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|St. Thomas Aquinas|
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Penance. The first part is a heart-felt contrition, by which one is sorry
for the sins one has committed, and determines not to sin again. The second
part is confession, which consists in this that the sinner confesses all
satisfaction, which is enjoined according to the judgment of the priest;
and consists especially in fasting and prayer and almsgiving.
The form of this Sacrament is the words of absolution which the priest
ordinary or by commission of his superior. The effect of this Sacrament is
absolution from sin.28
Concerning this Sacrament is the error of the Novati, who say that any one
Sacraments in that for them the matter is something, whether natural or
artificial; the matter as it were (quasi-materia) of Penance is the acts of
the penitent, i.e., contrition confession, and satisfaction. This has thus
externally, such, for instance, as water in Baptism and chrism in
'Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth shall be bound also in heaven'
must be a priest possessing ordinary or delegated jurisdiction, as is
jurisdiction. We have greatest proof of this ministry in the words of Our
29. Apoc., ii. 5.
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