that
happen in our regard.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, God alone is the searcher of hearts. Now prayer is
seated chiefly in the heart. Therefore it belongs to God alone to know
our prayers. Therefore our prayers are unknown to the saints.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, Gregory, commenting on Job 14:21, "Whether his children
come to honor or dishonor, he shall not understand," says (Moral. xii):
"This does not apply to the souls of the saints, for since they have an
insight of Almighty God's glory we must nowise believe that anything
outside that glory is unknown to them." Therefore they are cognizant of
our prayers. Further, Gregory says (Dial. ii): "All creatures are little
to the soul that sees God: because however little it sees of the
Creator's light, every created thing appears foreshortened to it." Now
apparently the chief obstacle to the souls of the saints being cognizant
of our prayers and other happenings in our regard is that they are far
removed from us. Since then distance does not prevent these things, as
appears from the authority quoted, it would seem that the souls of the
saints are cognizant of our prayers and of what happens here below.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, unless they were aware of what happens in our regard they would
not pray for us, since they would be ignorant of our needs. But this is
the error of Vigilantius, as Jerome asserts in his letter against him.
Therefore the saints are cognizant of what happens in our regard.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The Divine essence is a sufficient medium for knowing all
things, and this is evident from the fact that God, by seeing His
essence, sees all things. But it does not follow that whoever sees God's
essence knows all things, but only those who comprehend the essence of
God [*Cf. FP, Q[12], AA[7],8]: even as the knowledge of a principle does
not involve the knowledge of all that follows from that principle unless
the whole virtue of the principle be comprehended. Wherefore, since the
souls of the saints do not comprehend the Divine essence, it does not
follow that they know all that can be known by the Divine essence - for
which reason the lower angels are taught concerning certain matters by
the higher angels, though they all see the essence of God; but each of
the blessed must needs see in the Divine essence as many other things as
the perfection of his happiness requires. For the perfection of a man's
happiness requires him to have whatever he will, and to will nothing
amiss: and each one wills with a right will, to know what concerns
himself. Hence since no rectitude is lacking to the saints, they wish to
know what concerns themselves, and consequently it follows that they know
it in the Word. Now it pertains to their glory that they assist the needy
for their salvation: for thus they become God's co-operators, "than which
nothing is more Godlike," as Dionysius declares (Coel. Hier. iii).
Wherefore it is evident that the saints are cognizant of such things as
are required for this purpose; and so it is manifest that they know in
the Word the vows, devotions, and prayers of those who have recourse to
their assistance.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The saying of Augustine is to be understood as referring to
the natural knowledge of separated souls, which knowledge is devoid of
obscurity in holy men. But he is not speaking of their knowledge in the
Word, for it is clear that when Isaias said this, Abraham had no such
knowledge, since no one had come to the vision of God before Christ's
passion.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Although the saints, after this life, know what happens
here below, we must not believe that they grieve through knowing the woes
of those whom they loved in this world: for they are so filled with
heavenly joy, that sorrow finds no place in them. Wherefore if after
death they know the woes of their friends, their grief is forestalled by
their removal from this world before their woes occur. Perhaps, however,
the non-glorified souls would grieve somewhat, if they were aware of the
distress of their dear ones: and since the soul of Josias was not
glorified as soon as it went out from his body, it is in this respect
that Augustine uses this argument to show that the souls of the dead have
no knowledge of the deeds of the living.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The souls of the saints have their will fully conformed to
the Divine will even as regards the things willed. and consequently,
although they retain the love of charity towards their neighbor, they do
not succor him otherwise than they see to be in conformity with the
disposition of Divine justice. Nevertheless, it is to be believed that
they help their neighbor very much by interceding for him to God.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Although it does not follow that those who see the Word see
all things in the Word, they see those things that pertain to the
perfection of their happiness, as stated above.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[1] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: God alone of Himself knows the thoughts of the heart: yet
others know them, in so far as these are revealed to them, either by
their vision of the Word or by any other means.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether we ought to call upon the saints to pray for us?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that we ought not to call upon the saints to pray
for us. For no man asks anyone's friends to pray for him, except in so
far as he believes he will more easily find favor with them. But God is
infinitely more merciful than any saint, and consequently His will is
more easily inclined to give us a gracious hearing, than the will of a
saint. Therefore it would seem unnecessary to make the saints mediators
between us and God, that they may intercede for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, if we ought to beseech them to pray for us, this is only
because we know their prayer to be acceptable to God. Now among the
saints the holier a man is, the more is his prayer acceptable to God.
Therefore we ought always to bespeak the greater saints to intercede for
us with God, and never the lesser ones.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, Christ, even as man, is called the "Holy of Holies,"
and, as man, it is competent to Him to pray. Yet we never call upon
Christ to pray for us. Therefore neither should we ask the other saints
to do so.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, whenever one person intercedes for another at the
latter's request, he presents his petition to the one with whom he
intercedes for him. Now it is unnecessary to present anything to one to
whom all things are present. Therefore it is unnecessary to make the
saints our intercessors with God.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, it is unnecessary to do a thing if, without doing it,
the purpose for which it is done would be achieved in the same way, or
else not achieved at all. Now the saints would pray for us just the same,
or would not pray for us at all, whether we pray to them or not: for if
we be worthy of their prayers, they would pray for us even though we
prayed not to them, while if we be unworthy they pray not for us even
though we ask them to. Therefore it seems altogether unnecessary to call
on them to pray for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] OTC Para. 1/3

On the contrary, It is written (Job 5:1): "Call . . . if there be any
that will answer thee, and turn to some of the saints." Now, as Gregory
says (Moral. v, 30) on this passage, "we call upon God when we beseech
Him in humble prayer." Therefore when we wish to pray God, we should turn
to the saints, that they may pray God for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] OTC Para. 2/3

Further, the saints who are in heaven are more acceptable to God than
those who are on the way. Now we should make the saints, who are on the
way, our intercessors with God, after the example of the Apostle, who
said (Rm. 15:30): "I beseech you . . . brethren, through our Lord Jesus
Christ, and by the charity of the Holy Ghost, that you help me in your
prayers for me to God." Much more, therefore, should we ask the saints
who are in heaven to help us by their prayers to God.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] OTC Para. 3/3

Further, an additional argument is provided by the common custom of the
Church which asks for the prayers of the saints in the Litany.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, According to Dionysius (Eccl. Hier. v) the order
established by God among things is that "the last should be led to God by
those that are midway between." Wherefore, since the saints who are in
heaven are nearest to God, the order of the Divine law requires that we,
who while we remain in the body are pilgrims from the Lord, should be
brought back to God by the saints who are between us and Him: and this
happens when the Divine goodness pours forth its effect into us through
them. And since our return to God should correspond to the outflow of His
boons upon us, just as the Divine favors reach us by means of the saints
intercession, so should we, by their means, be brought back to God, that
we may receive His favors again. Hence it is that we make them our
intercessors with God, and our mediators as it were, when we ask them to
pray for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: It is not on account of any defect in God's power that He
works by means of second causes, but it is for the perfection of the
order of the universe, and the more manifold outpouring of His goodness
on things, through His bestowing on them not only the goodness which is
proper to them, but also the faculty of causing goodness in others. Even
so it is not through any defect in His mercy, that we need to bespeak His
clemency through the prayers of the saints, but to the end that the
aforesaid order in things be observed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Although the greater saints are more acceptable to God than
the lesser, it is sometimes profitable to pray to the lesser; and this
for five reasons. First, because sometimes one has greater devotion for a
lesser saint than for a greater, and the effect of prayer depends very
much on one's devotion. Secondly, in order to avoid tediousness, for
continual attention to one thing makes a person weary; whereas by praying
to different saints, the fervor of our devotion is aroused anew as it
were. Thirdly, because it is granted to some saints to exercise their
patronage in certain special cases, for instance to Saint Anthony against
the fire of hell. Fourthly, that due honor be given by us to all.
Fifthly, because the prayers of several sometimes obtain that which would
not have been obtained by the prayers of one.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Prayer is an act, and acts belong to particular persons
[supposita]. Hence, were we to say: "Christ, pray for us," except we
added something, this would seem to refer to Christ's person, and
consequently to agree with the error either of Nestorius, who
distinguished in Christ the person of the son of man from the person of
the Son of God, or of Arius, who asserted that the person of the Son is
less than the Father. Wherefore to avoid these errors the Church says
not: "Christ, pray for us," but "Christ, hear us," or "have mercy on us."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: As we shall state further on (A[3]) the saints are said to
present our prayers to God, not as though they notified things unknown to
Him, but because they ask God to grant those prayers a gracious hearing,
or because they seek the Divine truth about them, namely what ought to be
done according to His providence.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[2] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: A person is rendered worthy of a saint's prayers for him by
the very fact that in his need he has recourse to him with pure devotion.
Hence it is not unnecessary to pray to the saints.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the prayers which the saints pour forth to God for us are always
granted?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the prayers which the saints pour forth to God
for us are not always granted. For if they were always granted, the
saints would be heard especially in regard to matters concerning
themselves. But they are not heard in reference to these things;
wherefore it is stated in the Apocalypse (6:11) that on the martyrs
beseeching vengeance on them that dwell on earth, "it was said to them
that they should rest for a little while till the number of their
brethren should be filled up [*Vulg.: 'till their fellow-servants and
their brethren . . . should be filled up']." Much less therefore, are
they heard in reference to matters concerning others.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Jer. 15:1): "If Moses and Samuel shall
stand before Me, My soul is not towards this people." Therefore, the
saints are not always heard when they pray God for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the saints in heaven are stated to be equal to the
angels of God (Mt. 22:30). But the angels are not always heard in the
prayers which they offer up to God. This is evident from Dan. 10:12,13,
where it is written: "I am come for thy words: but the prince of the
kingdom of the Persians resisted me one-and-twenty days." But the angel
who spoke had not come to Daniel's aid except by asking of God to be set
free; and yet the fulfillment of his prayer was hindered. Therefore
neither are other saints always heard by God when they pray for us.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, whosoever obtains something by prayer merits it in a
sense. But the saints in heaven are not in the state of meriting.
Therefore they cannot obtain anything for us from God by their prayers.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, the saints, in all things, conform their will to the
will of God. Therefore they will nothing but what they know God to will.
But no one prays save for what he wills. Therefore they pray not save for
what they know God to will. Now that which God wills would be done even
without their praying for it. Therefore their prayers are not efficacious
for obtaining anything.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Obj. 6 Para. 1/1

