1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1048
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  4        |                 differ in incidence and prevalence rates, treatment and cure
   2    I,     2.  4        |      inequalities are also found in the prevalence of most specific diseases (
   3    I,     2.  4        |                 are also evident in the prevalence of self-reported chronic
   4    I,     2.  4        |          chronic diseases have a higher prevalence in the lower educational
   5    I,     2.  4        |          health promotion; reducing the prevalence and incidence of certain
   6    I,     2. 10.  1    |               sufficient to measure the prevalence of diseases if the surveillance
   7   II,     4.  1        |             using incidence in place of prevalence), less subjective (using
   8   II,     4.  2        |                 the decrease in smoking prevalence. Mortality by external causes (
   9   II,     5.  1.  1    |                compared to non-smokers. Prevalence of COPD reached 50% in elderly
  10   II,     5.  2.  2    |          failure and arrhythmias, whose prevalence has greatly increased in
  11   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 by the reduction in the prevalence of smokers. The first two
  12   II,     5.  2.  3    |              characterized by different prevalence, age distribution and risk
  13   II,     5.  2.  3    |              become milder and that the prevalence of stroke survivors is increasing.
  14   II,     5.  2.  3    |       suggesting that a decrease in the prevalence of some environmental factors (
  15   II,     5.  2.  4    |          available data on hypertension prevalence by age range. It seems clear
  16   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 clear that hypertension prevalence increases with age and that
  17   II,     5.  2.  4    |              definition of hypertension prevalence ( 160 o 95 mmHg; 140 o 90
  18   II,     5.  2.  4    |              data on total cholesterol: prevalence of hypercholesterolemia
  19   II,     5.  2.  4    |         laboratory assays. Beyond that, prevalence, as expected, increases
  20   II,     5.  2.  4    |               health interview surveys. Prevalence of smoking in women is lower
  21   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  Table 5.2.7. Estimated prevalence of hypertension for men
  22   II,     5.  2.  4    |               cholesterol in mmol/l and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia
  23   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  Table 5.2.9. Estimated prevalence of smoking habit in 27 EU
  24   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 Table 5.2.10. Estimated prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI
  25   II,     5.  2.  4    |             conditions.~ ~Table 5.2.11. Prevalence of smoking (%), mean values
  26   II,     5.  2.  4    |               that in over 10 years the prevalence of patients with hypertension
  27   II,     5.  2.  4    |                made with regards to the prevalence of smoking and obesity.~ ~
  28   II,     5.  3.  1    |              years after diagnosis);~ ~ Prevalence: reflects the total cancer
  29   II,     5.  3.  2    |               time after diagnosis) and prevalence. ENCR has developed recommendations
  30   II,     5.  3.  6    |          important to consider that the prevalence of European adults with
  31   II,     5.  3.  8    |            Coleman et al, 2003). Cancer prevalence, the measure of living people
  32   II,     5.  3.  8    |              cases in 2002. With cancer prevalence, the demand for resources
  33   II,     5.  4.  1    |             overweight and obesity, the prevalence of T2DM is increasing in
  34   II,     5.  4.  1    |                Because of the increased prevalence of obesity, the onset of
  35   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  Worldwide estimates of prevalence of diabetes are scarce and
  36   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  equivalent to a global prevalence of about 6.0%, 46% of which
  37   II,     5.  4.  1    |              According to WHO, diabetes prevalence in the European Region is
  38   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 the IDF Atlas reports a prevalence of 8.5% in the EU 27 Member
  39   II,     5.  4.  1    |                important differences in prevalence are observed among the different
  40   II,     5.  4.  1    |                Austria have the largest prevalence rates with 11.8% and 11.
  41   II,     5.  4.  1    |            States in general experience prevalence rates above 10%. Diabetes
  42   II,     5.  4.  1    |          factors leads to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. For
  43   II,     5.  4.  1    |          reports a staggering worldwide prevalence of 7.5%, estimated to increase
  44   II,     5.  4.  2    |             accurate measurement of the prevalence of the disease, risk factors,
  45   II,     5.  4.  2    |                individuals overestimate prevalence; different portion of cases
  46   II,     5.  4.  2    |             containing estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and impaired
  47   II,     5.  4.  2    |             Among these items, diabetes prevalence and diabetes management
  48   II,     5.  4.  2    |         national drug sales to estimate prevalence of different pathologies (
  49   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 an indirect estimate of prevalence and the pharmaceutical use
  50   II,     5.  4.  2    |               years~12~HES/HIS Registry~Prevalence of diabetes mellitus/1000
  51   II,     5.  4.  2    |              HIS/HES/SPSN/RS Registries~Prevalence (stock) of dialysis/transplantation (
  52   II,     5.  4.  2    |              year per 100.000 children.~Prevalence of diabetes, defined by
  53   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  is extremely variable.~Prevalence over 25 yrs, an EUCID indicator,
  54   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Almost in all countries, prevalence reaches a peak over 75 years
  55   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 population in one year.~Prevalence (stock) of dialysis/transplantation
  56   II,     5.  4.  2    |              Epidemiology of diabetes~ ~Prevalence of subjects with impaired
  57   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 14 years (Green, 2001).~Prevalence of diabetesStandardized
  58   II,     5.  4.  3    |             band of 75-84 years of age.~Prevalence (stock) of dialysis/transplantation
  59   II,     5.  4.  4    |                constantly underlined by prevalence results. Evidence shows
  60   II,     5.  4.  4    |            results. Evidence shows that prevalence is rapidly increasing. However,
  61   II,     5.  4.  4    |                is absolutely necessary. Prevalence forecasts for 2025 must
  62   II,     5.  4.  4    |         estimates. The variation in the prevalence of dialysis/transplant among
  63   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 glucose tolerance has a prevalence at least as high as that
  64   II,     5.  4.  6    |                of CVD and of the rising prevalence of obesity and T2DM. A recent
  65   II,     5.  4.  6    |         increase of obesity, the dither prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising
