1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1028
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  3       |                  foreign than for European women.~Female Genital Mutilation (
   2    I,     2.  3       |                   alone, 500 000 girls and women are affected or threatened
   3    I,     2.  4       |                   tend to be smaller among women than among men; and~· inequalities
   4    I,     2.  4       |                    men, 2 to 4 years among women). In many Western European
   5    I,     2.  4       |              countries, both among men and women. Among men, the excess mortality
   6    I,     2.  4       |                  European countries. Among women, however, relative inequalities
   7    I,     2.  5       |               labour market, especially of women and the very young, provided
   8    I,     2.  5       |               population, while trends for women of the same age brackets
   9    I,     2.  5       |                   increasing percentage of women in the workforce. However,
  10    I,     2.  5       |                jobs carried out by men and women, the type of employment
  11    I,     2.  5       |            development opportunities. Many women work in the caring services
  12    I,     2.  5       |            psychosocial risk factors. More women than men work in jobs where
  13    I,     2.  5       |                    part-time workers, with women making up the majority.
  14    I,     2.  5       |                    gender dimension, since women are relatively over-represented
  15    I,     2.  6       |                    In the EU25 as a whole, women accounted for almost 55%
  16    I,     2.  6       |          throughout the EU. There are more women than men enrolled in ISCED
  17    I,     2.  6       |            programmes in EU Member States. Women accounted for more than
  18    I,     2.  6       |                   and Norway. The share of women among students increased
  19    I,     2.  6       |                    In the EU25 as a whole, women made up almost 47% of students
  20    I,     2.  6       |                  the figure was under 40%. Women outnumbered men, however,
  21    I,     2.  6       |                 and 2003/04, the number of women enrolled in ISCED level
  22    I,     2.  6       |                  exception is Italy, where women still outnumber men (EUROSTAT,
  23    I,     2.  6       |                EUROSTAT, 2008).~ ~In 2004, women made up around 59% of students
  24    I,     2.  6       |              points more than the share of women in enrolments. More women
  25    I,     2.  6       |                  women in enrolments. More women than men graduated in 2004
  26    I,     2.  6       |             countries except Turkey, where women make up a relatively small
  27    I,     2.  6       |                   graduating students were women.~The situation is very different
  28    I,     2.  6       |                  men. Men also outnumbered women in most countries. The exceptions
  29    I,     2.  6       |              reflects the growing share of women enrolling in ISCED 6 programmes (
  30    I,     2.  6       |               previously when the share of women was smaller). There is a
  31    I,     2.  6       |               fields of education in which women and men successfully complete
  32    I,     2.  6       |                    level programmes. While women make up a large majority
  33    I,     2. 11       |               EUROSTAT (2008): The life of women and men in Europe 2008 edition.
  34    I,     3.  1       |                    to the ‘catching up’ of women who had not yet given birth
  35    I,     3.  1       |           currently is. As higher educated women have their first child later
  36    I,     3.  1       |                    life than less educated women, the mere increase in the
  37    I,     3.  1       |                  increase in the number of women with higher education explains
  38    I,     3.  1       |              cohort perspective shows that women born at the end or just
  39    I,     3.  1       |                children below replacement. Women from birth cohort 1955,
  40    I,     3.  1       |                   replacement. On average, women born in the 1930s had their
  41    I,     3.  1       |                   first child earlier than women born later. Women born in
  42    I,     3.  1       |             earlier than women born later. Women born in 1955 still had their
  43    I,     3.  1       |                   at first birth occurred: women born in 1965 had their first
  44    I,     3.  1       |                    in fertility timing. If women born in a certain year (