OBJ 6: Further, the prayers of the whole heavenly court, if they could
obtain anything, would be more efficacious than all the petitions of the
Church here below. Now if the suffrages of the Church here below for some
one in purgatory were to be multiplied, he would be wholly delivered from
punishment. Since then the saints in heaven pray for those who are in
purgatory on the same account as for us, if they obtain anything for us,
their prayers would deliver entirely from punishment those who are in
purgatory. But this is not true because, then the Church's suffrages for
the dead would be unnecessary.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] OTC Para. 1/3

On the contrary, It is written (2 Macc. 15:14): "This is he that prayeth
much for the people, and for all the holy city, Jeremias the prophet of
God": and that his prayer was granted is clear from what follows (2 Macc.
15:15): "Jeremias stretched forth his right hand, and gave to Judas a
sword of gold, saying: Take this holy sword, a gift from God," etc.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] OTC Para. 2/3

Further, Jerome says (Ep. contra Vigilant.): "Thou sayest in thy
pamphlets, that while we live, we can pray for one another, but that when
we are dead no one's prayer for another will be heard": and afterwards he
refutes this in the following words: "If the apostles and martyrs while
yet in the body can pray for others, while they are still solicitous for
themselves, how much more can they do so when the crown, the victory, the
triumph is already theirs!"

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] OTC Para. 3/3

Further, this is confirmed by the custom of the Church, which often asks
to be assisted by the prayers of the saints.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The saints are said to pray for us in two ways. First, by
"express" prayer, when by their prayers they seek a hearing of the Divine
clemency on our behalf: secondly, by "interpretive" prayer, namely by
their merits which, being known to God, avail not only them unto glory,
but also us as suffrages and prayers, even as the shedding of Christ's
blood is said to ask pardon for us. In both ways the saints' prayers
considered in themselves avail to obtain what they ask, yet on our part
they may fail so that we obtain not the fruit of their prayers, in so far
as they are said to pray for us by reason of their merits availing on our
behalf. But in so far as they pray for us by asking something for us in
their prayers, their prayers are always granted, since they will only
what God wills, nor do they ask save for what they will to be done; and
what God wills is always fulfilled - unless we speak of His "antecedent"
will, whereby "He wishes all men to be saved" [*Cf. FP, Q[19], A[6], ad
1]. For this will is not always fulfilled; wherefore no wonder if that
also which the saints will according to this kind of will be not
fulfilled sometimes.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This prayer of the martyrs is merely their desire to obtain
the robe of the body and the fellowship of those who will be saved, and
their consent to God's justice in punishing the wicked. Hence a gloss on
Apoc. 6:11, "How long, O Lord," says: "They desire an increase of joy and
the fellowship of the saints, and they consent to God's justice."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The Lord speaks there of Moses and Samuel according to
their state in this life. For we read that they withstood God's anger by
praying for the people. And yet even if they had been living at the time
in question, they would have been unable to placate God towards the
people by their prayers, on account of the wickedness of this same
people: and it is thus that we are to understand this passage.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: This dispute among the good angels does not mean that they
offered contradictory prayers to God, but that they submitted contrary
merits on various sides to the Divine inquiry, with a view of God's
pronouncing sentence thereon. This, in fact, is what Gregory says (Moral.
xvii) in explanation of the aforesaid words of Daniel: "The lofty spirits
that are set over the nations never fight in behalf of those that act
unjustly, but they justly judge and try their deeds. And when the guilt
or innocence of any particular nation is brought into the debate of the
court above, the ruling spirit of that nation is said to have won or lost
in the conflict. Yet the supreme will of their Maker is victorious over
all, for since they have it ever before their eyes, they will not what
they are unable to obtain," wherefore neither do they seek for it. And
consequently it is clear that their prayers are always heard.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 4 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 4: Although the saints are not in a state to merit for
themselves, when once they are in heaven, they are in a state to merit
for others, or rather to assist others by reason of their previous merit:
for while living they merited that their prayers should be heard after
their death.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 4 Para. 2/2

Or we may reply that prayer is meritorious on one count, and impetratory
on another. For merit consists in a certain equation of the act to the
end for which it is intended, and which is given to it as its reward;
while the impetration of a prayer depends on the liberality of the
person supplicated. Hence prayer sometimes, through the liberality of the
person supplicated, obtains that which was not merited either by the
suppliant, or by the person supplicated for: and so, although the saints
are not in the state of meriting, it does not follow that they are not in
the state of impetrating.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: As appears from the authority of Gregory quoted above (ad
3), the saints and angels will nothing but what they see to be in the
Divine will: and so neither do they pray for aught else. Nor is their
prayer fruitless, since as Augustine says (De Praed. Sanct. [*De Dono
Persever. xxii]): "The prayers of the saints profit the predestinate,
because it is perhaps pre-ordained that they shall be saved through the
prayers of those who intercede for them": and consequently God also wills
that what the saints see Him to will shall be fulfilled through their
prayers.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[72] A[3] R.O. 6 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 6: The suffrages of the Church for the dead are as so many
satisfactions of the living in lieu of the dead: and accordingly they
free the dead from the punishment which the latter have not paid. But the
saints in heaven are not in the state of making satisfaction; and
consequently the parallel fails between their prayers and the suffrages
of the Church.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE SIGNS THAT WILL PRECEDE THE JUDGMENT (THREE ARTICLES)

We must next consider the signs that will precede the judgment: and
under this head there are three points of inquiry:

(1) Whether any signs will precede the Lord's coming to judgment?

(2) Whether in very truth the sun and moon will be darkened?

(3) Whether the powers of the heavens will be moved when the Lord shall
come?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether any signs will precede the Lord's coming to judgment?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the Lord's coming to judgment will not be
preceded by any signs. Because it is written (1 Thess. 5:3): "When they
shall say: Peace and security; then shall sudden destruction come upon
them." Now there would be no peace and security if men were terrified by
previous signs. Therefore signs will not precede that coming

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, signs are ordained for the manifestation of something.
But His coming is to be hidden; wherefore it is written (1 Thess. 5:2):
"The day of the Lord shall come as a thief in the night." Therefore signs
ought not to precede it.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the time of His first coming was foreknown by the
prophets, which does not apply to His second coming. Now no such signs
preceded the first coming of Christ. Therefore neither will they precede
the second.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Lk. 21:25): "There shall be signs in the
sun, and in the moon, and in the stars," etc.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, Jerome [*St. Peter Damian, Opuscul. xlix; he quotes St. Jerome,
but the reference is not known.] mentions fifteen signs preceding the
judgment. He says that on the "first" day all the seas will rise fifteen
cubits above the mountains; in the "second" day all the waters will be
plunged into the depths, so that scarcely will they be visible; on the
"third" day they will be restored to their previous condition; on the
"fourth" day all the great fishes and other things that move in the
waters will gather together and, raising their heads above the sea, roar
at one another contentiously; on the "fifth" day, all the birds of the
air will gather together in the fields, wailing to one another, with
neither bite nor sup; on the "sixth" day rivers of fire will arise
towards the firmament rushing together from the west to the east; on the
"seventh" day all the stars, both planets and fixed stars, will throw out
fiery tails like comets; on the "eighth" day there will be a great
earthquake, and all animals will be laid low; on the "ninth" day all the
plants will be bedewed as it were with blood; on the "tenth" day all
stones, little and great, will be divided into four parts dashing against
one another; on the "eleventh" day all hills and mountains and buildings
will be reduced to dust; on the "twelfth" day all animals will come from
forest and mountain to the fields, roaring and tasting of nothing; on the
"thirteenth" day all graves from east to west will open to allow the
bodies to rise again; on the "fourteenth" day all men will leave their
abode, neither understanding nor speaking, but rushing hither and thither
like madmen; on the "fifteenth" day all will die and will rise again with
those who died long before.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, When Christ shall come to judge He will appear in the
form of glory, on account of the authority becoming a judge. Now it
pertains to the dignity of judicial power to have certain signs that
induce people to reverence and subjection: and consequently many signs
will precede the advent of Christ when He shall come to judgment, in
order that the hearts of men be brought to subjection to the coming
judge, and be prepared for the judgment, being forewarned by those signs.
But it is not easy to know what these signs may be: for the signs of
which we read in the gospels, as Augustine says, writing to Hesychius
about the end of the world (Ep. lxxx), refer not only to Christ's coming
to judgment, but also to the time of the sack of Jerusalem, and to the
coming of Christ in ceaselessly visiting His Church. So that, perhaps, if
we consider them carefully, we shall find that none of them refers to the
coming advent, as he remarks: because these signs that are mentioned in
the gospels, such as wars, fears, and so forth, have been from the
beginning of the human race: unless perhaps we say that at that time they
will be more prevalent: although it is uncertain in what degree this
increase will foretell the imminence of the advent. The signs mentioned
by Jerome are not asserted by him; he merely says that he found them
written in the annals of the Hebrews: and, indeed, they contain very
little likelihood.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 1: According to Augustine (Ad Hesych., Ep. lxxx) towards the
end of the world there will be a general persecution of the good by the
wicked: so that at the same time some will fear, namely the good, and
some will be secure, namely the wicked. The words: "When they shall say:
Peace and security," refer to the wicked, who will pay little heed to the
signs of the coming judgment: while the words of Lk. 21:26, "men
withering away," etc., should be referred to the good.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 2/2