  66   II,     5.  4.  6    |         Slovenia experience the highest prevalence rates in Europe, and will
  67   II,     5.  4.  8    |          Register: trends in incidence, prevalence and mortality, Diabetologia.
  68   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and
  69   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 trends in male diabetes prevalence, undiagnosed diabetes, and
  70   II,     5.  4.  8    |              2008)~Wil H (2004): Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for
  71   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 But despite their lower prevalence, the associated burden of
  72   II,     5.  5.Int    |        According to Makino et al18, the prevalence rates in Western countries
  73   II,     5.  5.Int(18)|                K, Dennerstein L.(2004): Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison
  74   II,     5.  5.Int    |           Schizophrenia in the EU has a prevalence of about 1% equivalent to
  75   II,     5.  5.Int    |              available.~ ~Epilepsy: The prevalence of epilepsy in the EU varies
  76   II,     5.  5.Int    |                epilepsy is 0.9 million (prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million
  77   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 1.9 million aged 20-64 (prevalence six per 1000) and 0.6 million
  78   II,     5.  5.Int    |               million aged 65 or older (prevalence seven per 1000). Approximately
  79   II,     5.  5.  1    |              are quite common. Lifetime prevalence of major depression is 13%
  80   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 among women; in Europe, prevalence is 9% for adult men and
  81   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Member States found lifetime prevalence of having any anxiety disorder
  82   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  and projected lifetime prevalence 13-26% in the participating
  83   II,     5.  5.  1    |           comparability and validity of prevalence and incidence data when
  84   II,     5.  5.  1    |              addition, the HfA includes prevalence in %, as a cumulative number
  85   II,     5.  5.  1    |              sources. The incidence and prevalence data are available in HfA
  86   II,     5.  5.  1    |            following areas are covered: prevalence, risk factors, disability,
  87   II,     5.  5.  1    |             than comparison of absolute prevalence rates. Reports of access
  88   II,     5.  5.  1    |              description and analysis~ ~Prevalence, incidence, access to treatment
  89   II,     5.  5.  1    |      Netherlands, and Spain.~ ~Lifetime prevalence of any mood disorder was
  90   II,     5.  5.  1    |              ESEMeD countries. Lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder
  91   II,     5.  5.  1    |          presents lifetime and 12 month prevalence rates (%) for mood and anxiety
  92   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 1 Lifetime and 12 month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders
  93   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   1) those with a lower prevalence of psychological distress
  94   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 2) those with a similar prevalence of psychological distress
  95   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  3) those with a higher prevalence of psychological distress
  96   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Brugha TS, Bryson H (2004a). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe:
  97   II,     5.  5.  1    |                         2007): Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions
  98   II,     5.  5.  1    |               146-52.~ ~S G (2005). The prevalence and impact of alcohol problems
  99   II,     5.  5.  2    |              dementia (Kurz, 2002). The prevalence of dementia in EU is estimated
 100   II,     5.  5.  2    |              two major studies into the prevalence of dementia in Europe and
 101   II,     5.  5.  2    |                group pooled data on the prevalence of moderate to severe dementia
 102   II,     5.  5.  2    |               and came up with a set of prevalence rates for men and women
 103   II,     5.  5.  2    |                when using the resulting prevalence rates for other countries
 104   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 other factors affecting prevalence.~ ~It is difficult if not
 105   II,     5.  5.  2    |               on dementia and agreed on prevalence estimates for every World
 106   II,     5.  5.  2    |          calculations, we only used the prevalence rates for Western Europe (
 107   II,     5.  5.  2    |            differences in the resulting prevalence rates. In the EURODEM study,
 108   II,     5.  5.  2    |           EURODEM study, for example, a prevalence rate was calculated for
 109   II,     5.  5.  2    |               study calculated separate prevalence rates per 5 year age groups
 110   II,     5.  5.  2    |          whereas Ferri et al reported a prevalence rate for people aged 85
 111   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|                 for which we calculated prevalence.~
 112   II,     5.  5.  2    |              description and analysis~ ~Prevalence~ ~The prevalence rates for
 113   II,     5.  5.  2    |             analysis~ ~Prevalence~ ~The prevalence rates for the EURODEM and
 114   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  Table 5.5.2.1. EURODEM prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence
 115   II,     5.  5.  2    |       prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates reported by Ferri
 116   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 al (2005)~ ~Using these prevalence rates and the population
 117   II,     5.  5.  2    |            dementia (depending on which prevalence rates are used). This represents
 118   II,     5.  5.  2    |             developments based on their prevalence rates and UN population
 119   II,     5.  5.  2    |               meta-analysis of existing prevalence studies in whole Europe,
