Code of Canon Law
IntraText CT - Text
Art. 2. Radical Sanation
Can. 1161 §1. The radical sanation of an invalid marriage is its convalidation without the renewal of consent, which
is granted by competent authority and entails the dispensation from an impediment, if there is one, and from
canonical form, if it was not observed, and the retroactivity of canonical effects.
§2. Convalidation occurs at the moment of the granting of the favor. Retroactivity, however, is understood
to extend to the moment of the celebration of the marriage unless other provision is expressly made.
§3. A radical sanation is not to be granted unless it is probable that the parties wish to persevere in conjugal
Can. 1162 §1. A marriage cannot be radically sanated if consent is lacking in either or both of the parties, whether
the consent was lacking from the beginning or, though present in the beginning, was revoked afterwards.
§2. If this consent was indeed lacking from the beginning but was given afterwards, the sanation can be
granted from the moment the consent was given.
Can. 1163 §1. A marriage which is invalid because of an impediment or a defect of legitimate form can be sanated
provided that the consent of each party perseveres.
§2. A marriage which is invalid because of an impediment of natural law or of divine positive law can be
sanated only after the impediment has ceased.
Can. 1164 A sanation can be granted validly even if either or both of the parties do not know of it; nevertheless,
it is not to be granted except for a grave cause.
Can. 1165 §1. The Apostolic See can grant a radical sanation.
§2. The diocesan bishop can grant a radical sanation in individual cases even if there are several reasons for
nullity in the same marriage, after the conditions mentioned in can. 1125 for the sanation of a mixed marriage have
been ful-filled. He cannot grant one, however, if there is an impediment whose dispensation is reserved to the
Apostolic See according to the norm of can. 1078, §2, or if it concerns an impediment of natural law or divine
positive law which has now ceased.