1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1254
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  3        |            tuberculosis, malaria, Hansen disease, leishmaniosis and filariasis)
   2    I,     2.  4        |                 including cardiovascular disease, many cancers, and injury.~ ~
   3    I,     2.  4        |           improvements in cardiovascular disease mortality. This was due
   4    I,     2.  9        |                  and the associated Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis
   5    I,     2.  9        |               Some water- and food-borne disease outbreaks are expected to
   6    I,     2. 10.  1    |           biological factors which drive disease mechanisms, in particular
   7    I,     2. 10.  1    |                  prevention. Inter alia, disease prevention programme and
   8   II,     4.  1        |          promoting health and preventing disease in order to counteract the
   9   II,     4.  1        |          nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda, known
  10   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by respiratory disease was responsible for one
  11   II,     4.  2        |            decline in mortality in heart disease and cerebrovascular disease
  12   II,     4.  2        |              disease and cerebrovascular disease together caused one fourth
  13   II,     4.  2        |                heart and cerebrovascular disease caused 40% of the increase
  14   II,     4.  2        |              mortality by ischemic heart disease was particularly large,
  15   II,     4.  2        |             mortality by cerebrovascular disease was large. In the 1990s,
  16   II,     4.  2        |              mortality by ischemic heart disease continued to be the most
  17   II,     4.  2        |                heart and cerebrovascular disease contributed almost 60% to
  18   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by circulatory disease was even larger than the
  19   II,     5.  1.  1    |         musculoskeletal diseases; mental disease and disorders; neurodegenerative
  20   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  an important element of disease management for all conditions.~ ~
  21   II,     5.  1.  1    |             Proportion of cardiovascular disease, cancer and violence (injury
  22   II,     5.  1.  1    |             Proportion of cardiovascular disease, cancer and violence (injury
  23   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  CVD is a multifactorial disease, which means that several
  24   II,     5.  1.  1    |               towards progression to the disease. Further risk factors for
  25   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  acromegaly or Cushing’s disease can lead to increased insulin
  26   II,     5.  1.  1    |           meaning that patients with the disease eventually may also present
  27   II,     5.  1.  1    |             individuals.~ ~· Parkinson’s Disease~The cause of the neurodegenerative
  28   II,     5.  1.  1    |            Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease~Active and passive cigarette
  29   II,     5.  1.  1    |            history of obstructive airway disease and socioeconomic group
  30   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  smokers.~Chronic Kidney Disease and End Stage Renal Disease~
  31   II,     5.  1.  1    |              Disease and End Stage Renal Disease~Hypertension and diabetes,
  32   II,     5.  1.  1    |               milk, fish and nuts~Celiac disease (also known as gluten-induced
  33   II,     5.  1.  1    |                recognized causes of this disease, i.e., hepatitis B and C
  34   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  factors for periodontal disease relate to poor oral hygiene,
  35   II,     5.  1.  1    |            between untreated periodontal disease and other health problems,
  36   II,     5.  1.  1    |                problems, including heart disease, stroke, obstructive pulmonary
  37   II,     5.  1.  1    |            stroke, obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. It has been
  38   II,     5.  1.  1    |               develop severe periodontal disease.~Overweight and obesity~
  39   II,     5.  1.  2    |                 as to how to control the disease. Patient-centeredness is
  40   II,     5.  1.  2    |                overused. The bearer of a disease, the patient, is a unique
  41   II,     5.  1.  2    |                 may suffer from the same disease and may have the same type
  42   II,     5.  1.  2    |                concept of illness versus disease, the latter being much easier
  43   II,     5.  1.  2    |             successful management of the disease is closely linked to personal
  44   II,     5.  1.  3    |                  in the field of chronic disease prevention).~The management
  45   II,     5.  1.  3    |                the management of his/her disease. This approach is called “
  46   II,     5.  1.  3    |                their lives despite their disease. It is, therefore, a continuous
  47   II,     5.  1.  3    |            support for what concerns the disease, prescribed treatment, care,
  48   II,     5.  1.  3    |                  families understand the disease and the treatment, cooperate
  49   II,     5.  1.  3    |               processes (coping with the disease, locus of control, health
  50   II,     5.  1.  3    |             adapted to the course of the disease, to the patient and to his/
  51   II,     5.  1.  3    |                  to patients about their disease rather than train them in
  52   II,     5.  1.  3    |                 their particular chronic disease as well as in coping processes
  53   II,     5.  1.  4    |             person affected by a chronic disease is a member of society just
  54   II,     5.  1.  4    |            society regardless of his/her disease, as this should not have