 120   II,     5.  5.  2    |                to devise new consensual prevalence rates for dementia. A database
 121   II,     5.  5.  2    |               development of consensual prevalence rates, guidelines on diagnosis,
 122   II,     5.  5.  2    |           Prince M et al (2005): Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus
 123   II,     5.  5.  3    |        representative conclusions about prevalence and incidence. ~ ~Literature
 124   II,     5.  5.  3    |                to measure incidence and prevalence. One method, which is able
 125   II,     5.  5.  3    |                not provide information (prevalence and incidence) about the
 126   II,     5.  5.  3    |                to indicate the complete prevalence and incidence of eating
 127   II,     5.  5.  3    |               allowing statements about prevalence and incidence of anorexia
 128   II,     5.  5.  3    |               representative data about prevalence of Bulimia and Anorexia
 129   II,     5.  5.  3    |           representative data about the prevalence of Bulimia and Anorexia
 130   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epidemiological studies about prevalence of eating disorders. However,
 131   II,     5.  5.  3    |           research on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders in the
 132   II,     5.  5.  3    |         epidemiological data concerning prevalence of bulimia and anorexia
 133   II,     5.  5.  3    |        physical activity as well as the prevalence of particular high priority
 134   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Hoeken, 2003). An average prevalence rate of 0.3% for young females
 135   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 States was noticed. The prevalence rate for bulimia is 1% for
 136   II,     5.  5.  3    |             about changes in incidence, prevalence and progress. With this
 137   II,     5.  5.  3    |            well-grounded information on prevalence, incidence and progress
 138   II,     5.  5.  3    |                D, (2003): Review of the Prevalence and Incidence of Eating
 139   II,     5.  5.  3    |               related to schizophrenia.~Prevalence and Incidence~According
 140   II,     5.  5.  3    |            review (Saha et al, 2005) of prevalence data evaluated in 188 epidemiological
 141   II,     5.  5.  3    |                studies the median point prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, period
 142   II,     5.  5.  3    |                was 4.6 per 1000, period prevalence 3.3 per 1000, lifetime prevalence
 143   II,     5.  5.  3    |       prevalence 3.3 per 1000, lifetime prevalence 4.0 per 1000 and lifetime
 144   II,     5.  5.  3    |           habitation area. However, the prevalence was significantly increased
 145   II,     5.  5.  3    |                22, 2008) the calculated prevalence of schizophrenia should
 146   II,     5.  5.  3    |         estimates based on the lifetime prevalence rate, the service utilization
 147   II,     5.  5.  3    |               available focusing on the prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia
 148   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Available data summarize prevalence and incidence rates for
 149   II,     5.  5.  3    |              variation in incidence and prevalence data (Lange et al, 2002).
 150   II,     5.  5.  3    |                underestimate the actual prevalence of schizophrenia since about
 151   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 rates as indicators for prevalence - as well as information
 152   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the schizophrenia burden.~Prevalence and Incidence~Figure 5.5.
 153   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Figure 5.5.3.2.1. Estimated prevalence of psychotic disorders in
 154   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 comprehensive review on prevalence data identified a median
 155   II,     5.  5.  3    |               identified a median point prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for
 156   II,     5.  5.  3    |               per 1 000, 3.3 for period prevalence, 4.0 for lifetime prevalence
 157   II,     5.  5.  3    |            prevalence, 4.0 for lifetime prevalence and 7.2 for lifetime morbidity
 158   II,     5.  5.  3    |                value noted for lifetime prevalence is 0.5 to 1.0%.~Worldwide,
 159   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 specific differences in prevalence and in certain incidence
 160   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Factors that may influence the prevalence, such as recovery, suicide
 161   II,     5.  5.  3    |           estimates of lifetime suicide prevalence in schizophrenia are contradictory:
 162   II,     5.  5.  3    |              due to higher incidence or prevalence rates in these countries.
 163   II,     5.  5.  3    |             schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of HIV infections and hepatitis,
 164   II,     5.  5.  3    |             morbidity.~Table 5.5.3.2.2. Prevalence and adjusted odds ratios
 165   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Compared to typical community prevalence rates (25-30%), the rate
 166   II,     5.  5.  3    |        metabolic syndrome. The diabetes prevalence is shown to be about 15%
 167   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Netherlands and the UK. The prevalence period for help seeking
 168   II,     5.  5.  3    |           surveys, population size, and prevalence rates was as follows:~Mini
 169   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 little to no atypicals. Prevalence estimates on schizophrenia
 170   II,     5.  5.  3    |          evidence suggests a decline in prevalence (e.g. Suvisaari et al, 1999),
 171   II,     5.  5.  3    |        comparable data on incidence and prevalence rates, risk factors etc
 172   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Survey Consortium (2004): Prevalence, severity, and unmet need
 173   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Leckband SG, Jeste DV (2002): Prevalence of and risk factors for