  45    I,     3.  1       |                 number of children born to women of that particular cohort (
  46    I,     3.  1.  0(1)|                  in successive years or to women from successive birth cohorts.
  47    I,     3.  1.  0(1)|                  birth cohorts. Individual women may not be aware themselves
  48    I,     3.  1       |                  rise in the proportion of women that remain childless. Data
  49    I,     3.  1       |                    show higher levels, but women from these cohorts may still
  50    I,     3.  1       |                   childlessness levels for women born in the 1960s, 1970s
  51    I,     3.  1       |                cohorts in which 25% of the women already have a child at
  52    I,     3.  1       |                   or over.~ ~More men than women remain without children,
  53    I,     3.  1       |       ever-marriage-rates for men than for women (Toulemon, 1995). Research
  54    I,     3.  1       |                     1993). Higher educated women are much more likely than
  55    I,     3.  1       |                 likely than lower educated women to remain childless. This
  56    I,     3.  1       |                 imply that higher educated women opt voluntarily for this
  57    I,     3.  1       |              evidence that higher educated women conceive more easily, ceteris
  58    I,     3.  1       |               paribus, than lower educated women (Beets et al, 2001; Esveldt
  59    I,     3.  1       |                   be slightly flattered as women may get married after discovering
  60    I,     3.  1.  0(2)|                Vice versa it means that if women in a birth cohort would
  61    I,     3.  1.  0(3)|                   children born to married women whose husbands are not the
  62   II,     4.  1       |              current rate of about 75. For women the increase was from 77
  63   II,     4.  1       |                 quantities between men and women, the gender gaps.~ ~Table
  64   II,     4.  1       |                 for men and 63.0 years for women. These years represent 81%
  65   II,     4.  1       |            expectancy at birth for men and women, respectively (Table 4.1.
  66   II,     4.  1       |                   for men and 82 years for women (EU25), for its 461 million
  67   II,     4.  1       |                   for men and 19 years for women including 5 to 6 years with
  68   II,     4.  1       |                   with severe limitations. Women live on average 6 years
  69   II,     4.  1       |                    gender gap in favour of women appears to be much smaller,
  70   II,     4.  1       |                 for men and 19.1 years for women representing 62% and 57%
  71   II,     4.  1       |              workers. Above the age of 50, women live longer than men, 4.
  72   II,     4.  1       |                    gender gap in favour of women at the age of 50 is much
  73   II,     4.  1       |                  for men and 9.9 years for women, representing 53% and 49%
  74   II,     4.  1       |                life expectancy for men and women respectively. Men in the
  75   II,     4.  1       |                  all countries for men and women. If we consider a gain of
  76   II,     4.  1       |                 reported an expansion. For women at the age of 65, Belgium,
  77   II,     4.  1       |                    compression for men and women and the Netherlands and
  78   II,     4.  1       |                will adversely affect older women more than older men) (Robine
  79   II,     4.  1       |                 for men and by 2 years for women, thereby reducing the longevity
  80   II,     4.  1       |                  years (7.5 years gap) for women. The corresponding HLY values
  81   II,     4.  1       |                 years (18.0 years gap) for women. Table 4.1.4 provides additional
  82   II,     4.  1       |                 years (13.7 years gap) for women, highlighting that the employment
  83   II,     4.  1       |                   2005 (EU25), for men and women, in the different Member
  84   II,     4.  1       |               Severe Limitations, in 2005, Women.~ ~ ~The calculation of
  85   II,     4.  1       |               disability), between men and women and between Member States.
  86   II,     4.  1       |                    19% for men and 23% for women) of the life expectancy
  87   II,     4.  1       |               Under the current conditions women at birth are expected to
  88   II,     4.  1       |                 for men and 19.1 years for women, providing possibilities
  89   II,     4.  1       |                   men and over 7 years for women. Gaps in HLY between MS
  90   II,     4.  1       |                   for men and 18 years for women in total. At 50 the HLY