We may also reply that all these signs that will happen about the time
of the judgment are reckoned to occur within the time occupied by the
judgment, so that the judgment day contains them all. Wherefore although
men be terrified by the signs appearing about the judgment day, yet
before those signs begin to appear the wicked will think themselves to be
in peace and security, after the death of Antichrist and before the
coming of Christ, seeing that the world is not at once destroyed, as they
thought hitherto.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The day of the Lord is said to come as a thief, because the
exact time is not known, since it will not be possible to know it from
those signs: although, as we have already said, all these most manifest
sings which will precede the judgment immediately may be comprised under
the judgment day.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: At His first advent Christ came secretly, although the
appointed time was known beforehand by the prophets. Hence there was no
need for such signs to appear at His first coming, as will appear at His
second advent, when He will come openly, although the appointed time is
hidden.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether towards the time of the judgment the sun and moon will be
darkened in very truth?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that towards the time of the judgment the sun and
moon will be darkened in very truth. For, as Rabanus says, commenting on
Mt. 24:29 "nothing hinders us from gathering that the sun moon, and stars
will then be deprived of their light, as we know happened to the sun at
the time of our Lord's passion."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the light of the heavenly bodies is directed to the
generation of inferior bodies, because by its means and not only by their
movement they act upon this lower world as Averroes says (De Subst.
Orbis.). But generation will cease then. Therefore neither will light
remain in the heavenly bodies.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, according to some the inferior bodies will be cleansed
of the qualities by which they act. Now heavenly bodies act not only by
movement, but also by light, as stated above (OBJ[2]). Therefore as the
movement of heaven will cease, so will the light of the heavenly bodies.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, According to astronomers the sun and moon cannot be
eclipsed at the same time. But this darkening of the sun and moon is
stated to be simultaneous, when the Lord shall come to judgment.
Therefore the darkening will not be in very truth due to a natural
eclipse.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is not seemly for the same to be the cause of a thing's
failing and increasing. Now when our Lord shall come the light of the
luminaries will increase according to Is. 30:26, "The light of the moon
shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be
sevenfold." Therefore it is unfitting for the light of these bodies to
cease when our Lord comes.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, If we speak of the sun and moon in respect of the very
moment of Christ's coming, it is not credible that they will be darkened
through being bereft of their light, since when Christ comes and the
saints rise again the whole world will be renewed, as we shall state
further on (Q[74]). If, however, we speak of them in respect of the time
immediately preceding the judgment, it is possible that by the Divine
power the sun, moon, and other luminaries of the heavens will be
darkened, either at various times or all together, in order to inspire
men with fear.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Rabanus is speaking of the time preceding the judgment:
wherefore he adds that when the judgment day is over the words of Isaias
shall be fulfilled.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Light is in the heavenly bodies not only for the purpose of
causing generation in these lower bodies, but also for their own
perfection and beauty. Hence it does not follow that where generation
ceases, the light of the heavenly bodies will cease, but rather that it
will increase.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: It does not seem probable that the elemental qualities will
be removed from the elements, although some have asserted this. If,
however, they be removed, there would still be no parallel between them
and light, since the elemental qualities are in opposition to one
another, so that their action is corruptive: whereas light is a principle
of action not by way of opposition, but by way of a principle regulating
things in opposition to one another and bringing them back to harmony.
Nor is there a parallel with the movement of heavenly bodies, for
movement is the act of that which is imperfect, wherefore it must needs
cease when the imperfection ceases: whereas this cannot be said of light.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the virtues of heaven will be moved when our Lord shall come?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the virtues of heaven will not be moved when
our Lord shall come. For the virtues of heaven can de. note only the
blessed angels. Now immobility is essential to blessedness. Therefore it
will be impossible for them to be moved.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, ignorance is the cause of wonder (Metaph. i, 2). Now
ignorance, like fear, is far from the angels, for as Gregory says (Dial.
iv, 33; Moral. ii, 3), "what do they not see, who see Him Who sees all."
Therefore it will be impossible for them to be moved with wonder, as
stated in the text (Sent. iv, D, 48).

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, all the angels will be present at the Divine judgment;
wherefore it is stated (Apoc. 7:11): "All the angels stood round about
the throne." Now the virtues denote one particular order of angels.
Therefore it should not be said of them rather than of others, that they
are moved.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Job 26:11): "The pillars of heaven
tremble, and dread at His beck." Now the pillars of heaven can denote
only the virtues of heaven. Therefore the virtues of heaven will be moved.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is written (Mt. 24:29): "The stars shall fall from heaven,
and the virtues [Douay: 'powers'] of heaven shall be moved."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Virtue is twofold as applied to the angels, [*Cf. FP,
Q[108], A[5], ad 1] as Dionysius states (Coel. Hier. xi). For sometimes
the name of "virtues" is appropriated to one order, which according to
him, is the middle order of the middle hierarchy, but according to
Gregory (Hom. in Evang. xxxiv) is the highest order of the lowest
hierarchy. In another sense it is employed to denote all the angels: and
then they are said to the question at issue it may be taken either way.
For in the text (Sent. iv, D, 48) it is explained according to the second
acceptation, so as to denote all the angels: and then they are said to be
moved through wonder at the renewing of the world, as stated in the text.
It can also be explained in reference to virtue as the name of a
particular order; and then that order is said to be moved more than the
others by reason of the effect, since according to Gregory (Hom. in
Evang. xxxiv) we ascribe to that order the working of miracles which
especially will be worked about that time: or again, because that
order - since, according to Dionysius (Coel. Hier. xi), it belongs to the
middle hierarchy - is not limited in its power, wherefore its ministry
must needs regard universal causes. Consequently the proper office of the
virtues is seemingly to move the heavenly bodies which are the cause of
what happens in nature here below. And again the very name denotes this,
since they are called the "virtues of heaven." Accordingly they will be
moved then, because they will no more produce their effect, by ceasing to
move the heavenly bodies: even as the angels who are appointed to watch
over men will no longer fulfill the office of guardians.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This movement changes nothing pertaining to their state;
but refers either to their effects which may vary without any change on
their part, or to some new consideration of things which hitherto they
were unable to see by means of their concreated species, which change of
thought is not taken from them by their state of blessedness. Hence
Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. viii, 20) that "God moves the spiritual
creature through time."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/2

Reply OBJ 2: Wonder is wont to be about things surpassing our knowledge
or ability: and accordingly the virtues of heaven will wonder at the
Divine power doing such things, in so far as they fail to do or
comprehend them. In this sense the blessed Agnes said that the "sun and
moon wonder at His beauty": and this does not imply ignorance in the
angels, but removes the comprehension of God from them.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[73] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 2/2

The Reply to the Third Objection is clear from what has been said.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF THE FIRE OF THE FINAL CONFLAGRATION (NINE ARTICLES)

We must now consider the fire of the final conflagration: and under this
head there are nine points of inquiry:

(1) Whether any cleansing of the world is to take place?

(2) Whether it will be effected by fire?

(3) Whether that fire is of the same species as elemental fire?

(4) Whether that fire will cleanse also the higher heavens?

(5) Whether that fire will consume the other elements?

(6) Whether it will cleanse all the elements?

(7) Whether that fire precedes or follows the judgment?

(8) Whether men are to be consumed by that fire?