 174   II,     5.  5.  3    |                systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia PLoS Med.
 175   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Smith G, Goodall E (1988): Prevalence of obesity in patients receiving
 176   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Survey Consortium (2004): Prevalence, severity, and unmet need
 177   II,     5.  5.  3    |          difficulties in estimating the prevalence of ASD in a historical perspective,
 178   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Europe-wide information on the prevalence. Difficulties such as lack
 179   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 differences in reported prevalence over time. The major source
 180   II,     5.  5.  3    |             survey methodologies. Point prevalence comparisons made within
 181   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 from multiple surveys. ~Prevalence rates have been estimated
 182   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Prevention (CDC) carried out a prevalence study in 2002. This study
 183   II,     5.  5.  3    |        consistent with the upper end of prevalence estimates from previously
 184   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  A systematic review of prevalence studies has contributed
 185   II,     5.  5.  3    |           influences on variation among prevalence estimates. Over half of
 186   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of these known factors on prevalence estimates should now be
 187   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 for other influences on prevalence.~It is well accepted in
 188   II,     5.  5.  3    |         available to determine both the prevalence and financial burden of
 189   II,     5.  5.  3    |             valid information about ASD prevalence in several European countries
 190   II,     5.  5.  3    |             methods for planning an ASD prevalence study in Europe. This is
 191   II,     5.  5.  3    |     developments~ ~Reports of increased prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (
 192   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 differences in reported prevalence over time. The methodology
 193   II,     5.  5.  3    |              The methodology to measure prevalence and the case definition
 194   II,     5.  5.  3    |               In Europe, the incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy
 195   II,     5.  5.  3    |               background, the different prevalence of the most common risk
 196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 population at risk, the prevalence of the etiological factors
 197   II,     5.  5.  3    |             epidemiological purposes.~ ~Prevalence of epilepsy~There are numerous
 198   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 numerous studies on the prevalence of epilepsy in Europe (Forsgren
 199   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 2005). The overall prevalence of active epilepsy ranges
 200   II,     5.  5.  3    |              000 (Table 5.5.3.4.3). The prevalence is lower in infancy and
 201   II,     5.  5.  3    |             elderly. As with incidence, prevalence of epilepsy tends to prevail
 202   II,     5.  5.  3    |             with documented etiology in prevalence studies has been shown to
 203   II,     5.  5.  3    |              above).~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.3. Prevalence of active epilepsy in Europe~
 204   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Population ~Design~No. of cases ~Prevalence ratio (per 1,000)~Reference(
 205   II,     5.  5.  3    |             shown by Forsgren (2004) in prevalence studies made on adults from
 206   II,     5.  5.  3    |            contrast with incidence, the prevalence of epilepsy syndromes has
 207   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Beilmann et al, 1999), the prevalence of idiopathic epilepsies
 208   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Waaler et al, 2000). The prevalence of specific syndromes in
 209   II,     5.  5.  3    |                was detected between the prevalence of epilepsy and social deprivation,
 210   II,     5.  5.  3    |              ranges from 1 per 1,000 in prevalence studies (ODonogue and Sander,
 211   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Cornaggia, 2002) and the prevalence of comorbidity in patients
 212   II,     5.  5.  3    |                controls, with differing prevalence ratios (PR) when comparing
 213   II,     5.  5.  3    |            studies on the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in countries
 214   II,     5.  5.  3    |             reports, similar incidence, prevalence and mortality rates are
 215   II,     5.  5.  3    |                A, Soot A, et al (1999): Prevalence of childhood epilepsy in
 216   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 first attendance rates, prevalence, and prognosis. J Neurol
 217   II,     5.  5.  3    |                V, Miseviciene V (1997): Prevalence of childhood epilepsy in
 218   II,     5.  5.  3    |                KJ., Koivikko MJ (1997): Prevalence, classification, and severity
 219   II,     5.  5.  3    |               La Spina P, et al (2005): Prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy
 220   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Social deprivation and prevalence of epilepsy and associated
 221   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Forsgren L, Heijbel J (1996): Prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy
 222   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Epilepsy in children: prevalence, disability and handicap.
 223   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Skeidsvoll H, Mykletun A (2000): Prevalence, classification, and severity
 224   II,     5.  5.  3    |          despite its relatively limited prevalence. It is the major cause of
 225   II,     5.  5.  3    |        distribution of MS incidence and prevalence by age, sex, disease course
 226   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Age categorisation for prevalence and incidence differs from
 227   II,     5.  5.  3    |                When feasible, the total prevalence rate was standardized using
 228   II,     5.  5.  3    |           provide further details as to prevalence distribution by country,
 229   II,     5.  5.  3    |           available.~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.1. Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in
 230   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Countries~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.2. Prevalence (per 100 000) of Multiple
 231   II,     5.  5.  3    |               gender~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.3. Prevalence (per 100 000) of Multiple
 232   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Wales; a markedly increased prevalence up to tenfold in Wales partly
 233   II,     5.  5.  3    |              latitudinal gradient of MS prevalence across the UK is unquestionable,
 234   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Scottish border. The MS prevalence in Northern Ireland is comparable
 235   II,     5.  5.  3    |            populations. In Ireland, the prevalence of MS is similar to that
 236   II,     5.  5.  3    |            comparable latitudes.~The MS prevalence in the Nordic countries
 237   II,     5.  5.  3    |              across regions. The higher prevalence rates of MS reported in
 238   II,     5.  5.  3    |               an uneven distribution of prevalence and incidence, with peaks
 239   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Norwegians in Oslo had a prevalence rate of 136, which was higher
 240   II,     5.  5.  3    |         population. In Hordaland County prevalence was 151 in 2003. In most
 241   II,     5.  5.  3    |               resistant population, the prevalence increased 3.5-fold to 73
 242   II,     5.  5.  3    |         established in the early 1950s, prevalence in Göteborg in southwestern
 243   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Sweden showed an increase of prevalence from 125 in 1990 to 154
 244   II,     5.  5.  3    |              regional differences in MS prevalence and incidence have persisted
 245   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in Uusimaa in the south. Prevalence increased between 1983 and
 246   II,     5.  5.  3    |                threefold increase of MS prevalence up to 119 in 1999 compared
 247   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Scandinavian countries.~The MS prevalence in Germany has been rather