  55   II,     5.  1.  4    |             which can help to manage the disease. The patient also needs
  56   II,     5.  1.  4    |                 suffering from a chronic disease is essential. The same goes
  57   II,     5.  1.  4    |                the consequences that the disease may have on sexuality and
  58   II,     5.  1.  4    |                suffering from a specific disease.~ ~· At work: information
  59   II,     5.  1.  4    |                for people with a chronic disease and information about how
  60   II,     5.  1.  4    |               about how to deal with the disease when practicing a sport
  61   II,     5.  1.  4    |               about how to deal with the disease while on vacation.~ ~· Driving
  62   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                 Graft~CHD~Coronary Heart Disease~CT-Scan~Computed Tomography
  63   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                  Scan~CVD~Cardiovascular Disease~DBP~Diastolic Blood Pressure~
  64   II,     5.  2.Acr    |          International Classification of Disease~IHD~Ischemic Heart Disease~
  65   II,     5.  2.Acr    |               Disease~IHD~Ischemic Heart Disease~LDL~Low Density Lipoprotein~
  66   II,     5.  2.  1    |            origin such as ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. Ischemic
  67   II,     5.  2.  1    |               and stroke. Ischemic heart disease and stroke, are the main
  68   II,     5.  2.  1    |                  die from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and one in ten men
  69   II,     5.  2.  1    |                 stroke.~ ~Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for almost
  70   II,     5.  2.  1    |                eight women die from this disease; many more suffer from non-fatal
  71   II,     5.  2.  2    |           determinants of Cardiovascular disease (WHO MONICA) (ht /, 2007)
  72   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  5.2.2.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~Mortality~EUROSTAT data
  73   II,     5.  2.  2    |              affected by severity of the disease and impact of the treatments.
  74   II,     5.  2.  2    |              affected by severity of the disease and impacts of the treatments.
  75   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  CVD is a multifactorial disease, which means that several
  76   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  5.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~Mortality~ ~CVD is the
  77   II,     5.  2.  3    |             fatality from coronary heart disease (CHD) was higher in many
  78   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  for the cerebrovascular disease aggregate group, including
  79   II,     5.  2.  3    |                eight women die from this disease (Allender et al, 2008).
  80   II,     5.  2.  3    |            demonstrates that stroke is a disease that mainly affects the
  81   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  100.000 Cerebrovascular disease (codes ICD-9 430-38) - Men
  82   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  100.000 Cerebrovascular disease (codes ICD-9 430-38) - Women
  83   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  of stroke or changes in disease severity (Sarti et al, 2003).~ ~
  84   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  over or under which the disease does not develop: risk factors
  85   II,     5.  2.  4    |               the risk of developing the disease is to keep levels of risk
  86   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  is important to monitor disease trends, treatments and risk
  87   II,     5.  2.  5    |             Prevention of coronary heart disease distinguished (WHO, 1982)
  88   II,     5.  2.  5    |            people at risk to develop the disease, help those at high risk
  89   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  other lifestyle-related disease. Twenty years later, major
  90   II,     5.  2.  5    |         approaches are likely to include disease management programmes, population-based
  91   II,     5.  2.  5    |             These approaches will foster disease (including CVD) control
  92   II,     5.  2.  6    |               the natural history of the disease or in presence of less severe
  93   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 changes in international disease classification pose new
  94   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 for the comparability of disease indicators. All these factors
  95   II,     5.  2.  6    |             producing spurious trends of disease frequency, severity, prognosis
  96   II,     5.  2.  6    |                   2007)~IHD is a complex disease that can be prevented through
  97   II,     5.  2.  6    |             mortality for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) (Keys A et al, 1966).
  98   II,     5.  2.  6    |               and of peripheral vascular disease (Kannel WB, 1996). The association
  99   II,     5.  2.  6    |             diabetes, and coronary heart disease: insights from the Framingham
 100   II,     5.  2.  6    |                related to coronary heart disease: characteristics of men
 101   II,     5.  2.  6    |               the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality in elderly
 102   II,     5.  2.  6    |                death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? Findings
 103   II,     5.  2.  6    |               the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 345: 1291-
 104   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  European cardiovascular disease statistics. EHN: Bruxelles.~
 105   II,     5.  2.  7    |             guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice:
 106   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  nonfatal coronary heart disease events. JAMA 290: 891-897.~Gru ).