(9) Whether the wicked will be involved therein?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the world is to be cleansed?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that there is not to be any cleansing of the world.
For only that which is unclean needs cleansing. Now God's creatures are
not unclean, wherefore it is written (Acts 10:15): "That which God hath
cleansed, do not thou call common," i.e. unclean. Therefore the creatures
of the world shall not be cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, according to Divine justice cleansing is directed to the
removal of the uncleanness of sin, as instanced in the cleansing after
death. But there can be no stain of sin in the elements of this world.
Therefore, seemingly, they need not to be cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, a thing is said to be cleansed when any foreign matter
that depreciates it is removed therefrom: for the removal of that which
ennobles a thing is not called a cleansing, but rather a diminishing. Now
it pertains to the perfection and nobility of the elements that something
of a foreign nature is mingled with them, since the form of a mixed body
is more noble than the form of a simple body. Therefore it would seem
nowise fitting that the elements of this world can possibly be cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, All renewal is effected by some kind of cleansing. But
the elements will be renewed; hence it is written (Apoc. 21:1): "I saw a
new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth was
gone." Therefore the elements shall be cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, a gloss [*St. Augustine, De Civ. Dei xx, 16] on 1 Cor. 7:31,
"The fashion of this earth passeth away," says: "The beauty of this world
will perish in the burning of worldly flames." Therefore the same
conclusion follows.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Since the world was, in a way, made for man's sake, it
follows that, when man shall be glorified in the body, the other bodies
of the world shall also be changed to a better state, so that it is
rendered a more fitting place for him and more pleasant to look upon. Now
in order that man obtain the glory of the body, it behooves first of all
those things to be removed which are opposed to glory. There are two,
namely the corruption and stain of sin - because according to 1 Cor.
15:50, "neither shall corruption possess incorruption," and all the
unclean shall be without the city of glory (Apoc. 22:15) - and again, the
elements require to be cleansed from the contrary dispositions, ere they
be brought to the newness of glory, proportionately to what we have said
with regard to man. Now although, properly speaking, a corporeal thing
cannot be the subject of the stain of sin, nevertheless, on account of
sin corporeal things contract a certain unfittingness for being appointed
to spiritual purposes; and for this reason we find that places where
crimes have been committed are reckoned unfit for the performance of
sacred actions therein, unless they be cleansed beforehand. Accordingly
that part of the world which is given to our use contracts from men's
sins a certain unfitness for being glorified, wherefore in this respect
it needs to be cleansed. In like manner with regard to the intervening
space, on account of the contact of the elements, there are many
corruptions, generations and alterations of the elements, which diminish
their purity: wherefore the elements need to be cleansed from these also,
so that they be fit to receive the newness of glory.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: When it is asserted that every creature of God is clean we
are to understand this as meaning that its substance contains no alloy of
evil, as the Manichees maintained, saying that evil and good are two
substances in some places severed from one another, in others mingled
together. But it does not exclude a creature from having an admixture of
a foreign nature, which in itself is also good, but is inconsistent with
the perfection of that creature. Nor does this prevent evil from being
accidental to a creature, although not mingled with it as part of its
substance.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Although corporeal elements cannot be the subject of sin,
nevertheless, from the sin that is committed in them they contract a
certain unfitness for receiving the perfection of glory.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The form of a mixed body and the form of an element may be
considered in two ways: either as regards the perfection of the species,
and thus a mixed body is more perfect - or as regards their continual
endurance; and thus the simple body is more noble, because it has not in
itself the cause of corruption, unless it be corrupted by something
extrinsic: whereas a mixed body has in itself the cause of its
corruption, namely the composition of contraries. Wherefore a simple
body, although it be corruptible in part is incorruptible as a whole,
which cannot be said of a mixed body. And since incorruption belongs to
the perfection of glory, it follows that the perfection of a simple is
more in keeping with the perfection of glory, than the perfection of a
mixed body, unless the mixed body has also in itself some principle of
incorruption, as the human body has, the form of which is incorruptible.
Nevertheless, although a mixed body is somewhat more noble than a simple
body, a simple body that exists by itself has a more noble being than if
it exist in a mixed body, because in a mixed body simple bodies are
somewhat in potentiality, whereas, existing by themselves, they are in
their ultimate perfection.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the cleansing of the world will be effected by fire?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that this cleansing will not be effected by fire.
For since fire is a part of the world, it needs to be cleansed like the
other parts. Now, the same thing should not be both cleanser and
cleansed. Therefore it would seem that the cleansing will not be by fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, just as fire has a cleansing virtue so has water. Since
then all things are not capable of being cleansed by fire, and some need
to be cleansed by water - which distinction is moreover observed by the
Old Law - it would seem that fire will not at any rate cleanse all things.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, this cleansing would seem to consist in purifying the
parts of the world by separating them from one another. Now the
separation of the parts of the world from one another at the world's
beginning was effected by God's power alone, for the work of distinction
was carried out by that power: wherefore Anaxagoras asserted that the
separation was effected by the act of the intellect which moves all
things (cf. Aristotle, Phys. viii, 9). Therefore it would seem that at
the end of the world the cleansing will be done immediately by God and
not by fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Ps. 49:3): "A fire shall burn before
Him, and a mighty tempest shall be around Him"; and afterwards in
reference to the judgment (Ps. 49:4): "He shall call heaven from above,
and the earth to judge His people." Therefore it would seem that the
final cleansing of the world will be by means of fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is written (2 Pt. 3:12): "The heavens being on fire will be
dissolved, and the elements shall melt with the burning heat." Therefore
this cleansing will be effected by fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As stated above (A[1]) this cleansing of the world will
remove from it the stain contracted from sin, and the impurity resulting
from mixture, and will be a disposition to the perfection of glory; and
consequently in this threefold respect it will be most fitting for it to
be effected by fire. First, because since fire is the most noble of the
elements, its natural properties are more like the properties of glory,
and this is especially clear in regard to light. Secondly, because fire,
on account of the efficacy of its active virtue, is not as susceptible as
the other elements to the admixture of a foreign matter. Thirdly, because
the sphere of fire is far removed from our abode; nor are we so familiar
with the use of fire as with that of earth, water, and air, so that it is
not so liable to depreciation. Moreover, it is most efficacious in
cleansing and in separating by a process of rarefaction.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Fire is not employed by us in its proper matter (since thus
it is far removed from us), but only in a foreign matter: and in this
respect it will be possible for the world to be cleansed by fire as
existing in its pure state. But in so far as it has an admixture of some
foreign matter it will be possible for it to be cleansed; and thus it
will be cleanser and cleansed under different aspects. and this is not
unreasonable.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The first cleansing of the world by the deluge regarded
only the stain of sin. Now the sin which was most prevalent then was the
sin of concupiscence, and consequently it was fitting that the cleansing
should be by means of its contrary, namely water. But the second
cleansing regards both the stain of sin and the impurity of mixture, and
in respect of both it is more fitting for it to be effected by fire than
by water. For the power of water tends to unite rather than to separate;
wherefore the natural impurity of the elements could not be removed by
water as by fire. Moreover, at the end of the world the prevalent sin
will be that of tepidity, as though the world were already growing old,
because then, according to Mt. 24:12, "the charity of many shall grow
cold," and consequently the cleansing will then be fittingly effected by
fire. Nor is there any thing that cannot in some way be cleansed by fire:
some things, however, cannot be cleansed by fire without being destroyed
themselves, such as cloths and wooden vessels, and these the Law ordered
to be cleansed with water; yet all these things will be finally destroyed
by fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: By the work of distinction things received different forms
whereby they are distinct from one another: and consequently this could
only be done by Him Who is the author of nature. But by the final
cleansing things will be restored to the purity wherein they were
created, wherefore created nature will be able to minister to its Creator
to this effect; and for this reason is a creature employed as a minister,
that it is ennobled thereby.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the fire whereby the world will be cleansed will be of the same
species with elemental fire?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the fire in question is not of the same
species as elemental fire. For nothing consumes itself. But that fire
will consume the four elements according to a gloss on 2 Pt. 3:12.
Therefore that fire will not be of the same species as elemental fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, as power is made known by operation, so is nature made
known by power. Now that fire will have a different power from the fire
which is an element: because it will cleanse the universe, whereas this
fire cannot do that. Therefore it will not be of the same species as this.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, in natural bodies those that are of the same species
have the same movement. But that fire will have a different movement from
the fire that is an element, because it will move in all directions so as
to cleanse the whole. Therefore it is not of the same species.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 16), and his words are
contained in a gloss on 1 Cor. 7:31, that "the fashion of this world will
perish in the burning of worldly flames." Therefore that fire will be of
the same nature as the fire which is now in the world.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, just as the future cleansing is to be by fire, so was the past
cleansing by water: and they are both compared to one another, 2 Pt. 3:5.
Now in the first cleansing the water was of the same species with
elemental water. Therefore in like manner the fire of the second
cleansing will be of the same species with elemental fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, We meet with three opinions on this question. For some
say that the element of fire which is in its own sphere will come down to
cleanse the world: and they explain this descent by way of
multiplication, because the fire will spread through finding combustible
matter on all sides. And this will result all the more then since the
virtue of the fire will be raised over all the elements. Against this,
however, would seem to be not only the fact that this fire will come
down, but also the statement of the saints that it will rise up; thus (2
Pt. 3:10) it is declared that the fire of the judgment will rise as high
as the waters of the deluge; whence it would seem to follow that this
fire is situated towards the middle of the place of generation. Hence
others say that this fire will be generated towards the intervening space
through the focusing together of the rays of the heavenly bodies, just as
we see them focused together in a burning-glass; for at that time in lieu
of glasses there will be concave clouds, on which the rays will strike
But this again does not seem probable: for since the effects of heavenly
bodies depend on certain fixed positions and aspects, if this fire
resulted from the virtue of the heavenly bodies, the time of this
cleansing would be known to those who observe the movements of the stars
and this is contrary to the authority of Scripture. Consequently others,
following Augustine, say that "just as the deluge resulted from an
outpouring of the waters of the world, so the fashion of this world will
perish by a burning of worldly flames" (De Civ. Dei. xx, 16). This
burning is nothing else but the assembly of all those lower and higher
causes that by their nature have a kindling virtue: and this assembly
will take place not in the ordinary course of things, but by the Divine
power: and from all these causes thus assembled the fire that will burn
the surface of this world will result. If we consider aright these
opinions, we shall find that they differ as to the cause producing this
fire and not as to its species. For fire, whether produced by the sun or
by some lower heating cause, is of the same species as fire in its own
sphere, except in so far as the former has some admixture of foreign
matter. And this will of necessity be the case then, since fire cannot
cleanse a thing, unless this become its matter in some way. Hence we must
grant that the fire in question is simply of the same species as ours.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The fire in question, although of the same species as ours,
is not identically the same. Now we see that of two fires of the same
species one destroys the other, namely the greater destroys the lesser,
by consuming its matter. In like manner that fire will be able to destroy
our fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Just as an operation that proceeds from the virtue of a
thing is an indication of that virtue, so is its virtue an indication of
its essence or nature, if it proceed from the essential principles of the
thing. But an operation that does not proceed from the virtue of the
operator does not indicate its virtue. This appears in instruments: for
the action of an instrument shows forth the virtue of the mover rather
than that of the instrument, since it shows forth the virtue of the agent
in so far as the latter is the first principle of the action, whereas it
does not show forth the virtue of the instrument, except in so far as it
is susceptive of the influence of the principal agent as moving that
instrument. In like manner a virtue that does not proceed from the
essential principles of a thing does not indicate the nature of that
thing except in the point of susceptibility. Thus the virtue whereby hot
water can heat is no indication of the nature of water except in the
point of its being receptive of heat. Consequently nothing prevents water
that has this virtue from being of the same species as water that has it
not. In like manner it is not unreasonable that this fire, which will
have the power to cleanse the surface of the world, will be of the same
species as the fire to which we are used, since the heating power therein
arises, not from its essential principles but from the divine power or
operation: whether we say that this power is an absolute quality, such as
heat in hot water, or a kind of intention as we have ascribed to
instrumental virtue (Sent. iv, D, 1, qu. 1, A[4]) [*Cf. TP, Q[62], A[4],
ad 1]. The latter is more probable since that fire will not act save as
the instrument of the Divine power.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Of its own nature fire tends only upwards; but in so far
as it pursues its matter, which it requires when it is outside its own
sphere, it follows the site of combustible matter. Accordingly it is not
unreasonable for it to take a circular or a downward course, especially
in so far as it acts as the instrument of the Divine power.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether that fire will cleanse also the higher heavens?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that that fire will cleanse also the higher
heavens. For it is written (Ps. 101:26,27): "The heavens are the works of
Thy hands: they shall perish but Thou remainest." Now the higher heavens
also are the work of God's hands. Therefore they also shall perish in the
final burning of the world.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (2 Pt. 3:12): "The heavens being on fire
shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with the burning heat of
fire." Now the heavens that are distinct from the elements are the higher
heavens, wherein the stars are fixed. Therefore it would seem that they
also will be cleansed by that fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the purpose of that fire will be to remove from bodies
their indisposition to the perfection of glory. Now in the higher heaven
we find this indisposition both as regards guilt, since the devil sinned
there, and as regards natural deficiency, since a gloss on Rm. 8:22, "We
know that every creature groaneth and is in labor even until now," says:
"All the elements fulfill their duty with labor: even as it is not
without labor that the sun and moon travel their appointed course."
Therefore the higher heavens also will be cleansed by that fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, "The heavenly bodies are not receptive of impressions
from without" [*Cf. Sent. Philosop. ex Arist. collect. lit. c. - Among
the works of Bede].