 248   II,     5.  5.  3    |                time and geography, with prevalence between 83 and 127 (Pugliatti
 249   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 personal data). Similar prevalence rates were found in the
 250   II,     5.  5.  3    |         geographical distribution of MS prevalence was heterogeneous in Poland,
 251   II,     5.  5.  3    |        nationwide survey, the estimated prevalence in France is 65 per 100
 252   II,     5.  5.  3    |         regional differences applied to prevalence but not to incidence rates,
 253   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and central Spain found prevalence rates of 3258 and mean
 254   II,     5.  5.  3    |            rates from 24 in the 1990s. Prevalence data are in the same range
 255   II,     5.  5.  3    |             range for Portugal.~Several prevalence surveys on MS have been
 256   II,     5.  5.  3    |          multiply assessed. The overall prevalence and the reported increase
 257   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and increased survival. Prevalence and incidence rates in the
 258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                fold increase in Malta’s prevalence rate since 1978 was explained
 259   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 MS risk in the Maltese.~Prevalence of 39 and 21 per 100 000
 260   II,     5.  5.  3    |           incidence of 0.9 for Romania. Prevalence was 39 in Greece and Cyprus (
 261   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in these areas.~In brief, prevalence in Europe ranges from approx.
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Nevertheless, a certain extent of prevalence heterogeneity is observed
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |               decreasing variability in prevalence rates among and within Countries
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in the same time frame. Prevalence ranges between 11 and 282
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1.1 and 3.4. Mean total prevalence estimates by age group varied
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |           across Countries. The highest prevalence estimates have been reported
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Scotland, and Norway, where prevalence was higher in the population
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |             information on age-specific prevalence rates, on the distribution
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 comparing incidence and prevalence rates between studies.~A
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in the distribution of MS prevalence rates across Europe has
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |                decreased variability in prevalence rates among and within countries
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and a temporal increase of prevalence and incidence rates where
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |                predict the degree of MS prevalence according to latitude, a
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |             gradient was found if crude prevalence rates were considered (Zivadinov
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 al, 2003). However, for prevalence and incidence rates age-adjusted
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epidemiological data, such as prevalence and incidence rates, age
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |            analyse and compare MS data; prevalence and epidemiology of multiple
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Ganzinger U, et al (2002): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Füvesi J, et al (2001): The prevalence of multiple sclerosis, distribution
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1994): Multiple sclerosis prevalence in Russia and other countries
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |              sclerosis in Oslo, Norway: prevalence on 1 January 1995 and incidence
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway: a prevalence and incidence study. Acta
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Mendes H, et al (2006): The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Swingler RJ (1999): The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Airey CM, et al (1998): The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 study of the incidence, prevalence and mortality of multiple
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |            reappraisal of incidence and prevalence in Ferrara. Arch Neurol
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Kokk A, Kaasik AE (1993): Prevalence of MS in South Estonia.
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |                sclerosis: incidence and prevalence rates in Denmark 194864
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Latitudinal variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Jordanova L, Topalov N (1997): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Zwanniken CF (1994): Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |               López A, Errea JM (1997): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Lo Fermo S, et al (2001): Prevalence and incidence of multiple
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 the region of Szczecin: prevalence and incidence 1993-1995.
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 G (2002): The worldwide prevalence of MS. Clinical Neurology
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |                76.~Rosati G (2001). The prevalence of MS in the world: an update.
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1998): High incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Hakama M (2001): Increasing prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Nyström L, Forsgren L (2001): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Incidence (1988-97): and prevalence (1997): of multiple sclerosis
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Fernández-Herranz R (1999): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Cialfi A, et al (2000): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Vlietnick R, Carton H (1994): Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Regional variations in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |              standardized incidence and prevalence rates in epidemiological
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |        parkinsonism”, have a much lower prevalence (MSA:1.86 to 4.9/100.000,
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |               people with an increasing prevalence in older age groups (>85y;
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Country-specific data on PD prevalence are summarised in Table
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.2. Prevalence studies of Parkinson’s disease
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Europe.~ ~Estimates of crude prevalence rates varied considerably,
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Detailed age-specific prevalence rates were not provided
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2001), the crude prevalence increased steadily with
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Rosati et al, 1979) the crude prevalence started to decrease between
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 years of age.~Estimated prevalence and incidence rates for
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |             were included, the rates of prevalence and incidence were much
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |    distributions (note that the highest prevalence of 12,500/100,000 was obtained
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |       false-negative screening results, prevalence may also be underestimated (
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |        conflicting evidence of a higher prevalence for men: some studies found
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |               limitations discussed for prevalence studies, differences in
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and mortality of PD.~The prevalence and cost data were stratified
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |                identified, however, the prevalence of genes that have been
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |                developed countries, the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |          ascertainment uncertainties in prevalence surveys of Parkinson’s disease.