 107   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  Risks of Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in Relation to
 108   II,     5.  2.  7    |               and 10-year coronary heart disease incidence in women and men:
 109   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  European cardiovascular disease statistics. BHF: London.~
 110   II,     5.  2.  7    |            mortality from ischemic heart disease and other cardiovascular
 111   II,     5.  2.  7    |       International mortality from heart disease: rates and trends. Int J
 112   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 and mortality from heart disease in 26 countries from 1950
 113   II,     5.  2.  7    |                changes in coronary heart disease mortality: 10-year results
 114   II,     5.  2.  7    |           determinants in cardiovascular disease. Lancet 353:1547-57.~Tunstall-Pedoe
 115   II,     5.  2.  7    |                rates, and coronary heart disease mortality across the WHO
 116   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 Trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in industrialized
 117   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Prevention of coronary heart disease. WHO Technical report Series
 118   II,     5.  3.  1    |               Cancer is a highly complex disease as demonstrated by the fact
 119   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 fact, cancer is mainly a disease of older age. The LE of
 120   II,     5.  3.  7    |               the different forms of the disease. Avoiding exposure to risk
 121   II,     5.  3.  7    |              Cancer as ways to avoid the disease (Boyle et al, 2003).~ ~See
 122   II,     5.  3.  7    |              reduce the incidence of the disease when too advanced for treatment,
 123   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 is an early detection of disease that is not yet clinically
 124   II,     5.  3.  8    |                expectancy makes cancer a disease of the elderly, and because
 125   II,     5.  3.  8    |        transformed cancer from being one disease into many rare diseases,
 126   II,     5.  4.  1    |           Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, characterised by hyperglycaemia,
 127   II,     5.  4.  1    |                particular cardiovascular disease contribute to high morbidity
 128   II,     5.  4.  1    |              with the progression of the disease include an excessive excretion
 129   II,     5.  4.  1    |            population is affected by the disease, with a worldwide increase
 130   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   but less apparent; the disease is diagnosed later, when
 131   II,     5.  4.  1    |                obesity, the onset of the disease has become more frequent
 132   II,     5.  4.  1    |               basis for the onset of the disease. People of working age are
 133   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 to the occurrence of the disease, leading about 10% of those
 134   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 of the prevalence of the disease, risk factors, quality of
 135   II,     5.  4.  2    |               itself is a multifactorial disease, with a large number of
 136   II,     5.  4.  2    |        denominators are not known, since disease management programs and/
 137   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  in this heavy burden of disease and death can be achieved.~ ~
 138   II,     5.  4.  2    |              amputation aggravated heart disease and stroke, - should be
 139   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  by collecting data in a disease management program or one
 140   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  amputation rates~Kidney disease in persons with diabetes~
 141   II,     5.  4.  2    |              reliable information on the disease status. As such, it should
 142   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 the cost of this chronic disease.~To make targets clearer
 143   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 increasingly threatening disease that is growing at an alarming
 144   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 proper management of the disease. Although more complete
 145   II,     5.  4.  5    |                drives progression to the disease.~Further risk factors for
 146   II,     5.  4.  5    |                  acromegaly or Cushing’s disease can lead to increased insulin
 147   II,     5.  4.  5    |           meaning that patients with the disease may eventually also have
 148   II,     5.  4.  6    |            observed in both forms of the disease, can be reduced or even
 149   II,     5.  4.  6    |            modify the progression of the disease. An early diagnosis and/
 150   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 the epidemiology of this disease and its complications, as
 151   II,     5.  4.  6    |              relevant information on the disease), validity (they should
 152   II,     5.  4.  6    |            prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is also very important
 153   II,     5.  4.  6    |              diabetes and cardiovascular disease share many risk factors,
 154   II,     5.  4.  6    |               right attitude towards the disease. National governments should
 155   II,     5.  4.  6    |              wide strategy to tackle the disease;~· the recommendations of
 156   II,     5.  4.  6    |          determinants, of evidence-based disease prevention, screening~·
 157   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  Diabetes recognised the disease as a global health threat
 158   II,     5.  4.  7    |             strategy also apply to other disease areas, particularly chronic
 159   II,     5.  4.  7    |                the ability to report the disease in a timely manner. However,
 160   II,     5.  4.  7    |                  of clinicians joining a disease management program or an
 161   II,     5.  4.  7    |               and the progression of the disease.~ ~
 162   II,     5.  5.Acr    |                Acronyms~ ~AD~Alzheimer’s Disease~ESEMeD~European Study of
 163   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  of the global burden of disease attributable to mental and
 164   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 highest-ranking cause of disease in the developed world14.~ ~
 165   II,     5.  5.Int    |          represents 20% of the burden of disease.~ ~The lifetime incidence
 166   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      Only cardiovascular disease has a greater toll on morbidity
 167   II,     5.  5.Int    |        individuals. The Global Burden of Disease Study17, judged depression
 168   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  as the leading cause of disease burden worldwide.~ ~Eating
 169   II,     5.  5.Int(17)|                  2006): Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors [on-line
 170   II,     5.  5.Int    |               years rates of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) increase in women but
 171   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  3.7 million people. The disease usually first affects young
 172   II,     5.  5.  1    |         associated with physical chronic disease. Negative life-events, especially
 173   II,     5.  5.  1    |                is obviously not a mental disease, its association with mood
 174   II,     5.  5.  1    |                disorder and some somatic disease as Work Days Lost (WDL).~ ~
 175   II,     5.  5.  2    |           Dementia including Alzheimer’s disease~ ~
 176   II,     5.  5.  2    |              cells. It is not actually a disease but rather a syndrome (a
 177   II,     5.  5.  2    |                delaying the onset of the disease by five years would halve
 178   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 on behalf of Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI). For
 179   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  different stages of the disease. This is a drawback to existing
 180   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 by research methodology, disease type, age range, date and
