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St. Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica

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  • Aquin.: SMT XP Q[1] Out. Para. 1/2 SUPPLEMENT (XP): TO THE THIRD PART OF THE SUMMA THEOLOGICA OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS GATHERED FROM HIS COMMENTARY ON BOOK IV OF THE SENTENCES (QQ[1] -99) OF THE PARTS OF PENANCE, IN PARTICULAR, AND FIRST OF CONTRITION (THREE ARTICLES)
      • (tm)Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF GOD'S MERCY AND JUSTICE TOWARDS THE DAMNED (FIVE ARTICLES)
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(tm)Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] Out. Para. 1/1 - OF GOD'S MERCY AND JUSTICE TOWARDS THE DAMNED (FIVE ARTICLES)

We must next consider God's justice and mercy towards the damned: under
which head there are five points of inquiry:

(1) Whether by Divine justice an eternal punishment is inflicted on
sinners?

(2) Whether by God's mercy all punishment both of men and of demons
comes to an end?

(3) Whether at least the punishment of men comes to an end?

(4) Whether at least the punishment of Christians has an end?

(5) Whether there is an end to the punishment of those who have
performed works of mercy?


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether by Divine justice an eternal punishment is inflicted on sinners?
[*Cf. FS, Q[87], AA[3],4]

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that an eternal punishment is not inflicted on
sinners by Divine justice. For the punishment should not exceed the
fault: "According to the measure of the sin shall the measure also of the
stripes be" (Dt. 25:2). Now fault is temporal. Therefore the punishment
should not be eternal.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, of two mortal sins one is greater than the other. and
therefore one should receive a greater punishment than the other. But no
punishment is greater than eternal punishment, since it is infinite.
Therefore eternal punishment is not due to every sin; and if it is not
due to one, it is due to none, since they are not infinitely distant from
one another.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, a just judge does not punish except in order to correct,
wherefore it is stated (Ethic. ii, 3) that "punishments are a kind of
medicine." Now, to punish the wicked eternally does not lead to their
correction, nor to that of others, since then there will be no one in
future who can be corrected thereby. Therefore eternal punishment is not
inflicted for sins according to Divine justice.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, no one wishes that which is not desirable for its own
sake, except on account of some advantage. Now God does not wish
punishment for its own sake, for He delights not in punishments [*The
allusion is to Wis. 1:13: "Neither hath He pleasure in the destruction of
the living," as may be gathered from FS, Q[87], A[3], OBJ[3]]. Since then
no advantage can result from the perpetuity of punishment, it would seem
that He ought not to inflict such a punishment for sin.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, "nothing accidental lasts for ever" (De Coelo et Mundo
i). But punishment is one of those things that happen accidentally, since
it is contrary to nature. Therefore it cannot be everlasting.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Obj. 6 Para. 1/1

OBJ 6: Further, the justice of God would seem to require that sinners
should be brought to naught: because on account of ingratitude a person
deserves to lose all benefits. and among other benefits of God there is
"being" itself. Therefore it would seem just that the sinner who has been
ungrateful to God should lose his being. But if sinners be brought to
naught, their punishment cannot be everlasting. Therefore it would seem
out of keeping with Divine justice that sinners should be punished for
ever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] OTC Para. 1/3

On the contrary, It is written (Mt. 25:46): "These," namely the wicked,
"shall go into everlasting punishment."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] OTC Para. 2/3

Further, as reward is to merit, so is punishment to guilt. Now,
according to Divine justice, an eternal reward is due to temporal merit:
"Every one who seeth the Son and believeth in Him hath [Vulg.: 'that
everyone . . . may have'] life everlasting." Therefore according to
Divine justice an everlasting punishment is due to temporal guilt.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] OTC Para. 3/3