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, a gloss on 2 Thess. 1:8, "In a flame of fire giving vengeance,"
says: "There will be in the world a fire that shall precede Him, and
shall rise in the air to the same height as did the waters of the
deluge." But the waters of the deluge did not rise to the height of the
higher heavens but only 15 cubits higher than the mountain summits (Gn.
7:20). Therefore the higher heavens will not be cleansed by that fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The cleansing of the world will be for the purpose of
removing from bodies the disposition contrary to the perfection of glory,
and this perfection is the final consummation of the universe: and this
disposition is to be found in all bodies, but differently in different
bodies. For in some this indisposition regards something inherent to
their substance: as in these lower bodies which by being mixed together
fall away from their own purity. In others this indisposition does not
regard something inherent to their substance; as in the heavenly bodies,
wherein nothing is to be found contrary to the final perfection of the
universe, except movement which is the way to perfection, and this not
any kind of movement, but only local movement, which changes nothing
intrinsic to a thing, such as its substance, quantity, or quality, but
only its place which is extrinsic to it. Consequently there is no need to
take anything away from the substance of the higher heavens, but only to
set its movement at rest. Now local movement is brought to rest not by
the action of a counter agent, but by the mover ceasing to move; and
therefore the heavenly bodies will not be cleansed, neither by fire nor
by the action of any creature, but in lieu of being cleansed they will be
set at rest by God's will alone.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: As Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 18,24): "Those words of
the psalm refer to the aerial heavens which will be cleansed by the fire
of the final conflagration." Or we may reply that if they refer also to
the higher heavens, these are said to perish as regards their movement
whereby now they are moved without cessation.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Peter explains himself to which heavens he refers. For
before the words quoted, he had said (2 Pt. 3:5-7): "The heavens . . .
first, and the earth . . . through water . . . perished . . . which . . .
now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire unto the day
of judgment." [*The entire text differs somewhat from St. Thomas's
quotation; but the sense is the same.] Therefore the heavens to be
cleansed are those which before were cleansed by the waters of the
deluge, namely the aerial heavens.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: This labor and service of the creature, that Ambrose
ascribes to the heavenly bodies, is nothing else than the successive
movements whereby they are subject to time, and the lack of that final
consummation which they will attain in the end. Nor did the empyrean
heaven contract any stain from the sin of the demons, because they were
expelled from that heaven as soon as they sinned.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether that fire will consume the other elements?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the fire in question will consume the other
elements. For a gloss of Bede on 2 Pt. 3:12 says: "This exceeding great
fire will engulf the four elements whereof the world consists: yet it
will not so engulf all things that they will cease to be, but it will
consume two of them entirely, and will restore two of them to a better
fashion." Therefore it would seem that at least two of the elements are
to be entirely destroyed by that fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Apoc. 21:1): "The first heaven and the
first earth have passed away and the sea is no more." Now the heaven here
denotes the air, as Augustine states (De Civ. Dei xx, 18); and the sea
denotes the gathering together of the waters. Therefore it would seem
that these three elements will be wholly destroyed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, fire does not cleanse except in so far as other things
are made to be its matter. If, then, fire cleanses the other elements,
they must needs become its matter. Therefore they must pass into its
nature, and consequently be voided of their own nature.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the form of fire is the most noble of the forms to which
elemental matter can attain. Now all things will be brought to the most
noble state by this cleansing. Therefore the other elements will be
wholly transformed into fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, A gloss on 1 Cor. 7:31, "The fashion of this world
passeth away," says: "The beauty, not the substance, passeth." But the
very substance of the elements belongs to the perfection of the world.
Therefore the elements will not be consumed as to their substance.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, this final cleansing that will be effected by fire will
correspond to the first cleansing which was effected by water. Now the
latter did not corrupt the substance of the elements. Therefore neither
will the former which will be the work of fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Body Para. 1/4

I answer that, There are many opinions on this question. For some say
that all the elements will remain as to their matter, while all will be
changed as regards their imperfection; but that two of them will retain
their respective substantial form, namely air and earth, while two of
them, namely fire and water, will not retain their substantial form but
will be changed to the form of heaven. In this way three elements, namely
air, fire, and water, will be called "heaven"; although air will retain
the same substantial form as it has now, since even now it is called
"heaven." Wherefore (Apoc. 21:1) only heaven and earth are mentioned: "I
saw," says he, "a new heaven and a new earth." But this opinion is
altogether absurd: for it is opposed both to philosophy - which holds it
impossible for the lower bodies to be in potentiality to the form of
heaven, since they have neither a common matter, nor mutual
contrariety - and to theology, since according to this opinion the
perfection of the universe with the integrity of its parts will not be
assured on account of two of the elements being destroyed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Body Para. 2/4

Consequently "heaven" is taken to denote the fifth body, while all the
elements are designated by "earth," as expressed in Ps. 148:7,8, "Praise
the Lord from the earth" and afterwards, "fire, hail, snow, ice," etc.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Body Para. 3/4

Hence others say that all the elements will remain as to their
substance, but that their active and passive qualities will be taken from
them: even as they say too, that in a mixed body the elements retain
their substantial form without having their proper qualities, since these
are reduced to a mean, and a mean is neither of the extremes. And
seemingly the following words of Augustine (De Civ. Dei xx, 16) would
seem in agreement with this: "In this conflagration of the world the
qualities of the corruptible elements that were befitting our corruptible
bodies will entirely perish by fire: and the substance itself will have
those qualities that become an immortal body."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] Body Para. 4/4

However, this does not seem probable, for since the proper qualities of
the elements are the effects of their substantial form, it seems
impossible, as long as the substantial forms remain, for the aforesaid
qualities to be changed, except for a time by some violent action: thus
in hot water we see that by virtue of its species it returns to the cold
temperature which it had lost by the action of fire, provided the species
of water remain. Moreover, these same elemental qualities belong to the
second perfection of the elements, as being their proper passions: nor is
it probable that in this final consummation the elements will lose
anything of their natural perfection. Wherefore it would seem that the
reply to this question should be that the elements will remain as to
their substance and proper qualities, but that they will be cleansed both
from the stain which they contracted from the sins of men, and from the
impurity resulting in them through their mutual action and passion:
because when once the movement of the first movable body ceases, mutual
action and passion will be impossible in the lower elements: and this is
what Augustine calls the "qualities of corruptible elements," namely
their unnatural dispositions by reason of which they come near to
corruption.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: That fire is said to engulf the four elements in so far as
in some way it will cleanse them. But when it is said further that "it
will consume two entirely," this does not mean that two of the elements
are to be destroyed as to their substance, but that two will be more
changed from the property which they have now. Some say that these two
are fire and water which excel the others in their active qualities,
namely heat and cold, which are the chief principles of corruption in
other bodies; and since then there will be no action of fire and water
which surpass the others in activity, they would seem especially to be
changed from the virtue which they have now. Others, however, say that
these two are air and water, on account of the various movements of these
two elements, which movements they derive from the movement of the
heavenly bodies. And since these movements will cease (such as the ebb
and flow of the sea, and the disturbances of winds and so forth),
therefore these elements especially will be changed from the property
which they have now.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: As Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 16), when it is stated:
"And the sea is no more," by the sea we may understand the present world
of which he had said previously (De Civ. Dei xx, 13): "The sea gave up
the dead that were in it." If, however, the sea be taken literally we
must reply that by the sea two things are to be understood, namely the
substance of the waters, and their disposition, as containing salt and as
to the movement of the waves. The sea will remain, not as to this second,
but as to the first.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: This fire will not act save as the instrument of God's
providence and power; wherefore it will not act on the other elements so
as to consume them but only so as to cleanse them. Nor is it necessary
for that which becomes the matter of fire, to be voided of its proper
species entirely, as instanced by incandescent iron, which by virtue of
its species that remains returns to its proper and former state as soon
as it is taken from the furnace. It will be the same with the elements
after they are cleansed by fire.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[5] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: In the elemental parts we must consider not only what is
befitting a part considered in itself, but also what is befitting it in
its relation to the whole. I say, then, that although water would be more
noble if it had the form of fire, as likewise would earth and air, yet
the universe would be more imperfect, if all elemental matter were to
assume the form of fire.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether all the elements will be cleansed by that fire?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that neither will all the elements be cleansed by
that fire. Because that fire, as stated already (A[3]), will not rise
higher than the waters of the deluge. But the waters of the deluge did
not reach to the sphere of fire. Therefore neither will the element of
fire be cleansed by the final cleansing.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, a gloss on Apoc. 21:1, "I saw a new heaven," etc., says:
"There can be no doubt that the transformation of the air and earth will
be caused by fire; but it is doubtful about water, since it is believed
to have the power of cleansing itself." Therefore at least it is
uncertain that all the elements will be cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, a place where there is an everlasting stain is never
cleansed. Now there will always be a stain in hell. Since, then, hell is
situated among the elements, it would seem that the elements will not be
wholly cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the earthly paradise is situated on the earth. Yet it
will not be cleansed by fire, since not even the waters of the deluge
reached it, as Bede says (Hexaem. i, ad Gen. 2:8), as is stated in
Sentent. ii, D, 7. Therefore it would seem that the elements will not all
be wholly cleansed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] OTC Para. 1/1