 181   II,     5.  5.  2    |                in particular Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia).
 182   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  people with Alzheimer’s disease are cared for at home by
 183   II,     5.  5.  2    |       socio-economic cost of Alzheimer’s disease.~ ~In 1996 and 1998, the
 184   II,     5.  5.  2    |             resolutions25 to Alzheimer’s disease in which it stressed the
 185   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  affected by Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.
 186   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  funding for Alzheimer’s disease projects has since been
 187   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and boost research into
 188   II,     5.  5.  2(25)|                17/04/1996 on Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of disorders
 189   II,     5.  5.  2(25)|                11/03/1998 on Alzheimer’s disease~
 190   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 discovery of Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer Europe, 2007a).
 191   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in an optimal manner. The
 192   II,     5.  5.  2    |            deficit regarding Alzheimer’s disease;~· As a follow-up to the
 193   II,     5.  5.  2    |                17/04/1996 on Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of disorders
 194   II,     5.  5.  2    |                11/03/1998 on Alzheimer’s disease~ ~ ~
 195   II,     5.  5.  3    |            System Atrophy~PD~Parkinson’s disease~PSP~Progressive Supranuclear
 196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                to severe disability with disease onset usually in early adulthood.
 197   II,     5.  5.  3    |         AetiologySymptomsCourse of disease~The aetiology is only partly
 198   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the multitude of clinical disease course types, one should
 199   II,     5.  5.  3    |              symptoms. The course of the disease is quite variable; about
 200   II,     5.  5.  3    |          provided (WHO, 2005b)~Burden of disease~Compared to other psychiatric
 201   II,     5.  5.  3    |      schizophrenia and the burden of the disease. In addition – even in times
 202   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Schizophrenia itself is no fatal disease although it is associated
 203   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the complex aspects of the disease burden. Hence the data presented
 204   II,     5.  5.  3    |               representing the burden of disease are death rates due to the
 205   II,     5.  5.  3    |            report and the 1996 Burden of disease study – although not congruent
 206   II,     5.  5.  3    |                versus persistence of the disease and how these factors can
 207   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of the Global burden of disease study (Mathers and Loncar,
 208   II,     5.  5.  3    |            poisonings and cardiovascular disease. Mortality due to cardiovascular
 209   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was more pronounced in middle
 210   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to the Global Burden of Disease estimates, amounting to
 211   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  a long and debilitating disease course.~Co-morbidity~People