Further, according to the Philosopher (Ethic. v, 5), punishment is meted
according to the dignity of the person sinned against, so that a person
who strikes one in authority receives a greater punishment than one who
strikes anyone else. Now whoever sins mortally sins against God, Whose
commandments he breaks, and Whose honor he gives another, by placing his
end in some one other than God. But God's majesty is infinite. Therefore
whoever sins mortally deserves infinite punishment; and consequently it
seems just that for a mortal sin a man should be punished for ever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Body Para. 1/2

I answer that, Since punishment is measured in two ways, namely
according to the degree of its severity, and according to its length of
time, the measure of punishment corresponds to the measure of fault, as
regards the degree of severity, so that the more grievously a person sins
the more grievously is he punished: "As much as she hath glorified
herself and lived in delicacies, so much torment and sorrow give ye to
her" (Apoc. 18:7). The duration of the punishment does not, however,
correspond with the duration of the fault, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei
xxi, 11), for adultery which is committed in a short space of time is not
punished with a momentary penalty even according to human laws [*Cf. FS,
Q[87], A[3], ad 1]. But the duration of punishment regards the
disposition of the sinner: for sometimes a person who commits an offense
in a city is rendered by his very offense worthy of being cut off
entirely from the fellowship of the citizens, either by perpetual exile
or even by death: whereas sometimes he is not rendered worthy of being
cut off entirely from the fellowship of the citizens. wherefore in order
that he may become a fitting member of the State, his punishment is
prolonged or curtailed, according as is expedient for his amendment, so
that he may live in the city in a becoming and peaceful manner. So too,
according to Divine justice, sin renders a person worthy to be altogether
cut off from the fellowship of God's city, and this is the effect of
every sin committed against charity, which is the bond uniting this same
city together. Consequently, for mortal sin which is contrary to charity
a person is expelled for ever from the fellowship of the saints and
condemned to everlasting punishment, because as Augustine says (De Civ.
Dei xxi, 11), "as men are cut off from this perishable city by the
penalty of the first death, so are they excluded from that imperishable
city by the punishment of the second death." That the punishment
inflicted by the earthly state is not deemed everlasting is accidental,
either because man endures not for ever, or because the state itself
comes to an end. Wherefore if man lived for ever, the punishment of exile
or slavery, which is pronounced by human law, would remain in him for
ever. On the other hand, as regards those who sin in such a way as not to
deserve to be entirely cut off from the fellowship of the saints, such as
those who sin venially, their punishment will be so much the shorter or
longer according as they are more or less fit to be cleansed, through sin
clinging to them more or less: this is observed in the punishments of
this world and of purgatory according to Divine justice.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] Body Para. 2/2