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Gabriel R, Morales JM (2003): Prevalence of PD and other types of
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Marti-Masso JF (2004): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease and
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Magnani C, Schiffer D (1998): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |               de Pedro-Cuesta J (2002): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Naccarato S, Manzaroli D (1987): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Meche FG, Hofman A (1995): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Alperovitch A, Rocca WA (1997): Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson’
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |               de Pedro-Cuesta J (1999): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Giuffrida S, Reggio A (2003): Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease:
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |              United Kingdom. A study of prevalence and disability. Acta neurologica
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Estimation of incidence and prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Berger K, Dodel R (2005): Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson’
 337   II,     5.  6.  3    |              definitions, incidence and prevalence; determinants; disability
 338   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Estimates of incidence and prevalence for the major musculoskeletal
 339   II,     5.  6.  3    |                1. General Incidence and Prevalence Rates~ ~Musculoskeletal
 340   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 rheumatoid arthritis.~ ~Prevalence~ ~In Europe, just over one-fifth (
 341   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 in those over 75.~ ~The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain
 342   II,     5.  6.  3    |                The age and sex-specific prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal
 343   II,     5.  6.  3    |                Sweden~ ~ ~Figure 5.6.2. Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal
 344   II,     5.  6.  3    |            Netherlands~ ~Figure 5.6.2.b Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal
 345   II,     5.  6.  3    |            Report No 272e, 2007).~ ~The prevalence of physical disabilities
 346   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Reynolds et al, 1992). The prevalence is higher in women, and
 347   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 studies to estimate the prevalence of OA in different joint
 348   II,     5.  6.  3    |       progression increases with age.~ ~Prevalence~ ~Prevalence measured using
 349   II,     5.  6.  3    |                with age.~ ~Prevalence~ ~Prevalence measured using radiological
 350   II,     5.  6.  3    |              lead to an overestimate of prevalence. Likewise, surveys that
 351   II,     5.  6.  3    |        osteoarthritis over-estimate the prevalence (Symmons et al, 2003). For
 352   II,     5.  6.  3    |               in the UK showed that the prevalence of symptomatic knee OA was
 353   II,     5.  6.  3    |             Spector et al, 1991).~ ~The prevalence of OA increases indefinitely
 354   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 people aged 5574 the prevalence of OA of the hand is 70%,
 355   II,     5.  6.  3    |               geographical variation in prevalence.~ ~In many people there
 356   II,     5.  6.  3    |             Table 5.6.3. Osteoarthritis Prevalence in selected EUGLOREH Countries~ ~
 357   II,     5.  6.  3    |             Table 5.6.4. Osteoarthritis Prevalence (Radiographic Criteria)
 358   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Countries ~ ~Figure 5.6.3. Prevalence of knee OA in Europe~ ~Figure
 359   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 Europe~ ~Figure 5.6.4a. Prevalence of radiographic OA by age
 360   II,     5.  6.  3    |               age A) Men~Figure 5.6.4b. Prevalence of radiographic OA by age
 361   II,     5.  6.  3    |           public health, based on their prevalence and associated disability.
 362   II,     5.  6.  3    |            changes in the incidence and prevalence of OA are difficult to predict.
 363   II,     5.  6.  3    |               predict. As incidence and prevalence rise with increasing age
 364   II,     5.  6.  3    |               females. Estimates of the prevalence of RA range from 1-6 per
 365   II,     5.  6.  3    |               women. In all studies the prevalence is higher in women than
 366   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 now reflected in recent prevalence figures for RA from the
 367   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 approximate 25% fall in prevalence in women aged 16-74.~ ~The
 368   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 74.~ ~The incidence and prevalence of RA generally rises with
 369   II,     5.  6.  3    |             Table 5.6.6)~ ~Table 5.6.6. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid
 370   II,     5.  6.  3    |                studies across Europe.~ ~Prevalence~ ~For both men and women
 371   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 to be a gradient in the prevalence of RA going from South (
 372   II,     5.  6.  3    |               highest). For example the prevalence of RA in men in Finland
 373   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Italy 0.13%. In women, the prevalence in the same three countries
 374   II,     5.  6.  3    |            changes in the incidence and prevalence of RA are difficult to predict.
 375   II,     5.  6.  3    |               indicate a decline in its prevalence, particularly among women (
 376   II,     5.  6.  3    |                               5.6.3.4.4 Prevalence~ ~Prevalence is best measured
 377   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  5.6.3.4.4 Prevalence~ ~Prevalence is best measured by the
 378   II,     5.  6.  3    |              vertebral deformity.~ ~The prevalence of vertebral deformity increases
 379   II,     5.  6.  3    |               IOF criteria, the general prevalence of osteoporosis rises from
 380   II,     5.  6.  3    |               previous low back pain.~ ~Prevalence~ ~Lifetime prevalence varies
 381   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Prevalence~ ~Lifetime prevalence varies between 58% and 84%.