 212   II,     5.  5.  3    |              indicator for a more severe disease course and poorer outcome.
 213   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 with co-morbid addictive disease is a great challenge for
 214   II,     5.  5.  3    |               one must be aware that the disease burden due to schizophrenia
 215   II,     5.  5.  3    |         psychosocial consequences of the disease may develop. Besides, delayed
 216   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 during this phase of the disease is apt to reduce the incidence
 217   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  increased burden of the disease due to more severe courses
 218   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 during the course of the diseasepractice does not necessarily
 219   II,     5.  5.  3    |           disorders represent 20% of the disease burden, only 5.7% of the
 220   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 with a chronic course of disease.~Figure 5.5.3.2.6. Experiences
 221   II,     5.  5.  3    |       schizophrenia, being a very severe disease which affords long hospital
 222   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and the implementation of disease management programmes would
 223   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS
 224   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 best basis for inferring disease frequency trends from multiple
 225   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 America, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (
 226   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  financial burden of the disease and monitor ongoing trends
 227   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Estimating the Burden of Disease for Autism Spectrum Disorders
 228   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    In these studies, the disease was diagnosed through a
 229   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and consequences of the disease in Europe and in the rest
 230   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and the concealment of the disease in women due to socio-cultural
 231   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of the incidence of the disease, mostly in children. Although
 232   II,     5.  5.  3    |           increased ascertainment of the disease in this age group.~There
 233   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  first 10 to 14 years of disease. Generalised tonic-clonic
 234   II,     5.  5.  3    |               coding system was used for disease classification. Patients
 235   II,     5.  5.  3    |                disorders and Alzheimer’s disease were, in decreasing order,
 236   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Control tools and policies~ ~Disease severity and poor seizure
 237   II,     5.  5.  3    |        regulations and outlined the main disease characteristics to adapt
 238   II,     5.  5.  3    |           aspects of the spectrum of the disease and achieve harmonization
 239   II,     5.  5.  3    |              incorrect management of the disease. In this regard, the published
 240   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 etiology is unknown. The disease shows heterogeneity with
 241   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  prevalence by age, sex, disease course and disability,and
 242   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  The distribution of the disease course consisted in the
 243   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the natural history of the disease (Koch-Henriksen and Hyllested,
 244   II,     5.  5.  3    |          patients with MS, course of the disease, and their social situation
 245   II,     5.  5.  3    |              informative with regards to disease burden. The most relevant
 246   II,     5.  5.  3    |          distribution of MS in Europe by disease course~ ~The reported prevalence-based
 247   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prevalence-based distribution of disease course is reported in Table
 248   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Multiple Sclerosis patients by disease course in selected EUGLOREH
 249   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prevalence-based distribution of disease severity indicated by means
 250   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Multiple Sclerosis patients by disease severity (EDSS) in selected
 251   II,     5.  5.  3    |       distribution of prevalent cases by disease severity and course, and
 252   II,     5.  5.  3    |            countries where the degree of disease investigation is also higher,
 253   II,     5.  5.  3    |       categorising variables (age group, disease course, disease severity)
 254   II,     5.  5.  3    |               age group, disease course, disease severity) was observed among
 255   II,     5.  5.  3    |           observed among studies. As for disease course, due to the remarkable
 256   II,     5.  5.  3    |             PP-MS is sometimes reported. Disease course categorisation is
 257   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 the impact on the global disease socio-economic burden.~ ~
 258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                lifetime adjusted for the disease severity due to mental and/
 259   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  incidence rates, age at disease onset, life expectancy at
 260   II,     5.  5.  3    |                onset, life expectancy at disease onset, age at death, degree
 261   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  onset will increase the disease burden due to the greater
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |           proportional greater burden of disease in the future.~MS social
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 risk factors, studies of disease should be started although
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |                RR-MS), a clearly defined disease with relapses with full
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |               characterized by a lack of disease progression, (b) progressive-relapsing
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  MS (PR-MS), progressive disease from onset with clear superimposed
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |          primary-progressive MS (PP-MS), disease with progression from onset
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |       epidemiological studies on MS, the disease course is often more simply
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |               further progression of the disease. Based on available evidence,
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |            reduce the progression of the disease, yet many people affected
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Larocca, 1985) identified disease and demographic characteristics (
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |               not to the severity of the disease or to demographic differences
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |              identifying demographic and disease characteristics that differentiate
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in which the cost of the disease of MS on the individual
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |                for the management of the disease. There is no cure for MS,
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of clinical forms of the disease and functional status of
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |            refining the global burden of disease approach: a response to
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and primary progressive disease courses. J Neurol Neurosurg
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Revised Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2002 Estimates. In:
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     5.5.3.6. Parkinson’s disease~ ~ ~
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Introduction~ ~Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Vanacore, 2005).~Although, the disease is diagnosed by its impairment
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |               burden (Global Parkinson’s Disease Survey Steering Committee,
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |         treatment options available, the disease results in severe disability (
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of cases of Parkinson’s disease in Europe~ ~Figure 5.5.3.
