Figure 1: IntraText Text page
(demonstrative page - not for quotation)
Picture 2: IntraText concordance page
(demonstrative page - not for quotation)
Overview: IntraText, IntraText collections and Tablet PC interface
Èulogos IntraText® is a tool that offers an intuitive but very accurate interface to browse texts in a hypertextual way, based on a Tablet PC interface.
The IntraText interface applies a cognitive ergonomics model based on lexical hypertext and on the Tablet PC or touch screen interface. It uses a set of tools and methods based on HLT (Human Language Technologies).
From the reader's point of view
»ulogos IntraText is a reading, reference and search tool. It can be used to read a work, to browse a text as hypertext, to search for words and phrases just through a simple click of your pen or mouse.
Concordances, word lists, statistics and links to cited works are useful to drive your reading and to improve the knowledge of the text.
You can freely move from reading to any of the other features, since relevant words in the text are linked to their respective concordances and then back to the text. You can use any of the search and help options of your browser.
The Tablet PC interface allows to browse and search without keyborad, just using the mouse of the computer or the pen ot touch screen of the Tablet PC.
The ease of use and accessibility of IntraText are some of the most appreciated features.
From the publishing point of view
IntraText is a well structured tool to create and make available high quality electronic editions, particularly for the editorial, philological and linguistics aspects. IntraText editions can be published on Internet, Intranet or distributed on CD-ROM in several ways.
IntraText uses the lexical hypertextualization to define links between the text and the concordances of relevant words.
IntraText allows to reproduce faithfully the scholarly editions: footnotes (even when structured in several apparatuses), philological annotations, references to one or more different editions, distinction between the author's lexicon and the lexicon of other authors, several languages in the same text, etc.
Finally, IntraText allows intra- and extra-textual links to citations. Extra-textual citations are automatically linked when the cited work is available in IntraText edition.
Control of the editorial quality
The system that generates IntraText checks the text for several issues, according to a schema conceived to improve content quality and representation quality. In particular:
IntraText allows to create text collections as a whole hypertext, for example the Opera Omnia of an author, corpora, etc.
The IntraText collection creates a browsing system which preserves the identity of each collected text (author, title, structure, criteria for concordance reference) but unifies them through the concordances.
In an IntraText collection, the TOC has two levels: the index of the works and, for each work, its own TOC.
Main elements of the IntraText format
The IntraText format is structured in:
All pages are designed to be printed as they are.
Custom applications of IntraText are available on request, allowing special outputs: the text can be presented as a whole text page (instead of many text pages), as XML file or in other ways.
IntraText is built with high-compatibility HTML pages, which can be read by most browsers. HTML pages are optimized to be easily read, even with slow Internet connections and old computers.
See the Compatibility paragraph for further details.
The Index page is the first access to the hypertextualized document. The Index shows the basic data of the work (author, title, etc.) and the TOC. The TOC items are linked to the text pages.
In case of an IntraText collection, the Index has two levels: the index of the collection - listing the collected works - and, for each work, its specific Index.
If the text contains footnotes, the summary displays also the item "Index of footnotes". Such index contains the list of the footnotes and the reference to the part of the text in which each footnote is called. The incipit of the footnote and the link to the full footnote in the text is also provided.
In the IntraText collections, each collected work having footnotes is provided with the related footnote index.
The "Credits" section is at the bottom of the Index page and reports information about the printed edition and the electronic transcription.
Editorial information about the text (peculiarities of IntraText edition, etc.) is also provided.
Text (features are summarized in figure 1 of the quick reference)
The Text is divided into pages linked to each other.
The words of the text are linked to concordances: just click on them to jump to the concordance of that word in the text or collection. Generally not all the words are linked, because:
- the hapax (i.e. words occurring once) haven't concordances;
- concordance of stop words (articles, prepositions, pronouns, etc.) are useless in most applications.
Thus about a half of all words of a text have actually the link to the related concordance.
In some IntraText editions, concordances can consider also the stop words or can be restricted to some words. Furthermore, in the text pages some words can be highlighted.
To improve readability, the links to the concordances can be hidden or shown while reading.
The picture 1 in the quick reference shows a page of an IntraText text.
Here some detail features:
Concordances (features are summarized in figure 2 of the quick reference)
In an IntraText edition, many words have a link to the page of its concordance.
The Concordance of a word is a list of short extracts of text. Each extract corresponds to a concordance and displays some of the context before and after a particular occurrence of the word.
For example, the concordance of the word house is a list of short extracts containing all the occurrences of the word house in the text. Next to each concordance, the reference to the section of the text in which the word occurs is provided. Such reference in an hyperlink to the text in the exact position of the word.
Such concordances are known as "KWIC concordances" (KeyWords in Context).
The IntraText concordances are KWIC concordances enriched with the peculiarities of the lexical hypertext and the scholarly edition.
In the IntraText concordances stop words, philological annotations and the number of the pages are considered. Even the words of the extracts are linked to the related concordance, so that the reader can jump from the concordances of a word to those of another word, without returning back to text or lists.
Stop words in general don't have the concordances, but in some editions they could be created.
The extracts display also: footnote references (linked to the respective footnote text), the paragraph breaking (symbol "˜") and page changes in the editio princeps (symbol "./.").
The figure 2 in the quick reference summarizes the features the IntraText concordances.
Features of the IntraText concordances in some particular cases:
Concordances have been designed to be ready-to-print by using the printing options of your browser.
We suggest to set the printer in the landscape mode.
Alphabetical, by frequency, inverse alphabetical, by length
These lists are a useful tool for reference, since they offer an outlook of the lexicon of the work. Each list presents words in groups by alphabet letter, by frequency and by length. Alphabetical grouping is language-dependant: for example in Spanish "CH", "LL" e "—" are letters like "A", "B", etc.
The Words beginning with special characters are listed in the "Other" group.
In each list, both the total number of words ('tokens') and the total number of occurrences are displayed.
The words in the lists are linked to their respective concordances, except for stop words (prepositions, pronouns, etc.), which are not linked and in bold font.
In some IntraTexts, stop words can have concordance and in that case such words will have link to them.
To search within a list: CRTL+F (see above). Detailed instructions are given in the first page of each list.
The statistics page features an overview and graphs presenting textual data.
The statistics give a quantitative picture of the text and of the results of its hypertextualization.
The X axis of each graph is linked to the corresponding word list.
Tips for an easier reading of an IntraText edition
For an easier reading of IntraText:
Èulogos IntraText is created through HTML pages according to ISO and W3C standards. Pages and links are compatible with most browsers and operating systems.
IntraText has been coinceived to be used through a Tablet PC, a touch screen or simply with the mouse of any ordinary computer.
IntraText is compatible with reading tools for blind and disable people.
Specific techniques allow to minimize the amount of computer resources required to browse an IntraText.
IntraText runs on Internet, Intranet, CD, CDcard, DVD and USB drives.
IntraText has been tested with the following browsers:
Small display differences among browsers are normal and won't compromise readability of IntraText.
On some of the non-GUI browsers, like Lynx, the page headings of the concordances may seem a bit offset.
If you encounter compatibility problems using IntraText, please contact the IntraText editorial staff at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Èulogos IntraText Technology
IntraText is a registered trademark of Èulogos SpA.
IntraText uses the lexical hypertextualization (an Èulogos idea) to transform text into an interactive hypertextual reference and search tool. It has developed in the HLT (Human Language Technologies) research field.
IntraText is a function of the Eulogos SLI lexical processing system. Text structure is formalized using ETML - Èulogos Text Markup Language.
Further details on www.intratext.com.
Information about the Èulogos language technology is available at www.eulogos.net.