 382   II,     5.  6.  3    |             pain is very common but the prevalence varies according to the
 383   II,     5.  6.  3    |                between countries. Point prevalence (proportion of population
 384   II,     5.  6.  3    |             been a reported increase in prevalence in the UK between 1980 and
 385   II,     5.  6.  6    |               estimates of severity and prevalence from the Calderdale Rheumatic
 386   II,     5.  6.  6    |           Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic
 387   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Great Britain Report 1: The prevalence of disability among adults.~ ~
 388   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 1998): Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected
 389   II,     5.  6.  6    |        Minnesota: a study of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Am J Epidemiol
 390   II,     5.  6.  6    |            Chandler C, Dawson P (1999): Prevalence of back, neck and shoulder
 391   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 Great Britain Report 1: Prevalence of disability among adults.~
 392   II,     5.  6.  6    |              Britain: comparison of two prevalence surveys at an interval of
 393   II,     5.  6.  6    |            Picavet HS, Hazes JM (2003): Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal
 394   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Leedham-Green M (1991): The prevalence of knee and hand osteoarthritis (
 395   II,     5.  6.  6    |              Hart DJ, Powell RJ (1993): Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis
 396   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 D, Silman A (2002): The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis
 397   II,     5.  6.  6    |              community: the comparative prevalence of symptoms at different
 398   II,     5.  7.  1    |              policies for CKD. The high prevalence of CKD, its contribution
 399   II,     5.  7.  2    |           compilation of studies on the prevalence of CKD among children, adolescents
 400   II,     5.  7.  2    |              RRT. Available data on the prevalence of CKD (stages 1-5) in EU
 401   II,     5.  7.  2    |               data on the incidence and prevalence of RRT for ESRD to the ERA-EDTA
 402   II,     5.  7.  2    |                 to calculate incidence, prevalence and patient survival. These
 403   II,     5.  7.  2    |                aggregated incidence and prevalence data that are received from
 404   II,     5.  7.  2    |               this report incidence and prevalence data on RRT were used from
 405   II,     5.  7.  3    |               available only in Norway. Prevalence of 1-5 CKD in Norway was
 406   II,     5.  7.  3    |               is similar to the current prevalence in the USA (11%). This contrasts
 407   II,     5.  7.  3    |             nephrologist and had higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes.~ ~
 408   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 Table 5.7.5). Just like prevalence, the incidence rate of RRT
 409   II,     5.  7.  3    |             concomitant increase in the prevalence of RRT over the past decades
 410   II,     5.  7.  3    |         variation in incidence~ ~As for prevalence the incidence rate of RRT
 411   II,     5.  7.  3    |                Renal Registry, 2003).~ ~Prevalence~ ~For the 27 EU Member countries,
 412   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 national surveys on the prevalence of CKD among adults are
 413   II,     5.  7.  3    |              databases overestimate the prevalence of diseases and this is
 414   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 this review. Indeed the prevalence of stages 3-5 CKD was 1.
 415   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Italy, Iceland, Norway. The prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD appears
 416   II,     5.  7.  3    |               than in males. The higher prevalence on CKD in females, which
 417   II,     5.  7.  3    |             people <20 years reported a prevalence of CKD (defined as a GFR <
 418   II,     5.  7.  3    |           Esbjorner et al, 1997).~ ~The prevalence of ESRD undergoing RRT in
 419   II,     5.  7.  3    |               et al, 2004). In 2005 the prevalence of RRT in the 0-14 years
 420   II,     5.  7.  3    |            Table 5.7.7).~ ~Adults~ ~The prevalence of CKD by stages (as defined
 421   II,     5.  7.  3    |           Figure 5.7.2.~ ~Figure 5.7.2. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease
 422   II,     5.  7.  3    |             stage in two EU Countries~ ~Prevalence of stages 3-5 CKD - i.e.
 423   II,     5.  7.  3    |                al, 2007). Stage 3-5 CKD prevalence was either similar in males
 424   II,     5.  7.  3    |           information was available the prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD increased
 425   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 5.7.4).~ ~Figure 5.7.3. Prevalence of stages 3-5 of chronic
 426   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 4. Sex and age specific prevalence of stages 3-5 of chronic
 427   II,     5.  7.  3    |                sex.~ ~In 2005 the crude prevalence of RRT for ESRD varied from
 428   II,     5.  7.  3    |               to females (Table 5.7.7). Prevalence of RRT in Europeans is lower
 429   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  2007).~ ~Table 5.7.6A. Prevalence of RRT over the period 1992-
 430   II,     5.  7.  3    |                country.~ ~Table 5.7.6B. Prevalence of RRT over the period 2000-
 431   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 country.~ ~Table 5.7.7. Prevalence of RRT over the period 1992-
 432   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   In those surveys, the prevalence of stage 1-5 CKD rose from
 433   II,     5.  7.  3    |                DeJong, 2007), while the prevalence of stages 3-5 remained almost
 434   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 7) the overall adjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD increased
 435   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 age group, however, the prevalence remained stable throughout
 436   II,     5.  7.  3    |              databases overestimate the prevalence of diseases and this was
 437   II,     5.  7.  3    |                this review. Indeed, the prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD was 1.3
 438   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Italy, Iceland, Norway. The prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD appears
 439   II,     5.  7.  3    |               than in males. The higher prevalence on CKD in females, which
 440   II,     5.  7.  3    |             concomitant increase in the prevalence of RRT over the past decades
 441   II,     5.  7.  4    |              Renal Registry, 2003), the prevalence of RRT was higher in socially
 442   II,     5.  7.  4    |              general population, by the prevalence of underlying causes of
 443   II,     5.  7.  5    |            proposal for a survey on the prevalence of CKD at community level
 444   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Zimmet PZ, et al (2003): Prevalence of kidney damage in Australian
 445   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Reynolds K, et al (2005) Prevalence of decreased kidney function
 446   II,     5.  7.  7    |           filtration in the population: prevalence, associated disorders, and
 447   II,     5.  7.  7    |               kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and trends among U.S. adults,
 448   II,     5.  7.  7    |               of chronic kidney disease prevalence and ESRD risk. J Am Soc
 449   II,     5.  7.  7    |              increasing faster than the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency.