On the contrary, The gloss quoted above (A[5], OBJ[1]) on 2 Pt. 3:12
declares that "this fire will engulf the four elements."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Some [*St. Bonaventure, Sentent. iv, D, 47, A[2], Q[3]]
say that the fire in question will rise to the summit of the space
containing the four elements: so that the elements would be entirely
cleansed both from the stain of sin by which also the higher parts of the
elements were infected (as instanced by the smoke of idolatry which
stained the higher regions), and again from corruption, since the
elements are corruptible in all their parts. But this opinion is opposed
to the authority of Scripture, because it is written (2 Pt. 3:7) that
those heavens are "kept in store unto fire," which were cleansed by
water; and Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 18) that "the same world which
perished in the deluge is reserved unto fire." Now it is clear that the
waters of the deluge did not rise to the summit of the space occupied by
the elements, but only 15 cubits above the mountain tops; and moreover it
is known that vapors or any smoke whatever rising from the earth cannot
pierce the entire sphere of fire so as to reach its summit; and so the
stain of sin did not reach the aforesaid space. Nor can the elements be
cleansed from corruptibility by the removal of something that might be
consumed by fire: whereas it will be possible for the impurities of the
elements arising from their mingling together to be consumed by fire. And
these impurities are chiefly round about the earth as far as the middle
of the air: wherefore the fire of the final conflagration will cleanse up
to that point, since the waters of the deluge rose to a height which can
be approximately calculated from the height of the mountains which they
surpassed in a fixed measure.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] Body Para. 2/2

We therefore grant the First Objection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The reason for doubt is expressed in the gloss, because, to
wit, water is believed to have in itself the power of cleansing, yet not
such a power as will be competent to the future state, as stated above
(A[5]; A[2], ad 2).

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The purpose of this cleansing will be chiefly to remove all
imperfection from the abode of the saints; and consequently in this
cleansing all that is foul will be brought together to the place of the
damned: so hell will not be cleansed, and the dregs of the whole earth
will be brought thither, according to Ps. 74:9, "The dregs thereof are
not emptied, all the sinners of the earth shall drink."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[6] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Although the sin of the first man was committed in the
earthly paradise, this is not the place of sinners, as neither is the
empyrean heaven: since from both places man and devil were expelled
forthwith after their sin. Consequently that place needs no cleansing.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the fire of the final conflagration is to follow the judgment?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the fire of the final conflagration is to
follow the judgment. For Augustine (De Civ. Dei xx, 30) gives the
following order of the things to take place at the judgment, saying: "At
this judgment we have learned that the following things will occur. Elias
the Thesbite will appear, the Jews will believe, Antichrist will
persecute, Christ will judge, the dead shall rise again, the good shall
be separated from the wicked, the world shall be set on fire and shall be
renewed." Therefore the burning will follow the judgment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx, 16): "After the wicked
have been judged, and cast into everlasting fire, the figure of this
world will perish in the furnace of worldly flames." Therefore the same
conclusion follows.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, when the Lord comes to judgment He will find some men
living, as appears from the words of 1 Thess. 4:16, where the Apostle
speaking in their person says: "Then we who are alive, who remain unto
the coming of the Lord [*Vulg.: 'who are left, shall be taken . . . to
meet Christ' - the words "who remain," etc., are from 1 Thess. 4:14]."
But it would not be so, if the burning of the world were to come first,
since they would be destroyed by the fire. Therefore this fire will
follow the judgment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, it is said that our Lord will come to judge the earth by
fire, and consequently the final conflagration would seem to be the
execution of the sentence of Divine judgment. Now execution follows
judgment. Therefore that fire will follow the judgment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Ps. 96:3): "A fire shall go before Him."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, the resurrection will precede the judgment, else every eye
would not see Christ judging. Now the burning of the world will precede
the resurrection, for the saints who will rise again will have spiritual
and impassible bodies, so that it will be impossible for the fire to
cleanse them, and yet the text (Sent. iv, D, 47) quotes Augustine (De
Civ. Dei xx, 18) as saying that "whatever needs cleansing in any way
shall be cleansed by that fire." Therefore that fire will precede the
judgment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The fire in question will in reality, as regards its
beginning, precede the judgment. This can clearly be gathered from the
fact that the resurrection of the dead will precede the judgment, since
according to 1 Thess. 4:13-16, those who have slept "shall be taken up .
. . in the clouds . . . into the air . . . to meet Christ coming to
judgment." Now the general resurrection and the glorification of the
bodies of the saints will happen at the same time; for the saints in
rising again will assume a glorified body, as evidenced by 1 Cor. 15:43,
"It is sown in dishonor, it shall rise in glory": and at the same time as
the saints' bodies shall be glorified, all creatures shall be renewed,
each in its own way, as appears from the statement (Rm. 8:21) that "the
creature . . . itself shall be delivered from the servitude of corruption
into the liberty of the glory of the children of God." Since then the
burning of the world is a disposition to the aforesaid renewal, as stated
above (AA[1],4); it can clearly be gathered that this burning, so far as
it shall cleanse the world, will precede the judgment, but as regards a
certain action thereof, whereby it will engulf the wicked, it will follow
the judgment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Augustine is speaking not as one who decides the point, but
as expressing an opinion. This is clear from his continuing thus: "That
all these things are to happen is a matter of faith, but how and in what
order we shall learn more then by experience of the things themselves
than now by seeking a definite conclusion by arguing about them.
Methinks, however, they will occur in the order I have given." Hence it
is clear that he is speaking as offering his opinion. The same answer
applies to the Second Objection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: All men shall die and rise again: yet those are said to be
found alive who will live in the body until the time of the conflagration.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[7] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: That fire will not carry out the sentence of the judge
except as regards the engulfing of the wicked: in this respect it will
follow the judgment.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether that fire will have such an effect on men as is described?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that this fire will not have such an effect on men
as is described in the text (Sent. iv, D, 47). For a thing is said to be
consumed when it is reduced to naught. Now the bodies of the wicked will
not be reduced to naught, but will be kept for eternity, that they may
bear an eternal punishment. Therefore this fire will not consume the
wicked, as stated in the text.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, if it be said that it will consume the bodies of the
wicked by reducing them to ashes; on the contrary, as the bodies of the
wicked, so will those of the good be brought to ashes: for it is the
privilege of Christ alone that His flesh see not corruption. Therefore it
will consume also the good who will then be found.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the stain of sin is more abundant in the elements, as
combining together to the formation of the human body wherein is the
corruption of the fomes [*Cf. FS, Q[83], A[3]; FS, Q[91], A[6]] even in
the good, than in the elements existing outside the human body. Now the
elements existing outside the human body will be cleansed on account of
the stain of sin. Much therefore will the elements in the human body
whether of the good or of the wicked need to be cleansed, and
consequently the bodies of both will need to be destroyed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, as long as the state of the way lasts the elements act
in like manner on the good and the wicked. Now the state of the way will
still endure in that conflagration, since after this state of the way
death will not be natural, and yet it will be caused by that fire.
Therefore that fire will act equally on good and wicked; and consequently
it does not seem that any distinction is made between them as to their
being affected by that fire, as stated in the text.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, this fire will have done its work in a moment as it
were. Yet there will be many among the living in whom there will be many
things to be cleansed. Therefore that fire will not suffice for their
cleansing.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, This fire of the final conflagration, in so far as it
will precede the judgment, will act as the instrument of Divine justice
as well as by the natural virtue of fire. Accordingly, as regards its
natural virtue, it will act in like manner on the wicked and good who
will be alive, by reducing the bodies of both to ashes. But in so far as
it acts as the instrument of Divine justice, it will act differently on
different people as regards the sense of pain. For the wicked will be
tortured by the action of the fire; whereas the good in whom there will
be nothing to cleanse will feel no pain at all from the fire, as neither
did the children in the fiery furnace (Dan. 3); although their bodies
will not be kept whole, as were the bodies of the children: and it will
be possible by God's power for their bodies to be destroyed without their
suffering pain. But the good, in whom matter for cleansing will be found,
will suffer pain from that fire, more or less according to their
different merits.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] Body Para. 2/2