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of cases of Parkinson’s disease in selected EUGLOREH countries~
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease in Europe.~ ~Crude incidence
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Prevalence studies of Parkinson’s disease in Europe.~ ~Estimates of
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |        distribution of the extent of the disease are important for healthcare
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the early stages of the disease (Findley et al, 2003; Spottke
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Distribution of Parkinson’s disease cases according to the Hoehn &
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   patients with advanced disease have a lower probability
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of advanced stages of the disease (Evers and Obladen, 1994;
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Distribution of Parkinson’s disease cases according to the Hoehn &
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |             patients (Global Parkinson’s Disease Survey Steering Committee,
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 6.3. Cost of Parkinson’s disease stratified by disease severity~ ~
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  s disease stratified by disease severity~ ~The review has
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |                PD markedly increase with disease progression, and iii) the
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the early stages of the disease. A similar increase of costs
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |               increasing severity of the disease has also been described
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                1988). In patients with a disease onset after 60, no income
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 patients with an earlier disease onset a reduced income was
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |              depended on the duration of disease. 25% of the PD patients
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |             working within 5 years after disease onset, and this figure rose
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 five to nine years after disease onset.~Similar data were
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    | neurodegenerative process in Parkinson’s disease is still unknown. Purely
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |             genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease have been identified, however,
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |           decreased risk for Parkinson’s disease (Elbaz and Tranchant, 2007;
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 or decreased Parkinson’s disease risk, but the associations
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |              halt the progression of the disease.~ ~Policies~No specific
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  people with Parkinson’s disease. Most plans and projects
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and Therapy of Parkinson’s Disease - was a multinational project
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 well defined Parkinson’s disease out-patients, by means of
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 utilities of Parkinson’s disease. (EuroPa Consortium, 2004)~
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 2005). Parkinson’s disease has been selected as one
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 placement in Parkinson’s disease: a population-based, prospective
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |        prevalence surveys of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 13(4):626-632.~
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Dietary factors in Parkinson’s disease: the role of food groups
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Inzitari D (2000): Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism in a longitudinal
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease and other types of Parkinsonism.
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Miller H (1966): Neurological disease in an English city. Acta
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Nongenetic causes of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of neural transmission(
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Northwestern Italy: comparison
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |            health burdens of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 13(3):406-413.~
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and care in Parkinson’s disease. Br J Clin Pract 49(6):288-
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Cantalejo, Spain: a door-to-door
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in the Republic of San Marino.
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in the elderly: the Rotterdam
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |             parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery,
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |           economic impact of Parkinson’s disease. An estimation based on
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of people with Parkinson disease in the most populous nations,
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |           economic impact of Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Aging 23(9):693-721.~
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cause of death in Parkinson disease. Versicherungsmedizin /
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 exposures in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 262:37-44.~
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in lower Aragon, Spain.
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Research of Parkinson’s Disease. Moving Along 5 (1): 6.
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and therapy of Parkinson disease in inpatient nursing homes.
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |           economic impact of Parkinson’s disease: a research survey in the
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  genetics of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 22 Suppl 17:
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |             S343-350.~Global Parkinson’s Disease Survey Steering Committee (
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |           quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: results from an international
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 43(11):2227-2229.~
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Smoking and Parkinson’s disease: a dose-response relationship.
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  factors for Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 217(2):169-
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Bastiani P (1991): Parkinson’s disease in Ferrara, Italy, 1967
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |         multicentre study of Parkinson’s disease: progression and mortality
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Multicenter Study of Parkinson’s disease: non-L-dopa-responsive problems
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |           natural history of Parkinson’s disease in the pre-levodopa and
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                management of Parkinson’s disease. Report of a joint task
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |               uncomplicated) Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 13(11):1170-
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a clinico-pathological
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  factors for Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1999): Cost of illness and disease severity in a cohort of
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |                patients with Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacoeconomics 16(1):
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2005): Cost of Parkinson’s disease in Europe. Eur J Neurol
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |                risk factors in Parkinson disease: what is the evidence? Environ
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the cost of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 22(6):804-812.~
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Roy SK (1986): Parkinson’s disease in a Scottish city. Br Med
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease: a door-to-door survey in
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 nicotine and Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci 27(9):561-
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |              with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease : Results from the German
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia (GEPAD). Journal
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 frequency of Parkinson’s disease in the Province of Nuoro (
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    The risk of Parkinson disease in Mediterranean people.
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |              fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease. A community-based study.
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Social costs of Parkinson’s disease. J Chronic Dis 26(4):243-
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |               predictors for Parkinson’s disease in Germany. Pharmacoeconomics
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |         McQuillan WJ (1985): Parkinson’s disease in the district of the Northampton
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease and akinetic syndromes.
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 the cause of Parkinson’s disease environmental or hereditary?
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |         incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 18(1):19-31.~
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: Olmsted County project.