 450   II,     5.  8.  1    |       significant augmentations in COPD prevalence and mortality are envisaged
 451   II,     5.  8.  3    |            section addresses incidence, prevalence and mortality associated
 452   II,     5.  8.  3    |                between men and women.~ ~Prevalence and disease severity~ ~Since
 453   II,     5.  8.  3    |              2000, many studies on COPD prevalence have been published (Chapman
 454   II,     5.  8.  3    |               2006). The variability of prevalence rates according to different
 455   II,     5.  8.  3    |                et al, 2006) estimated a prevalence of 9.2% using a spirometric
 456   II,     5.  8.  3    |            studies reported 101 overall prevalence estimates from 28 different
 457   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 of which were European. Prevalence did not vary significantly
 458   II,     5.  8.  3    |             Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.8.1. Prevalence estimates for COPD per different
 459   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 from Northern Italy, AO prevalence rates ranged from 11.0%
 460   II,     5.  8.  3    |           NICECOPD) study, assessed the prevalence of obstructive lung disease
 461   II,     5.  8.  3    |            Study (WHO LARES) reported a prevalence of 6.2% of chronic bronchitis
 462   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  has estimated that the prevalence of COPD in the general Spanish
 463   II,     5.  8.  3    |               steady trend to increased prevalence in Finland, Slovakia, Romania,
 464   II,     5.  8.  3    |               the Dutch population, the prevalence of COPD was estimated to
 465   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 were used to assess the prevalence of COPD severity stages,
 466   II,     5.  8.  3    |           Figure 5.8.2.~ ~Figure 5.8.2. Prevalence of the GOLD severity stages*
 467   II,     5.  8.  3    |               Delta survey assessed the prevalence of GOLD-COPD in men and
 468   II,     5.  8.  3    |         Salzburg (Austria), the overall prevalence of COPD at stage I or higher
 469   II,     5.  8.  3    |            Sweden (OLIN) found that the prevalence of mild British Thoracic
 470   II,     5.  8.  3    |                COPD were symptomatic.~ ~Prevalence (per 1 000 in Dutch population)
 471   II,     5.  8.  3    |                Moreover, a study on the prevalence of nutritional depletion (
 472   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 results showed that the prevalence of nutritional depletion
 473   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 high (27%), whereas the prevalence of normal BMI and low FFMI
 474   II,     5.  8.  3    |               al, 2007). This increased prevalence of osteoporosis could not
 475   II,     5.  8.  3    |               anxiety are reported with prevalence rates reaching 47% . Moreover,
 476   II,     5.  8.  4    |                compared to non-smokers. Prevalence of COPD reached 50% in elderly
 477   II,     5.  8.  4    |               at the age of 20-45, with prevalence rates of 11.8% for the pre-clinical
 478   II,     5.  8.  4    |                of FEV1 nor an increased prevalence of airway obstruction was
 479   II,     5.  8.  4    |               et al, 2005).~ ~The exact prevalence of COPD is variable across
 480   II,     5.  8.  4    |              will result in higher COPD prevalence, morbidity, and mortality.
 481   II,     5.  8.  5    |                substantially reduce the prevalence of COPD and its progression
 482   II,     5.  8.  7    |     Annesi-Maesano I. (2007) : Reported prevalence and co-morbidity of asthma,
 483   II,     5.  8.  7    |          International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD study):
 484   II,     5.  8.  7    |               study): a population-base prevalence study. Lancet; 370: 741-
 485   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Lammers JW, Verheij TJ (2005): Prevalence of undetected persistent
 486   II,     5.  8.  7    |                2003): Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: what is the true
 487   II,     5.  8.  7    |                LJ, Backer V (2007): The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients
 488   II,     5.  8.  7    |                 LG, Lundback B. (2006): Prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD
 489   II,     5.  8.  7    |           burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet
 490   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Schellevis FG, Raat H (2006): Prevalence estimates of asthma or COPD
 491   II,     5.  8.  7    |         Patterson C, MacMahon J (2005): Prevalence of obstructive lung disease
 492   II,     5.  8.  7    |               RL, Buist AS (2007): COPD prevalence in Salzburg, Austria: results
 493   II,     5.  8.  7    |                 the COSMIC Study Group. Prevalence of nutritional depletion
 494   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Carrozzi L, Giuntini C (2000): Prevalence of airways obstruction in
 495   II,     5.  8.  7    | population-based observational study on prevalence and the relationship with
 496   II,     5.  9. FB    |     Epidemiology of allergic diseases~ ~Prevalence of allergic diseases~ ~More
 497   II,     5.  9. FB    |              throughout Europe, allergy prevalence among teenagers ranges from
 498   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  Data about the overall prevalence of atopic-related allergies
 499   II,     5.  9. FB    |             allergy. Significant higher prevalence of atopy and allergic asthma
 500   II,     5.  9. FB    |                converging" trend in the prevalence of allergic asthma and of