On the other hand, as regards the action which this fire will have after
the judgment, it will act on the damned alone, since the good will all
have impassible bodies.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Consumption there signifies being brought, not to nothing,
but to ashes.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Although the bodies of the good will be reduced to ashes by
the fire, they will not suffer pain thereby, as neither did the children
in the Babylonian furnace. In this respect a distinction is drawn between
the good and the wicked.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The elements that are in human bodies, even in the bodies
of the elect, will be cleansed by fire. But this will be done, by God's
power, without their suffering pain.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: This fire will act not only according to the natural power
of the element, but also as the instrument of Divine justice.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[8] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: There are three reasons why those who will be found living
will be able to be cleansed suddenly. One is because there will be few
things in them to be cleansed, since they will be already cleansed by the
previous fears and persecutions. The second is because they will suffer
pain both while living and of their own will: and pain suffered in this
life voluntarily cleanses much more than pain inflicted after death, as
in the case of the martyrs, because "if anything needing to be cleansed
be found in them, it is cut off by the sickle of suffering," as Augustine
says (De Unic. Bap. xiii), although the pain of martyrdom is of short
duration in comparison with the pain endured in purgatory. The third is
because the heat will gain in intensity what it loses in shortness of
time.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether that fire will engulf the wicked?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that that fire will not engulf the wicked. For a
gloss on Malachi 3:3, "He shall purify the sons of Levi," says that "it
is a fire consuming the wicked and refining the good"; and a gloss on 1
Cor. 3:13, "Fire shall try every man's work," says: "We read that there
will be a twofold fire, one that will cleanse the elect and will precede
the judgment, another that will torture the wicked." Now the latter is
the fire of hell that shall engulf the wicked, while the former is the
fire of the final conflagration. Therefore the fire of the final
conflagration will not be that which will engulf the wicked.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, that fire will obey God in the cleansing of the world:
therefore it should receive its reward like the other elements,
especially since fire is the most noble of the elements. Therefore it
would seem that it ought not to be cast into hell for the punishment of
the damned.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the fire that will engulf the wicked will be the fire of
hell: and this fire was prepared from the beginning of the world for the
damned; hence it is written (Mt. 25:41): "Depart . . . you cursed . . .
into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil," etc., and (Is.
30:33): "Tophet is prepared from yesterday, prepared by the king," etc.,
where a gloss observes: "From yesterday, i.e. from the
beginning - Tophet, i.e. the valley of hell." But this fire of the final
conflagration was not prepared from the beginning, but will result from
the meeting together of the fires of the world. Therefore that fire is
not the fire of hell which will engulf the wicked.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, are the words of Ps. 96:3, where it is said of this
fire that it "shall burn His enemies round about."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is written (Dan. 7:10): "A swift stream of fire issued forth
from before Him"; and a gloss adds, "to drag sinners into hell." Now the
passage quoted refers to that fire of which we are now speaking, as
appears from a gloss which observes on the same words: "In order to
punish the wicked and cleanse the good." Therefore the fire of the final
conflagration will be plunged into hell together with the wicked

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, The entire cleansing of the world and the renewal for the
purpose of cleansing will be directed to the renewal of man: and
consequently the cleansing and renewal of the world must needs correspond
with the cleansing and renewal of mankind. Now mankind will be cleansed
in one way by the separation of the wicked from the good: wherefore it is
said (Lk. 3:17): "Whose fan is in His hand, and He will purge His poor,
and will gather the wheat," i.e. the elect, "into His barn, but the
chaff," i.e. the wicked, "He will burn with unquenchable fire." Hence it
will be thus with the cleansing of the world, so that all that is ugly
and vile will be cast with the wicked into hell, and all that is
beautiful and noble will be taken up above for the glory of the elect:
and so too will it be with the fire of that conflagration, as Basil says
in Ps. 28:7, "The voice of the Lord divideth the flame of fire," because
whatever fire contains of burning heat and gross matter will go down into
hell for the punishment of the wicked, and whatever is subtle and
lightsome will remain above for the glory of the elect.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The fire that will cleanse the elect before the judgment
will be the same as the fire that will burn the world, although some say
the contrary. For it is fitting that man, being a part of the world, be
cleansed with the same fire as the world. They are, however, described as
two fires, that will cleanse the good, and torture the wicked, both in
reference to their respective offices, and somewhat in reference to their
substance: since the substance of the cleansing fire will not all be cast
into hell, as stated above.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: This fire will be rewarded because whatever it contains of
gross matter will be separated from it, and cast into hell.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[74] A[9] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The punishment of the wicked, even as the glory of the
elect, will be greater after the judgment than before. Wherefore, just as
charity will be added to the higher creature in order to increase the
glory of the elect, so too whatever is vile in creatures will be thrust
down into hell in order to add to the misery of the damned. Consequently
it is not unbecoming that another fire be added to the fire of the damned
that was prepared from the beginning of the world.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] Out. Para. 1/2 - OF THE RESURRECTION (THREE ARTICLES)

In the next place we must consider things connected with and
accompanying the resurrection. Of these the first to be considered will
be the resurrection itself; the second will be the cause of the
resurrection; the third its time and manner. the fourth its term
"wherefrom"; the fifth the condition of those who rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] Out. Para. 2/2

Under the first head there will be three points of inquiry:

(1) Whether there is to be a resurrection of the body?

(2) Whether it is universally of all bodies?

(3) Whether it is natural or miraculous?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether there is to be a resurrection of the body?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that there is not to be a resurrection of the body:
for it is written (Job 14:12): "Man, when he is fallen asleep, shall not
rise again till the heavens be broken." But the heavens shall never be
broken, since the earth, to which seemingly this is still less
applicable, "standeth for ever" (Eccles. 1:4). Therefore the man that is
dead shall never rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, Our Lord proves the resurrection by quoting the words:
"I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He
is not the God of the dead but of the living" (Mt. 22:32; Ex. 3:6). But
it is clear that when those words were uttered, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
lived not in body, but only in the soul. Therefore there will be no
resurrection of bodies but only of souls.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, the Apostle (1 Cor. 15) seemingly proves the
resurrection from the reward for labors endured by the saints in this
life. For if they trusted in this life alone, they would be the most
unhappy of all men. Now there can be sufficient reward for labor in the
soul alone: since it is not necessary for the instrument to be repaid
together with the worker, and the body is the soul's instrument.
Wherefore even in purgatory, where souls will be punished for what they
did in the body, the soul is punished without the body. Therefore there
is no need to hold a resurrection of the body, but it is enough to hold a
resurrection of souls, which consists in their being taken from the death
of sin and unhappiness to the life of grace and glory.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the last state of a thing is the most perfect, since
thereby it attains its end. Now the most perfect state of the soul is to
be separated from the body, since in that state it is more conformed to
God and the angels, and is more pure, as being separated from any
extraneous nature. Therefore separation from the body is its final state,
and consequently it returns not from this state to the body, as neither
does a man end in becoming a boy.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, bodily death is the punishment inflicted on man for his
own transgression, as appears from Gn. 2, even as spiritual death, which
is the separation of the soul from God, is inflicted on man for mortal
sin. Now man never returns to life from spiritual death after receiving
the sentence of his damnation. Therefore neither will there be any return
from bodily death to bodily life, and so there will be no resurrection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] OTC Para. 1/3

On the contrary, It is written (Job 19:25-26): "I know that my Redeemer
liveth, and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth, and I shall be
clothed again with my skin," etc. Therefore there will be a resurrection
of the body.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] OTC Para. 2/3

Further, the gift of Christ is greater than the sin of Adam, as appears
from Rm. 5:15. Now death was brought in by sin, for if sin had not been,
there had been no death. Therefore by the gift of Christ man will be
restored from death to life.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] OTC Para. 3/3

Further, the members should be conformed to the head. Now our Head lives
and will live eternally in body and soul, since "Christ rising again from
the dead dieth now no more" (Rm. 6:8). Therefore men who are His members
will live in body and soul; and consequently there must needs be a
resurrection of the body.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Body Para. 1/5

I answer that, According to the various opinions about man's last end
there have been various opinions holding or denying the resurrection. For
man's last end which all men desire naturally is happiness. Some have
held that man is able to attain this end in this life: wherefore they had
no need to admit another life after this, wherein man would be able to
attain to his perfection: and so they denied the resurrection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Body Para. 2/5

This opinion is confuted with sufficient probability by the
changeableness of fortune, the weakness of the human body, the
imperfection and instability of knowledge and virtue, all of which are
hindrances to the perfection of happiness, as Augustine argues at the end
of De Civ. Dei (xxii, 22).

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Body Para. 3/5

Hence others maintained that after this there is another life wherein,
after death, man lives according to the soul only, and they held that
such a life sufficed to satisfy the natural desire to obtain happiness:
wherefore Porphyrius said as Augustine states (De Civ. De. xxii, 26):
"The soul, to be happy, must avoid all bodies": and consequently these
did not hold the resurrection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Body Para. 4/5

This opinion was based by various people on various false foundations.
For certain heretics asserted that all bodily things are from the evil
principle, but that spiritual things are from the good principle: and
from this it follows that the soul cannot reach the height of its
perfection unless it be separated from the body, since the latter
withdraws it from its principle, the participation of which makes it
happy. Hence all those heretical sects that hold corporeal things to have
been created or fashioned by the devil deny the resurrection of the body.
The falsehood of this principle has been shown at the beginning of the
Second Book (Sent. ii, D, 4, qu. 1, A[3]; *[Cf. FP, Q[49], A[3]]).