We find also other reasons given by the saints why some are justly
condemned to everlasting punishment for a temporal sin. One is because
they sinned against an eternal good by despising eternal life. This is
mentioned by Augustine (De Civ. Dei. xii, 12): "He is become worthy of
eternal evil, who destroyed in himself a good which could be eternal."
Another reason is because man sinned in his own eternity [*Cf. FS, Q[87],
A[3], ad 1]; wherefore Gregory says (Dial. iv), it belongs to the great
justice of the judge that those should never cease to be punished, who in
this life never ceased to desire sin. And if it be objected that some who
sin mortally propose to amend their life at some time, and that these
accordingly are seemingly not deserving of eternal punishment, it must be
replied according to some that Gregory speaks of the will that is made
manifest by the deed. For he who falls into mortal sin of his own will
puts himself in a state whence he cannot be rescued, except God help him:
wherefore from the very fact that he is willing to sin, he is willing to
remain in sin for ever. For man is "a wind that goeth," namely to sin,
"and returneth not by his own power" (Ps. 77:39). Thus if a man were to
throw himself into a pit whence he could not get out without help, one
might say that he wished to remain there for ever, whatever else he may
have thought himself. Another and a better answer is that from the very
fact that he commits a mortal sin, he places his end in a creature; and
since the whole of life is directed to its end, it follows that for this
very reason he directs the whole of his life to that sin, and is willing
to remain in sin forever, if he could do so with impunity. This is what
Gregory says on Job 41:23, "He shall esteem the deep as growing old"
(Moral. xxxiv): "The wicked only put an end to sinning because their life
came to an end: they would indeed have wished to live for ever, that they
might continue in sin for ever for they desire rather to sin than to
live." Still another reason may be given why the punishment of mortal sin
is eternal: because thereby one offends God Who is infinite. Wherefore
since punishment cannot be infinite in intensity, because the creature is
incapable of an infinite quality, it must needs be infinite at least in
duration. And again there is a fourth reason for the same: because guilt
remains for ever, since it cannot be remitted without grace, and men
cannot receive grace after death; nor should punishment cease so long as
guilt remains.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Punishment has not to be equal to fault as to the amount of
duration as is seen to be the case also with human laws. We may also
reply with Gregory (Dial. xliv) that although sin is temporal in act, it
is eternal in will.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The degree of intensity in the punishment corresponds to
the degree of gravity in the sin; wherefore mortal sins unequal in
gravity will receive a punishment unequal in intensity but equal in
duration.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: The punishments inflicted on those who are not altogether
expelled from the society of their fellow-citizens are intended for their
correction: whereas those punishments, whereby certain persons are wholly
banished from the society of their fellow-citizens, are not intended for
their correction; although they may be intended for the correction and
tranquillity of the others who remain in the state. Accordingly the
damnation of the wicked is for the correction of those who are now in the
Church; for punishments are intended for correction, not only when they
are being inflicted, but also when they are decreed.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: The everlasting punishment of the wicked will not be
altogether useless. For they are useful for two purposes. First, because
thereby the Divine justice is safeguarded which is acceptable to God for
its own sake. Hence Gregory says (Dial. iv): "Almighty God on account of
His loving kindness delights not in the torments of the unhappy, but on
account of His justice. He is for ever unappeased by the punishment of
the wicked." Secondly, they are useful, because the elect rejoice
therein, when they see God's justice in them, and realize that they have
escaped them. Hence it is written (Ps. 57:12): "The just shall rejoice
when he shall see the revenge," etc., and (Is. 66:24): "They," namely the
wicked, "shall be a loathsome sight* to all flesh," namely to the saints,
as a gloss says. [*"Ad satietatem visionis," which St. Thomas takes to
signify being satiated with joy; Cf. Q[94], A[3]]. Gregory expresses
himself in the same sense (Dial. iv): "The wicked are all condemned to
eternal punishment, and are punished for their own wickedness. Yet they
will burn to some purpose, namely that the just may all both see in God
the joys they receive, and perceive in them the torments they have
escaped: for which reason they will acknowledge themselves for ever the
debtors of Divine grace the more that they will see how the evils which
they overcame by its assistance are punished eternally."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: Although the punishment relates to the soul accidentally,
it relates essentially to the soul infected with guilt. And since guilt
will remain in the soul for ever, its punishment also will be everlasting.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[1] R.O. 6 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 6: Punishment corresponds to fault, properly speaking, in
respect of the inordinateness in the fault, and not of the dignity in the
person offended: for if the latter were the case, a punishment of
infinite intensity would correspond to every sin. Accordingly, although
a man deserves to lose his being from the fact that he has sinned against
God the author of his being, yet, in view of the inordinateness of the
act itself, loss of being is not due to him, since being is presupposed
to merit and demerit, nor is being lost or corrupted by the