  91   II,     4.  1       |                 for men and 13.7 years for women, highlighting that the labour
  92   II,     4.  1       |                 than in both EU27 and USA. Women’s LE at birth is one year
  93   II,     4.  2       |                differences between men and women, and the underlying pattern
  94   II,     4.  2       |                    decade for both men and women. However, the pattern of
  95   II,     4.  2       |                    years in the 1990s. For women, the rate of increase in
  96   II,     4.  2       |                  average. For both men and women during the 1970s the decline
  97   II,     4.  2       |                    life expectancy and for women one fourth. During the 1980s,
  98   II,     4.  2       |               expectancy at birth, and for women the age groups 70-84 even
  99   II,     4.  2       |                over, reaching even 40% for women.~ ~Table 4.2.1. Arriaga
 100   II,     4.  2       |                   in their sixties and for women in their seventies. However,
 101   II,     4.  2       |                  sixties and seventies and women in their seventies and eighties.
 102   II,     4.  2       |                    the 1990s, mortality of women aged between 65 and 75 hardly
 103   II,     4.  2       |                    since 2000 mortality of women aged 65-74 has declined
 104   II,     4.  2       |               expectancy in the 1970s. For women, heart and cerebrovascular
 105   II,     4.  2       |                smoking related cancers for women was considerably smaller
 106   II,     4.  2       |                    to 50% for both men and women. Whereas for men the decrease
 107   II,     4.  2       |                    particularly large, for women the decrease of mortality
 108   II,     4.  2       |                 declined in the 1990s. For women the decrease in mortality
 109   II,     4.  2       |                  continued to increase for women in contrast with men, due
 110   II,     4.  2       |                    number of smokers among women continued to increase (or
 111   II,     4.  2       |                  on the life expectancy of women in the 1980s in several
 112   II,     4.  2       |               impact on life expectancy of women in almost all countries.
 113   II,     4.  2       |                 men is larger than that on women. Alcohol related mortality (
 114   II,     4.  2       |              cancer, for men more than for women, and for men earlier than
 115   II,     4.  2       |                   for men earlier than for women. Note that the effect of
 116   II,     4.  2       |          expectancy; the same occurred for women even in 9 out of the 13
 117   II,     4.  2       |                   For Polish men and Dutch women the effect of the decline
 118   II,     4.  2       |                 selected countries and for women in 12 countries, even though
 119   II,     4.  2       |                 countries, even though for women in most countries the effect
 120   II,     4.  2       |                    of the 13 countries. As women started to smoke later than
 121   II,     4.  2       |                smoking related cancers for women occurred later than for
 122   II,     4.  2       |                    later than for men. For women in the 1990s, smoking related
 123   II,     4.  2       |           mortality for the elderly.~ ~For women in several countries, the
 124   II,     4.  2       |                 countries the increase for women in the 1980s was higher
 125   II,     4.  2       |                after 2000 the increase for women appears to be smaller than
 126   II,     4.  2       |                    rates at older ages for women are considerably lower than
 127   II,     4.  2       |                    is larger than that for women.~ ~Table 4.2.7 shows the
 128   II,     4.  2       |                 difference between men and women.~ ~Table 4.2.7. Average
 129   II,     4.  2       |                 1970 it turns out that for women there is a negative relationship
 130   II,     4.  2       |               average increase since 1970, women~ ~For men there appears
 131   II,     4.  2       |             Eastern European countries for women as well, the relationship
 132   II,     4.  2       |                Eastern European Countries, women.~ ~Thus apart from Eastern
 133   II,     4.  2       |               reach convergence, while for women it will take about 30 years.~ ~
 134   II,     4.  3       |           perspectives on healthy aging in women. Journal of Women and Aging
 135   II,     4.  3       |                 aging in women. Journal of Women and Aging 14(1-2): 119-133.~ ~
 136   II,     5.  1.  1   |             average (2001-2003), EU27 – A) Women~ ~Figure 5.1.1b. Proportion