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] Body Para. 5/5

Others said that the entire nature of man is seated in the soul, so that
the soul makes use of the body as an instrument, or as a sailor uses his
ship: wherefore according to this opinion, it follows that if happiness
is attained by the soul alone, man would not be balked in his natural
desire for happiness, and so there is no need to hold the resurrection.
But the Philosopher sufficiently destroys this foundation (De Anima ii,
2), where he shows that the soul is united to the body as form to matter.
Hence it is clear that if man cannot be happy in this life, we must of
necessity hold the resurrection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: The heavens will never be broken as to their substance, but
as to the effect of their power whereby their movement is the cause of
generation and corruption of lower things: for this reason the Apostle
says (1 Cor. 7:31): "The fashion of this world passeth away."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Abraham's soul, properly speaking, is not Abraham himself,
but a part of him (and the same as regards the others). Hence life in
Abraham's soul does not suffice to make Abraham a living being, or to
make the God of Abraham the God of a living man. But there needs to be
life in the whole composite, i.e. the soul and body: and although this
life were not actually when these words were uttered, it was in each part
as ordained to the resurrection. Wherefore our Lord proves the
resurrection with the greatest subtlety and efficacy.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The soul is compared to the body, not only as a worker to
the instrument with which he works, but also as form to matter: wherefore
the work belongs to the composite and not to the soul alone, as the
Philosopher shows (De Anima i, 4). And since to the worker is due the
reward of the work, it behooves man himself, who is composed of soul and
body, to receive the reward of his work. Now as venial offenses are
called sins as being dispositions to sin, and not as having simply and
perfectly the character of sin, so the punishment which is awarded to
them in purgatory is not a retribution simply, but rather a cleansing,
which is wrought separately in the body, by death and by its being
reduced to ashes, and in the soul by the fire of purgatory.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Other things being equal, the state of the soul in the body
is more perfect than outside the body, because it is a part of the whole
composite; and every integral part is material in comparison to the
whole: and though it were conformed to God in one respect, it is not
simply. Because, strictly speaking, a thing is more conformed to God when
it has all that the condition of its nature requires, since then most of
all it imitates the Divine perfection. Hence the heart of an animal is
more conformed to an immovable God when it is in movement than when it is
at rest, because the perfection of the heart is in its movement, and its
rest is its undoing.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[1] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: Bodily death was brought about by Adam's sin which was
blotted out by Christ's death: hence its punishment lasts not for ever.
But mortal sin which causes everlasting death through impenitence will
not be expiated hereafter. Hence that death will be everlasting.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the resurrection will be for all without exception?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the resurrection will not be for all without
exception. For it is written (Ps. 1:5): "The wicked shall not rise again
in judgment." Now men will not rise again except at the time of the
general judgment. Therefore the wicked shall in no way rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Dan. 12:2): "Many of those that sleep in
the dust of the earth shall awake." But these words imply a restriction.
Therefore all will not rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, by the resurrection men are conformed to Christ rising
again; wherefore the Apostle argues (1 Cor. 15:12, seqq.) that if Christ
rose again, we also shall rise again. Now those alone should be conformed
to Christ rising again who have borne His image, and this belongs to the
good alone. Therefore they alone shall rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, punishment is not remitted unless the fault be condoned.
Now bodily death is the punishment of original sin. Therefore, as
original sin is not forgiven to all, all will not rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, as we are born again by the grace of Christ, even so
shall we rise again by His grace. Now those who die in their mother's
womb can never be born again: therefore neither can they rise again, and
consequently all will not rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] OTC Para. 1/3

On the contrary, It is said (Jn. 5:28,25): "All that are in the graves
shall hear the voice of the Son of God . . . and they that hear shall
live." Therefore the dead shall all rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] OTC Para. 2/3

Further, it is written (1 Cor. 15:51): "We shall all indeed rise again,"
etc.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] OTC Para. 3/3

Further, the resurrection is necessary in order that those who rise
again may receive punishment or reward according to their merits. Now
either punishment or reward is due to all, either for their own merits,
as to adults, or for others' merits, as to children. Therefore all will
rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, Those things, the reason of which comes from the nature
of a species, must needs be found likewise in all the members of that
same species. Now such is the resurrection: because the reason thereof,
as stated above (A[1]), is that the soul cannot have the final perfection
of the human species, so long as it is separated from the body. Hence no
soul will remain for ever separated from the body. Therefore it is
necessary for all, as well as for one, to rise again.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: As a gloss expounds these words, they refer to the
spiritual resurrection whereby the wicked shall not rise again in the
particular judgment. or else they refer to the wicked who are altogether
unbelievers, who will not rise again to be judged, since they are already
judged [*Jn. 3:18].

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: Augustine (De Civ. Dei xx, 23) explains "many" as meaning
"all": in fact, this way of speaking is often met with in Holy Writ. Or
else the restriction may refer to the children consigned to limbo who,
although they shall rise again, are not properly said to awake, since
they will have no sense either of pain or of glory, and waking is the
unchaining of the senses.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: All, both good and wicked, are conformed to Christ, while
living in this life, as regards things pertaining to the nature of the
species, but not as regards matters pertaining to grace. Hence all will
be conformed to Him in the restoration of natural life, but not in the
likeness of glory, except the good alone.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: Those who have died in original sin have, by dying,
discharged the obligation of death which is the punishment of original
sin. Hence, notwithstanding original sin, they can rise again from death:
for the punishment of original sin is to die, rather than to be detained
by death.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[2] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: We are born again by the grace of Christ that is given to
us, but we rise again by the grace of Christ whereby it came about that
He took our nature, since it is by this that we are conformed to Him in
natural things. Hence those who die in their mother's womb, although they
are not born again by receiving grace, will nevertheless rise again on
account of the conformity of their nature with Him, which conformity they
acquired by attaining to the perfection of the human species.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the resurrection is natural?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that the resurrection is natural. For, as the
Damascene says (De Fide Orth. iii, 14), "that which is commonly observed
in all, marks the nature of the individuals contained under it." Now
resurrection applies commonly to all. Therefore it is natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, Gregory says (Moral. xiv, 55): "Those who do not hold
the resurrection on the principle of obedience ought certainly to hold it
on the principle of reason. For what does the world every day but
imitate, in its elements, our resurrection?" And he offers as examples
the light which "as it were dies . . . and is withdrawn from our sight .
. . and again rises anew, as it were, and is recalled - the shrubs which
lose their greenery, and again by a kind of resurrection are
renewed - and the seeds which rot and die and then sprout and rise again
as it were": which same example is adduced by the Apostle (1 Cor. 15:36).
Now from the works of nature nothing can be known save what is natural.
Therefore the resurrection is natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, things that are against nature abide not for long,
because they are violent, so to speak. But the life that is restored by
the resurrection will last for ever. Therefore the resurrection will be
natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, that to which the entire expectation of nature looks
forward would seem to be natural. Now such a thing is the resurrection
and the glorification of the saints according to Rm. 8:19. Therefore the
resurrection will be natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, the resurrection is a kind of movement towards the
everlasting union of soul and body. Now movement is natural if it
terminate in a natural rest (Phys. v, 6): and the everlasting union of
soul and body will be natural, for since the soul is the body's proper
mover, it has a body proportionate to it: so that the body is likewise
for ever capable of being quickened by it, even as the soul lives for
ever. Therefore the resurrection will be natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, There is no natural return from privation to habit. But
death is privation of life. Therefore the resurrection whereby one
returns from death to life is not natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, things of the one species have one fixed way of origin:
wherefore animals begotten of putrefaction are never of the same species
as those begotten of seed, as the Commentator says on Phys. viii. Now the
natural way of man's origin is for him to be begotten of a like in
species: and such is not the case in the resurrection. Therefore it will
not be natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Body Para. 1/3

I answer that, A movement or an action stands related to nature in three
ways. For there is a movement or action whereof nature is neither the
principle nor the term: and such a movement is sometimes from a principle
above nature as in the case of a glorified body; and sometimes from any
other principle whatever; for instance, the violent upward movement of a
stone which terminates in a violent rest. Again, there is a movement
whereof nature is both principle and term: for instance, the downward
movement of a stone. And there is another movement whereof nature is the
term, but not the principle, the latter being sometimes something above
nature (as in giving sight to a blind man, for sight is natural, but the
principle of the sight-giving is above nature), and sometimes something
else, as in the forcing of flowers or fruit by artificial process. It is
impossible for nature to be the principle and not the term, because
natural principles are appointed to definite effects, beyond which they
cannot extend.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Body Para. 2/3

Accordingly the action or movement that is related to nature in the
first way can nowise be natural, but is either miraculous if it come from
a principle above nature, or violent if from any other principle. The
action or movement that is related to nature in the second way is simply
natural: but the action that is related to nature in the third way cannot
be described as natural simply, but as natural in a restricted sense, in
so far, to wit, as it leads to that which is according to nature: but it
is called either miraculous or artificial or violent. For, properly
speaking, natural is that which is according to nature, and a thing is
according to nature if it has that nature and whatever results from that
nature (Phys. ii, 1). Consequently, speaking simply, movement cannot be
described as natural unless its principle be natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] Body Para. 3/3

Now nature cannot be the principle of resurrection, although
resurrection terminates in the life of nature. For nature is the
principle of movement in the thing wherein nature is - either the active
principle, as in the movement of heavy and light bodies and in the
natural alterations of animals - or the passive principle, as in the
generation of simple bodies. The passive principle of natural generation
is the natural passive potentiality which always has an active principle
corresponding to it in nature, according to Metaphysics viii, 1: nor as
to this does it matter whether the active principle in nature correspond
to the passive principle in respect of its ultimate perfection, namely
the form; or in respect of a disposition in virtue of which it demands
the ultimate form, as in the generation of a man according to the
teaching of faith, or in all other generations according to the opinions
of Plato and Avicenna. But in nature there is no active principle of the
resurrection, neither as regards the union of the soul with the body, nor
as regards the disposition which is the demand for that union: since such
a disposition cannot be produced by nature, except in a definite way by
the process of generation from seed. Wherefore even granted a passive
potentiality on the part of the body, or any kind of inclination to its
union with the soul, it is not such as to suffice for the conditions of
natural movement. Therefore the resurrection, strictly speaking, is
miraculous and not natural except in a restricted sense, as we have
explained.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Damascene is speaking of those things that are found in all
individuals and are caused by the principles of nature. For supposing by
a divine operation all men to be made white, or to be gathered together
in one place, as happened at the time of the deluge, it would not follow
that whiteness or existence in some particular place is a natural
property of man.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: From natural things one does not come by a demonstration of
reason to know non-natural things, but by the induction of reason one may
know something above nature, since the natural bears a certain
resemblance to the supernatural. Thus the union of soul and body
resembles the union of the soul with God by the glory of fruition, as the
Master says (Sent. ii, D, 1): and in like manner the examples, quoted by
the Apostle and Gregory, are confirmatory evidences of our faith in the
resurrection.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: This argument regards an operation which terminates in
something that is not natural but contrary to nature. Such is not the
resurrection, and hence the argument is not to the point.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: The entire operation of nature is subordinate to the Divine
operation, just as the working of a lower art is subordinate to the
working of a higher art. Hence just as all the work of a lower art has in
view an end unattainable save by the operation of the higher art that
produces the form, or makes use of what has been made by art: so the last
end which the whole expectation of nature has in view is unattainable by
the operation of nature, and for which reason the attaining thereto is
not natural.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[75] A[3] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: Although there can be no natural movement terminating in a
violent rest, there can be a non-natural movement terminating in a
natural rest, as explained above.





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