inordinateness of sin [*Cf. FS, Q[85], A[1]]: and consequently privation
of being cannot be the punishment due to any sin.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether by God's mercy all punishment of the damned, both men and demons,
comes to an end?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that by God's mercy all punishment of the damned,
both men and demons, comes to an end. For it is written (Wis. 11:24):
"Thou hast mercy upon all, O Lord, because Thou canst do all things." But
among all things the demons also are included, since they are God's
creatures. Therefore also their punishment will come to an end.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, "God hath concluded all in sin [Vulg.: 'unbelief'], that
He may have mercy on all" (Rm. 11:32). Now God has concluded the demons
under sin, that is to say, He permitted them to be concluded. Therefore
it would seem that in time He has mercy even on the demons.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, as Anselm says (Cur Deus Homo ii), "it is not just that
God should permit the utter loss of a creature which He made for
happiness." Therefore, since every rational creature was created for
happiness, it would seem unjust for it to be allowed to perish altogether.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Mt. 25:41): "Depart from Me, you cursed,
into everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels."
Therefore they will be punished eternally.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, just as the good angels were made happy through turning to God,
so the bad angels were made unhappy through turning away from God.
Therefore if the unhappiness of the wicked angels comes at length to an
end, the happiness of the good will also come to an end, which is
inadmissible.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xxi) Origen [*Cf. FP,
Q[64], A[2]] "erred in maintaining that the demons will at length,
through God's mercy, be delivered from their punishment." But this error
has been condemned by the Church for two reasons. First because it is
clearly contrary to the authority of Holy Writ (Apoc. 20:9,10): "The
devil who seduced them was cast into the pool of fire and brimstone,
where both the beasts and the false prophets [*Vulg.: 'the beast and
false prophet,' etc.] shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever," which is the Scriptural expression for eternity. Secondly, because
this opinion exaggerated God's mercy in one direction and depreciated it
in another. For it would seem equally reasonable for the good angels to
remain in eternal happiness, and for the wicked angels to be eternally
punished. Wherefore just as he maintained that the demons and the souls
of the damned are to be delivered at length from their sufferings, so he
maintained that the angels and the souls of the blessed will at length
pass from their happy state to the unhappiness of this life.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: God, for His own part, has mercy on all. Since, however,
His mercy is ruled by the order of His wisdom, the result is that it does
not reach to certain people who render themselves unworthy of that mercy,
as do the demons and the damned who are obstinate in wickedness. And yet
we may say that even in them His mercy finds a place, in so far as they
are punished less than they deserve condignly, but not that they are
entirely delivered from punishment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: In the words quoted the distribution (of the predicate)
regards the genera and not the individuals: so that the statement applies
to men in the state of wayfarer, inasmuch as He had mercy both on Jews
and on Gentiles, but not on every Gentile or every Jew.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[2] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Anselm means that it is not just in the sense of becoming
God's goodness, and is speaking of the creature generically. For it
becomes not the Divine goodness that a whole genus of creature fail of
the end for which it was made: wherefore it is unbecoming for all men or
all angels to be damned. But there is no reason why some men or some
angels should perish for ever, because the intention of the Divine will
is fulfilled in the others who are saved.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether God's mercy suffers at least men to be punished eternally?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that God's mercy does not suffer at least men to be
punished eternally. For it is written (Gn. 6:3): "My spirit shall not
remain in man for ever because he is flesh"; where "spirit" denotes
indignation, as a gloss observes. Therefore, since God's indignation is
not distinct from His punishment, man will not be punished eternally.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, the charity of the saints in this life makes them pray
for their enemies. Now they will have more perfect charity in that life.
Therefore they will pray then for their enemies who are damned. But the
prayers of the saints cannot be in vain, since they are most acceptable
to God. Therefore at the saints' prayers the Divine mercy will in time
deliver the damned from their punishment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, God's foretelling of the punishment of the damned
belongs to the prophecy of commination. Now the prophecy of commination
is not always fulfilled: as appears from what was said of the destruction
of Nineve (Jonas 3); and yet it was not destroyed as foretold by the
prophet, who also was troubled for that very reason (Jonas 4:1).
Therefore it would seem that much more will the threat of eternal
punishment be commuted by God's mercy for a more lenient punishment, when
this will be able to give sorrow to none but joy to all.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, the words of Ps. 76:8 are to the point, where it is
said: "Will God then be angry for ever? [*Vulg.: 'Will God then cast off
for ever?']" But God's anger is His punishment. Therefore, etc.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Obj. 5 Para. 1/1

