You are now browsing an example of
IntraText Version CT.
Would you like to produce an IntraText
from a text of your choice? You can do it now with IntraText
CT is a text converted into an interactive hypertext system consisting
IntraText is available in several versions.
For further information, please see the IntraText
you access from the
index or from the concordances.
If the text contains footnotes, these will appear at the foot of the text
page and the general index will also contain an index of the footnotes;
these are ordered alphabetically, by frequency of occurrence, in inverse
order and by length. The words in the lists are linked to the concordances;
lists comprising every occurrence of a particular word in the text. Each
occurrence is displayed in the centre of a short extract from the text;
word and occurrence statistics plus other features of the text.
IntraText is formatted in HTML pages
which can be read by most browsers (see notes on compatibility).
All pages in which information is
displayed are linked to each other. General links are to be found at the
top of the page.
All pages are designed to be printed
by the printer used by your browser program.
IntraText CT can
be used both for a normal reading of the text and for browsing the text
as hypertext. The concordances, word lists and statistics are extraordinarily
powerful tools to enhance your reading and deepen your understanding of
You can move from reading the text
to using any of the other functions at any time because the words in
the text are linked to their respective concordances.
You can use any of the search and
help options of your browser.
In IntraText Version ST, browsing
is limited to the word lists and concordances, you can't browse the text,
which you need to have in a printed version.
The index page is the page
from which you can access all the data. It features a table of contents
for the text and (in the panel on the left) a statistical summary and links
to textual data.
The index is linked directly to the
text: click on one of the blue links and you will access the corresponding
section of the text.
If the text contains footnotes, you
will see an entry in the index called "footnote index". The footnote index
comprises a list of the footnotes contained in the text together with references
to the passages in the text to which the footnotes refer. Each entry in
the footnote index comprises the beginning of the text of the footnote
and a link to the footnote itself. The reference to the passage in the
text is a link to the precise point in the text where the footnote has
The Text is divided
into pages linked to each other.
The words in the text are linked
to their concordances: just click on the word.
There are two ways you can move
around in the text:
To search for a word in the page
you are reading:
you can use the buttons "previous" and
"next" at the top and at the bottom of each page, or
you can click on the word "Index" at the
top left of the page and choose the part of the text you wish to read.
To search for a word in the whole text:
press CTRL+F. The search function of the
browser will be activated. Then type in the word you are looking for and
click on the "Find Next" button (This may be different in different browsers:
"Search", "Trova successivo", etc.)
If the text features footnotes,
they will appear at the bottom of the page below a horizontal line and
in a different font from the main text (this may vary according to your
browser and operating system).
go to the alphabetical
click on the letter corresponding to the
initial letter of the word
type in the word you are looking for
click on the "Find Next" button.
The number of each footnote appears
in the text as a superscript number, as in the example:
has a footnote which is numbered "1"
If you click on the superscript number,
the page will scroll down to the bottom of the page where the text of the
Next to the text of the footnote,
you will find the footnote's number. If you click on this number, the page
will scroll back again to the place in the main text to which the footnote
Words in the footnotes are treated
just like the words in the main text and are therefore included in the
word lists, in the statistics and in the concordances.
In some cases, words of particular
footnotes (for example notes not by the author) are not analysed, hence
the words are neither included in the statistics nor in the concordances.
This allows a more faithful picture of the language of the author without
inverse alphabetical and by
are a fundamental tool for studying, researching or skimming the text and
offer a compact picture of its vocabulary.
In each list, both the total number
of words ('tokens') and the total number of occurrences
The words in the lists are linked to
their respective concordances, except for function (or structure) words
(prepositions, pronouns, etc.) and hapax legomena.
There are no concordances for these words, so they do not appear as links.
To search within a list: CRTL+F (see
At the top of the first page of each
list you will find a detailed description and instructions.
be looked up for each word of the text (with the exception of function
words and hapax legomena).
(In the Lite version of IntraText,
concordances are located on Internet site www.intratext.com, while the
text, word lists and other features are on your computer. That's why you
need an Internet connection to browse the concordances of an IntraText
The illustration below shows the structure
and features of the concordances.
Treatment of hapax legomena
Hapax legomena are words which occur
only once in a text. They are complied into one list in alphabetical order.
The list has the same format as a
In the text, hapax legomena do not
have a link to a concordance, since the concordance would merely be the
same passage as is currently being read.
To access the list of hapax
legomena, click on any word in a wordlist, where the word has a frequency
of 1, or - in a frequency list - click on 1.
Concordances of words occurring
The concordances also include words
contained in footnotes. In this case the link to the relevant passage in
the text will display the number of the footnote in bold type.