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in the elderly using pharmacy
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Europe. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |                The burden of Parkinson’s disease on society, family, and
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Yahr scale~PD~Parkinson’s disease~SMR~Standardized Mortality
 379   II,     5.  6.  1    |                one of the most expensive disease categories (Jacobson and
 380   II,     5.  6.  2    |                     WHO Global Burden of Disease 2000 revision~· The Burden
 381   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  were the most expensive disease categories representing
 382   II,     5.  6.  3    |              history~ ~The course of the disease varies but is often progressive
 383   II,     5.  6.  3    |           overestimates of the burden of disease as radiological changes
 384   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  in the Global Burden of Disease study that approximately
 385   II,     5.  6.  3    |             cause of non-fatal burden of disease in high income countries
 386   II,     5.  6.  3    |            according to severity of knee disease (Juni et al, 2003).~ ~Future
 387   II,     5.  6.  3    |           polyarthritis. The established disease is distinguished from other
 388   II,     5.  6.  3    |            little evidence of persistent disease in population studies in
 389   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 effective in controlling disease activity and reducing long-term
 390   II,     5.  6.  3    |           treatment aimed at controlling disease activity is the present
 391   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  to be the marker for RA disease severity rather than susceptibility (
 392   II,     5.  6.  3    |               age, female gender, longer disease duration at presentation,
 393   II,     5.  6.  3    |               age, female gender, longer disease duration at presentation,
 394   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  be a severely disabling disease, but its impact is changing
 395   II,     5.  6.  3    |               over recent years with new disease modifying drugs, better
 396   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 effective at controlling disease activity and reducing long-term
 397   II,     5.  6.  3    |           treatment aimed at controlling disease activity is the present
 398   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  more severe form of the disease. Mortality is related to
 399   II,     5.  6.  3    |                especially cardiovascular disease and hypertension; formal
 400   II,     5.  6.  3    |           defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a low bone
 401   II,     5.  6.  4    |                is a major consequence of disease for the individual. A chronic
 402   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 the hip: an occupational disease in farmers. BMJ 304:1269-
 403   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  2006): Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors ISBN-10:
 404   II,     5.  6.  6    |           influence of HLA-DRB1 genes on disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis.
 405   II,     5.  6.  6    |            osteoporosis of the rheumatic disease. A companion to rheumatology,
 406   II,     5.  7        |                      5.7. Chronic kidney disease and end stage renal~disease~ ~
 407   II,     5.  7        |              disease and end stage renal~disease~ ~
 408   II,     5.  7.Acr    |           Communities~CKD~Chronic Kidney Disease~ESRD~End Stage Renal Disease~
 409   II,     5.  7.Acr    |             Disease~ESRD~End Stage Renal Disease~EU~European Union~GFR~Glomerular
 410   II,     5.  7.Acr    |               Haemodialysis~KDIGO~Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes~
 411   II,     5.  7.Acr    |            Modification of Diet in Renal Disease~NHANES III~National Health
 412   II,     5.  7.  1    |            Introduction~ ~Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized
 413   II,     5.  7.  1    |                  more than 3 months. The disease is categorized into 5 stages
 414   II,     5.  7.  1    |           development of end stage renal disease (ESRD), i.e. the disease
 415   II,     5.  7.  1    |                 disease (ESRD), i.e. the disease stage where dialysis and
 416   II,     5.  7.  1    |                  prevent or delay kidney disease progression and the resulting
 417   II,     5.  7.  1    |           progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD),~CKD was not listed
 418   II,     5.  7.  1    |                  of CKD as a preventable disease is an important issue. Indeed
 419   II,     5.  7.  1    |                established by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (
 420   II,     5.  7.  1    |             Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease~ ~ ~Structural or functional
 421   II,     5.  7.  2    |             information on primary renal disease and the start date and type
 422   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Prevalence of chronic kidney disease per stage in two EU Countries~ ~
 423   II,     5.  7.  3    |             stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease in selected EUGLOREH countries.~ ~
 424   II,     5.  7.  3    |             stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease by age and sex.~ ~In 2005
 425   II,     5.  7.  5    |           factors or with cardiovascular disease (i.e. those individuals
 426   II,     5.  7.  5    |               policies on cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.~·
 427   II,     5.  7.  5    |                developed to counter this disease. A proposal for a survey
 428   II,     5.  7.  5    |               directly related to kidney disease. This significantly supports
 429   II,     5.  7.  5    |            minimise the imoact of kidney disease in its early stages.~· The
 430   II,     5.  7.  6    |                  of CKD as a preventable disease and the development of meaningful
 431   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Premature cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure.
 432   II,     5.  7.  7    |                al (2005): Chronic kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and
 433   II,     5.  7.  7    |          adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2006 Mar;
 434   II,     5.  7.  7    |                CY (2004): Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death,
 435   II,     5.  7.  7    |                utility in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2005 Dec;68(
 436   II,     5.  7.  7    |           relationship of chronic kidney disease prevalence and ESRD risk.
 437   II,     5.  7.  7    |            strategies for chronic kidney disease in the general population:
 438   II,     5.  7.  7    |             incidence of end-stage renal disease is increasing faster than
 439   II,     5.  7.  7    |             patients with chronic kidney disease: focus on end-stage renal
 440   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 focus on end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis.