OBJ 5: Further, a gloss on Is. 14:19, "But thou art cast out," etc.
says: "Even though all souls shall have rest at last, thou never shalt":
and it refers to the devil. Therefore it would seem that all human souls
shall at length have rest from their pains.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (Mt. 25:46) of the elect conjointly with
the damned: "These shall go into everlasting punishment: but the just,
into life everlasting." But it is inadmissible that the life of the just
will ever have an end. Therefore it is inadmissible that the punishment
of the damned will ever come to an end.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, as Damascene says (De Fide Orth. ii) "death is to men what
their fall was to the angels." Now after their fall the angels could not
be restored [*Cf. FP, Q[64], A[2]]. Therefore neither can man after
death: and thus the punishment of the damned will have no end.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xxi, 17,18), some evaded
the error of Origen by asserting that the demons are punished
everlastingly, while holding that all men, even unbelievers, are at
length set free from punishment. But this statement is altogether
unreasonable. For just as the demons are obstinate in wickedness and
therefore have to be punished for ever, so too are the souls of men who
die without charity, since "death is to men what their fall was to the
angels," as Damascene says.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: This saying refers to man generically, because God's
indignation was at length removed from the human race by the coming of
Christ. But those who were unwilling to be included or to remain in this
reconciliation effected by Christ, perpetuated the Divine anger in
themselves, since no other way of reconciliation is given to us save that
which is through Christ.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: As Augustine (De Civ. Dei xxi, 24) and Gregory (Moral.
xxxiv) say, the saints in this life pray for their enemies, that they may
be converted to God, while it is yet possible for them to be converted.
For if we knew that they were foreknown to death, we should no more pray
for them than for the demons. And since for those who depart this life
without grace there will be no further time for conversion, no prayer
will be offered for them, neither by the Church militant, nor by the
Church triumphant. For that which we have to pray for them is, as the
Apostle says (2 Tim. 2:25,26), that "God may give them repentance to know
the truth, and they may recover themselves from the snares of the devil."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: A punishment threatened prophetically is only then commuted
when there is a change in the merits of the person threatened. Hence: "I
will suddenly speak against a nation and against a kingdom, to root out
and to pull down and to destroy it. If that nation . . . shall repent of
their evil, I also will repent of the evil that I have thought to do to
them" (Jer. 18:7). Therefore, since the merits of the damned cannot be
changed, the threatened punishment will ever be fulfilled in them.
Nevertheless the prophecy of commination is always fulfilled in a certain
sense, because as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei. xxi, 24): "Nineve has been
overthrown, that was evil, and a good Nineve is built up, that was not:
for while the walls and the houses remained standing, the city was
overthrown in its wicked ways."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] R.O. 4 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 4: These words of the Psalm refer to the vessels of mercy,
which have not made themselves unworthy of mercy, because in this life
(which may be called God's anger on account of its unhappiness) He
changes vessels of mercy into something better. Hence the Psalm continues
(Ps. 76:11): "This is the change of the right hand of the most High." We
may also reply that they refer to mercy as granting a relaxation but not
setting free altogether if it be referred also to the damned. Hence the
Psalm does not say: "Will He from His anger shut up His mercies?" but "in
His anger," because the punishment will not be done away entirely; but
His mercy will have effect by diminishing the punishment while it
continues.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[3] R.O. 5 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 5: This gloss is speaking not absolutely but on an impossible
supposition in order to throw into relief the greatness of the devil's
sin, or of Nabuchodonosor's.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether the punishment of Christians is brought to an end by the mercy of