 137   II,     5.  1.  1   |                    cause of this cancer in women. Foods containing dietary
 138   II,     5.  1.  1   |                  the geographic pattern in women reflects the rather different
 139   II,     5.  1.  1   |              specific actions addressed to women and young are necessary.~ ~
 140   II,     5.  1.  1   |               factors for breast cancer in women include the events of reproductive
 141   II,     5.  2.  1   |                   six men and one in seven women currently die from ischemic
 142   II,     5.  2.  1   |                   ten men and one in eight women die from stroke.~ ~Cardiovascular
 143   II,     5.  2.  1   |               increasing number of men and women living with CVD. This paradox
 144   II,     5.  2.  1   |                with a higher percentage of women (54% of all-cause mortality)
 145   II,     5.  2.  1   |                  men and over one in seven women). It is also one of the
 146   II,     5.  2.  1   |                   ten men and one in eight women die from this disease; many
 147   II,     5.  2.  3   |                   six men and one in seven women die from IHD (Allender et
 148   II,     5.  2.  3   |                   is higher in men than in women but still remains the most
 149   II,     5.  2.  3   |                 frequent cause of death in women, accounting for more deaths
 150   II,     5.  2.  3   |                  are higher in men than in women and percentages increase
 151   II,     5.  2.  3   |               France and 555 in Latvia; in women 16 per 100.000 in France
 152   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    results can be found in women (Figure 5.2.2) for whom
 153   II,     5.  2.  3   |              diseases (codes ICD-9 410-14) Women aged 35-74 years~ ~Morbidity~ ~
 154   II,     5.  2.  3   |            discharge diagnoses for men and women of all ages combined for
 155   II,     5.  2.  3   |             procedures – All ages. Men and women combined (year 2000)~ ~The
 156   II,     5.  2.  3   |                  case fatality for men and women aged 35-64 years. Trends
 157   II,     5.  2.  3   |                   was four times higher in women. The results of the WHO
 158   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    registration in men and women aged 35-64 years; 28-day
 159   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    higher for men than for women; mortality rates have been
 160   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    faster for men than for women. Faster declining mortality
 161   II,     5.  2.  3   |                 have narrowed the gap with women over the last ten years,
 162   II,     5.  2.  3   |                   ten men and one in eight women die from this disease (Allender
 163   II,     5.  2.  3   |                   is higher in men than in women in most countries but the
 164   II,     5.  2.  3   |                  rates per 100.000 men and women aged 35-74 and 35-84 - 3
 165   II,     5.  2.  3   |              almost seven times higher. In women it varies from 36 deaths
 166   II,     5.  2.  3   |              events double in both men and women: this demonstrates that
 167   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    results can be found in women (Figure 5.2.4) for which
 168   II,     5.  2.  3   |             disease (codes ICD-9 430-38) - Women aged 35-84 years~ ~Morbidity~ ~
 169   II,     5.  2.  3   |                discharge rates for men and women of all ages combined for
 170   II,     5.  2.  3   |                  case fatality for men and women aged 35-64 are shown. However,
 171   II,     5.  2.  3   |                    surveillance in men and women aged 35-64; 28-day case
 172   II,     5.  2.  3   |               stroke mortality for men and women in Eastern Europe. The political,
 173   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   and that it is higher in women than in men. These data
 174   II,     5.  2.  4   |                    is higher among elderly women.~Table 5.2.9 reports smoking
 175   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   Prevalence of smoking in women is lower except in Sweden,
 176   II,     5.  2.  4   |                  in Northern countries. In women, it is generally higher
 177   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   hypertension for men and women of different age ranges
 178   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   EU countries for men and women of different age ranges.~ ~
 179   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   EU countries for men and women of different age ranges~ ~
 180   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   EU countries for men and women of different age ranges.~ ~