 441   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  risk for chronic kidney disease among nondiabetic adults.
 442   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern
 443   II,     5.  7.  7    |                factors in chronic kidney disease -- evaluating risk factors
 444   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 in adults without kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003 Oct;
 445   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 H (2006): Chronic kidney disease and risk of incident myocardial
 446   II,     5.  7.  7    |             all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged
 447   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 anemia in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2006;47(
 448   II,     5.  7.  7    |            guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification
 449   II,     5.  7.  7    |          dyslipidemias in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;41(
 450   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease.
 451   II,     5.  7.  7    |                disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42(
 452   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43(
 453   II,     5.  7.  7    |                AT (2002): Chronic kidney disease in the United States: an
 454   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician population:
 455   II,     5.  7.  7    |                from the Global Burden of Disease study. PLoS Med 1:e27.~Sarnak
 456   II,     5.  7.  7    |                   Hamm LL, et al, Kidney disease as a risk factor for development
 457   II,     5.  7.  7    |            development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American
 458   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research,
 459   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  care for chronic kidney disease and comorbidity among enrollees
 460   II,     5.  7.  7    |              therapy for end-stage renal disease in Europe, 1990-1999. Nephrol
 461   II,     5.  7.  7    |                al (2007): Chronic kidney disease management in the United
 462   II,     5.  7.  7    |             incidence of end-stage renal disease in Europe, Canada and the
 463   II,     5.  7.  7    |                al (2006): Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic
 464   II,     5.  8        |            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~
 465   II,     5.  8.Acr    |            chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~CVD~cardiovascular disease~
 466   II,     5.  8.Acr    |               disease~CVD~cardiovascular disease~ECRHS~European Community
 467   II,     5.  8.Acr    |                 Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease~GP~General Practitioner~
 468   II,     5.  8.Acr    |       Practitioner~OLIN~Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden~RI~Respiratory
 469   II,     5.  8.  1    |            Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) refers to pathologies
 470   II,     5.  8.  1    |                   costly and preventable disease that has substantial implications
 471   II,     5.  8.  1    |          population. COPD is a treatable disease, when AL is progressive
 472   II,     5.  8.  1    |                  quoted Global Burden of Disease study, which envisaged that
 473   II,     5.  8.  1    |               until the end stage of the disease, characterized by severe
 474   II,     5.  8.  2    |            chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~ ~Includes:~chronic:~·
 475   II,     5.  8.  2    |            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute lower respiratory
 476   II,     5.  8.  2    |            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation,
 477   II,     5.  8.  2    |            chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~ ~Chronic bronchitis:~·
 478   II,     5.  8.  2    |            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unspecified~ ~ ~Chronic
 479   II,     5.  8.  2    |            Chronic obstructive:~· airway disease NOSlung disease NOS~ ~ ~ ~
 480   II,     5.  8.  2    |                airway disease NOSlung disease NOS~ ~ ~ ~
 481   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  women.~ ~Prevalence and disease severity~ ~Since 2000, many
 482   II,     5.  8.  3    |            Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (NICECOPD) study, assessed
 483   II,     5.  8.  3    |           prevalence of obstructive lung disease in 40-69 year olds to 14.
 484   II,     5.  8.  3    |               regards the measurement of disease severity, data from 18 000
 485   II,     5.  8.  3    |               Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) studies (12 centres;
 486   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN)
 487   II,     5.  8.  3    |          countries. The Global Burden of Disease Study (Murray and Lopez,
 488   II,     5.  8.  3    |            terminology, awareness of the disease and potential gender bias
 489   II,     5.  8.  3    |                impact on the patient and disease management:~• Common pathway
 490   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  a specific pre-existing disease—in the case of COPD, pulmonary
 491   II,     5.  8.  3    |            patients with a given chronic disease. For example, upper respiratory
 492   II,     5.  8.  3    |         association among cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, asthma was
 493   II,     5.  8.  3    |               this study, cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease,
 494   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  disease, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer and asthma
 495   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  was not. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) was described as a
 496   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   angina, MI, CHF, renal disease, pulmonary embolism (Table
 497   II,     5.  8.  3    |                strength, irrespective of disease severity.~ ~In another study,
 498   II,     5.  8.  3    |           self-reported obstructive lung disease.~ ~On these basis, some
 499   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 no longer be judged as a disease only involving the lungs.
 500   II,     5.  8.  3    |               population are due to this disease; in Central and Eastern