God?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that at least the punishment of Christians is
brought to an end by the mercy of God. "For he that believeth and is
baptized shall be saved" (Mk. 16:16). Now this applies to every
Christian. Therefore all Christians will at length be saved.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, it is written (Jn. 6:55): "He that eateth My body and
drinketh My blood hath eternal life." Now this is the meat and drink
whereof Christians partake in common. Therefore all Christians will be
saved at length.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, "If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss: but he
himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire" (1 Cor. 3:15), where it is a
question of those who have the foundation of the Christian faith.
Therefore all such persons will be saved in the end.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (1 Cor. 6:9): "The unjust shall not
possess the kingdom of God." Now some Christians are unjust. Therefore
Christians will not all come to the kingdom of God, and consequently they
will be punished for ever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is written (2 Pt. 2:21): "It had been better for them not to
have known the way of justice, than after they have known it, to turn
back from that holy commandment which was delivered to them." Now those
who know not the way of truth will be punished for ever. Therefore
Christians who have turned back after knowing it will also be punished
for ever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, According to Augustine (De Civ. Dei xxi, 20,21), there
have been some who predicted a delivery from eternal punishment not for
all men, but only for Christians. although they stated the matter in
different ways. For some said that whoever received the sacraments of
faith would be immune from eternal punishment. But this is contrary to
the truth, since some receive the sacraments of faith, and yet have not
faith, without which "it is impossible to please God" (Heb. 11:6).
Wherefore others said that those alone will be exempt from eternal
punishment who have received the sacraments of faith, and professed the
Catholic faith. But against this it would seem to be that at one time
some people profess the Catholic faith, and afterwards abandon it, and
these are deserving not of a lesser but of a greater punishment, since
according to 2 Pt. 2:21, "it had been better for them not to have known
the way of justice than, after they have known it, to turn back."
Moreover it is clear that heresiarchs who renounce the Catholic faith and
invent new heresies sin more grievously than those who have conformed to
some heresy from the first. And therefore some have maintained that those
alone are exempt from eternal punishment, who persevere to the end in the
Catholic faith, however guilty they may have been of other crimes. But
this is clearly contrary to Holy Writ, for it is written (James 2:20):
"Faith without works is dead," and (Mt. 7:21) "Not every one that saith
to Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that
doth the will of My Father Who is in heaven": and in many other passages
Holy Scripture threatens sinners with eternal punishment. Consequently
those who persevere in the faith unto the end will not all be exempt from
eternal punishment, unless in the end they prove to be free from other
crimes.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Our Lord speaks there of formed faith [*Cf. SS, Q[4], A[3]]
"that worketh by love [Vulg.: 'charity'; Gal. 5:6]": wherein whosoever
dieth shall be saved. But to this faith not only is the error of unbelief
opposed, but also any mortal sin whatsoever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The saying of our Lord refers not to those who partake only
sacramentally, and who sometimes by receiving unworthily "eat and drink
judgment" to themselves (1 Cor. 11:29), but to those who eat spiritually
and are incorporated with Him by charity, which incorporation is the
effect of the sacramental eating, in those who approach worthily [*Cf.
TP, Q[80], AA[1],2,3]. Wherefore, so far as the power of the sacrament is
concerned, it brings us to eternal life, although sin may deprive us of
that fruit, even after we have received worthily.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[4] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: In this passage of the Apostle the foundation denotes
formed faith, upon which whosoever shall build venial sins [*Cf. FS,
Q[89], A[2]] "shall suffer loss," because he will be punished for them by
God; yet "he himself shall be saved" in the end "by fire," either of
temporal tribulation, or of the punishment of purgatory which will be
after death.


Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Thes. Para. 1/1

Whether all those who perform works of mercy will be punished eternally?

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Obj. 1 Para. 1/1

OBJ 1: It would seem that all who perform works of mercy will not be
punished eternally, but only those who neglect those works. For it is
written (James 2:13): "Judgment without mercy to him that hath not done
mercy"; and (Mt. 5:7): "Blessed are the merciful for they shall obtain
mercy."

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Obj. 2 Para. 1/1

OBJ 2: Further, (Mt. 25:35-46) we find a description of our Lord's
discussion with the damned and the elect. But this discussion is only
about works of mercy. Therefore eternal punishment will be awarded only
to such as have omitted to practice works of mercy: and consequently the
same conclusion follows as before.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Obj. 3 Para. 1/1

OBJ 3: Further, it is written (Mt. 6:12): "Forgive us our debts, as we
also forgive our debtors," and further on (Mt. 6:14): "For if you will
forgive men their offenses, your heavenly Father will forgive you also
your offenses." Therefore it would seem that the merciful, who forgive
others their offenses, will themselves obtain the forgiveness of their
sins, and consequently will not be punished eternally.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Obj. 4 Para. 1/1

OBJ 4: Further, a gloss of Ambrose on 1 Tim. 4:8, "Godliness is
profitable to all things," says: "The sum total of a Christian's rule of
life consists in mercy and godliness. Let a man follow this, and though
he should suffer from the inconstancy of the flesh, without doubt he will
be scourged, but he will not perish: whereas he who can boast of no other
exercise but that of the body will suffer everlasting punishment."
Therefore those who persevere in works of mercy, though they be shackled
with fleshly sins, will not be punished eternally: and thus the same
conclusion follows as before.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] OTC Para. 1/2

On the contrary, It is written (1 Cor. 6:9,10): "Neither fornicators . .
. nor adulterers," etc. "shall possess the kingdom of God." Yet many are
such who practice works of mercy. Therefore the merciful will not all
come to the eternal kingdom: and consequently some of them will be
punished eternally.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] OTC Para. 2/2

Further, it is written (James 2:10): "Whosoever shall keep the whole
law, but offend in one point, is become guilty of all." Therefore
whoever keeps the law as regards the works of mercy and omits other
works, is guilty of transgressing the law, and consequently will be
punished eternally.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] Body Para. 1/1

I answer that, As Augustine says in the book quoted above (De Civ. Dei
xxi, 22), some have maintained that not all who have professed the
Catholic faith will be freed from eternal punishment, but only those who
persevere in works of mercy, although they be guilty of other crimes. But
this cannot stand, because without charity nothing can be acceptable to
God, nor does anything profit unto eternal life in the absence of
charity. Now it happens that certain persons persevere in works of mercy
without having charity. Wherefore nothing profits them to the meriting of
eternal life, or to exemption from eternal punishment, as may be gathered
from 1 Cor. 13:3. Most evident is this in the case of those who lay hands
on other people's property, for after seizing on many things, they
nevertheless spend something in works of mercy. We must therefore
conclude that all whosoever die in mortal sin, neither faith nor works of
mercy will free them from eternal punishment, not even after any length
of time whatever.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] R.O. 1 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 1: Those will obtain mercy who show mercy in an ordinate
manner. But those who while merciful to others are neglectful of
themselves do not show mercy ordinately, rather do they strike at
themselves by their evil actions. Wherefore such persons will not obtain
the mercy that sets free altogether, even if they obtain that mercy which
rebates somewhat their due punishment.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] R.O. 2 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 2: The reason why the discussion refers only to the works of
mercy is not because eternal punishment will be inflicted on none but
those who omit those works, but because eternal punishment will be
remitted to those who after sinning have obtained forgiveness by their
works of mercy, making unto themselves "friends of the mammon of
iniquity" (Lk. 16:9).

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] R.O. 3 Para. 1/1

Reply OBJ 3: Our Lord said this to those who ask that their debt be
forgiven, but not to those who persist in sin. Wherefore the repentant
alone will obtain by their works of mercy the forgiveness that sets them
free altogether.

Aquin.: SMT XP Q[99] A[5] R.O. 4 Para. 1/3

Reply OBJ 4: The gloss of Ambrose speaks of the inconstancy that
consists in venial sin, from which a man will be freed through the works
of mercy after the punishment of purgatory, which he calls a scourging.
Or, if he speaks of the inconstancy of mortal sin, the sense is that
those who while yet in this life fall into sins of the flesh through
frailty are disposed to repentance by works of mercy. Wherefore such a
one will not perish, that is to say, he will be disposed by those works
not to perish, through grace bestowed on him by our Lord, Who is blessed
for evermore. Amen.





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