To print concordances
The concordances have been designed
to be printed by using the printing options of your browser program.
There is no need to perform any additional
set the printer in landscape mode: this
will give a more easily interpretable result;
the concordance lines are numbered and
these numbers are a useful unique reference point to a particular occurrence
for group work on a particular text.
statistics page features an overview and graphs presenting textual data.
The statistics give a quantitative
picture of the text and of the results of its hypertextualization.
The x axis of each graph is linked
to the corresponding word list.
Tips for easier reading
You can read an
IntraText using virtually any browser. For easier reading of IntraText:
use a screen resolution of 800x600
or higher; (in Windows, this setting can be adjusted in the "Display" section
of the "Control Panel").
set the browser so as not to underline
links. In IntraText all links are blue in colour, so they are
easily recognised without being underlined and since so many words are
links, IntraText is easier to read when the links are not underlined.
To set your browser not to underline
links, go to the Options or Preferences of your browser.
(In Netscape: Edit / Preferences / Appearance / Colors; in Internet Explorer:
View / Options / General)
browser programs generally use a specific
default font to display the text. If concordances are not justified,
then select a different font such as (in Windows:) "Courier New" .
IntraText CT and
IntraText ST have been tested with the following programs:
Small display differences between browsers
are normal and will not compromise the IntraText usability.
Microsoft Internet Explorer: all
starting from version 2.0
Netscape Navigator: all starting
from version 2.0
NCSA Mosaic: 3.0 (1996)
Opera: 3.10, 3.21, 3.50
WebExplorer: all starting from version 1.1
If you have problems using IntraText
with your browser program, please write to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
IntraText is created
through HTML pages according to ISO standards.
All pages and links are rendered compatible
with all operating systems and virtually all browser programs.
Specific techniques are employed so
as to reduce to the minimum the resources needed to run IntraText on your
IntraText is produced by ECP (Èulogos
Concordance Program), a function of the system Èulogos SLI. Structural
tags are codified using ETML - Èulogos Text Mark-up Language.
The system has been tested on texts
containing over 10 million occurrences.
are lists of short extracts of text. Each extract displays some of the
context before and after a particular word.
For example, the concordance of the
word house is a list of short extracts containing all the occurrences
of the word house in the text.
Next to each extract you will find
a reference to the passage in the text in which it is to be found.
In IntraText CT the reference is a
hypertext link directly to the text at the precise point where the extract
In IntraText ST the reference is to
the corresponding section of a printed edition of the text.
frequency. The frequency of a word
form ("token") is the total number of occurrences of that word form in
See also word.
hapax legomena (or hapax).
In ancient Greek hapax legomena means "uttered only once". It is
a term used in linguistics to refer to words that are found only once in
IntraText. IntraText is
a registered trade mark of Èulogos SpA. Intratext is an innovative
and unique way of presenting individual texts or a whole corpus.
IntraText transforms a text into an
interactive hypertext system for reading and research. It runs on the
World Wide Web (Internet), CD, CDcard, DVD and can be shared over a
local network. It is compatible with all computers and all operating
systems using a Web browser.
IntraText is multilingual,
can deal with footnotes, produces statistics and graphs,
can be printed and can be exported into different environments.
In IntraText Version ST, you can create
the hypertext associated with a printed edition without reproducing the
A revolutionary idea which protects the publisher and author while offering
the reader a feature that is difficult to match: an interactive search
facility for a printed text!
To turn your text into IntraText is
fast and convenient: just ask for a quote.
You will find more information on
IntraText on the IntraText website.
occurrence. See word.
word. By word we mean a
sequence of alphabetical and/or numerical characters. For instance house,
Within a text, the same word may appear
a number of times. When a word appears in a text, then that word is said
to have an occurrence in that text.
If the word house appears 32
times in a text, we say that that text has 32 occurrences of the word house.
The total of the occurrences of a word is called its "frequency": so in
our example, the word house has a frequency of 32.
For this reason, the size of a text
is expressed in terms of occurrences. For instance, the Bible in the Italian
language has about 815,000 occurrences, but only 33,000 words.
In IntraText, words are taken
to be what linguistics calls "tokens". For example,
go, goes, went and
gone are treated as separate words.
All words are in treated as being
lower case. For this reason, if a text contains House,
and house, they are all treated as occurrences of the word house.
function (or structure) words.
Function words are those words in a language that have little lexical significance:
articles, prepositions, pronouns, etc.
Function words occur very frequently:
in an Italian text they make up well over 40% of the occurrences.
In IntraText, function words are included
in all word lists, but they are not concordanced, as they are usually considered
less significant. However, if explicitly requested, or if a text is multilingual,
function words are treated just like all other words.
- © 1996-2003 Èulogos