 181   II,     5.  2.  4   |                  in men and 10-20 g/day in women) is associated with a reduced
 182   II,     5.  2.  4   |                   and BMI (Kg/m2 ) men and women aged 35-64 years~ ~Also
 183   II,     5.  2.  5   |                   with a special focus on “Women and CVD” was held in Brussels
 184   II,     5.  2.  6   |                 and prevent increase among women as health benefits of smoking
 185   II,     5.  2.  6   |                observed both in men and in women, at any age, starting from
 186   II,     5.  2.  7   |       Cardiovascular Risk Profile in Young Women and Long-term Risk of Cardiovascular
 187   II,     5.  2.  7   |                   year stroke incidence in women and men: findings on 12
 188   II,     5.  2.  7   |                 heart disease incidence in women and men: results from the
 189   II,     5.  3.  3   |                estimates trends in men and women separated by broad geographical
 190   II,     5.  3.  3   |                mortality trends in men and women separately by geographical
 191   II,     5.  3.  3   |              relative survival for men and women. This indicator is available
 192   II,     5.  3.  4   |                    cause of this cancer in women. Foods containing dietary
 193   II,     5.  3.  4   |                  the geographic pattern in women reflects the rather different
 194   II,     5.  3.  4   |              specific actions addressed to women and young people are needed.~ ~
 195   II,     5.  3.  4   |               factors for breast cancer in women include the events of reproductive
 196   II,     5.  3.  5   |                    000) and in Denmark for women (414 new cases per 100,000).
 197   II,     5.  3.  5   |                    000) and in Denmark for women (196 deaths per 100,000).
 198   II,     5.  3.  5   |                 and in Northern Europe for women (351 new cases per 100,000,
 199   II,     5.  3.  5   |               again in Northern Europe for women (155 deaths per 100,000,
 200   II,     5.  3.  5   |              increasing both in men and in women for all macro-areas. On
 201   II,     5.  3.  5   |                 decreasing or constant for women.~ ~Figure 5.3.1a. All cancer (
 202   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.2a. Trends
 203   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~ ~Figure 5.3.3a. All cancer (
 204   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.4a. Trends
 205   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Stomach Cancer (ICD-9
 206   II,     5.  3.  5   |                  000) and in Lithuania for women (18 new cases per 100,000);
 207   II,     5.  3.  5   |                    000) and in Estonia for women (12 deaths per 100,000).
 208   II,     5.  3.  5   |                   levels, both for men and women (Figures 5.3.5 and Figures
 209   II,     5.  3.  5   |                decreasing both for men and women in all macro-areas taken
 210   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.6a. Trends
 211   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.7a. Stomach
 212   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.8a. Trends
 213   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Colorectal Cancer (ICD-9
 214   II,     5.  3.  5   |                   000) and Switzerland for women (56 new cases per 100,000).
 215   II,     5.  3.  5   |              macro-areas) both for men and women (Figures 5.3.10) (65 new
 216   II,     5.  3.  5   |                   new cases per 100,000 in women). Figures 5.3.11 show that
 217   II,     5.  3.  5   |                deaths per 100,000) and for women (over 24 deaths per 100,
 218   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.10a. Trends
 219   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.11a. Colorectal
 220   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.12a. Trends
 221   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~ ~Lung Cancer (ICD-9 162)~
 222   II,     5.  3.  5   |                    cancer of men, while in women incidence rates are lower.~
 223   II,     5.  3.  5   |                  Figure 5.3.16b) rates for women (31 new cases and 27 deaths
 224   II,     5.  3.  5   |               mortality are increasing for women (Figure 5.3.14b and 5.3.
 225   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.14a. Trends
 226   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.15a. Lung cancer (
 227   II,     5.  3.  5   |                standard) by sex in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.16a. Trends
 228   II,     5.  3.  5   |               European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~Female Breast Cancer (
 229   II,     5.  3.  5   |                 frequent type of cancer in women with an estimated 430,000
 230   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   but also by cancer site. Women generally had better survival
 231   II,     5.  3.  6   |                    40% for men and 55% for women were Northern countries (
 232   II,     5.  3.  6   |               similar GDP both for men and women. Lower levels of survival
 233   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   to 31st December 1999 B) Women~ ~Countries fell into two
 234   II,     5.  3.  6   |                    groups both for men and women: on the one hand, most countries
 235   II,     5.  3.  6   |            relative survival was higher in women than in men in most countries.~
 236   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   to 31st December 1999 B) Women~ ~5-year colorectal cancer
 237   II,     5.  3.  6   |                    48% for men and 50% for women in Finland, Norway and Sweden
 238   II,     5.  3.  6   |                 Slovenia) both for men and women. Survival in the UK and
 239   II,     5.  3.  6   |              improving equally for men and women, younger and older patients,
 240   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   to 31st December 1999 B) Women~ ~Survival for lung cancer
 241   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   survival ~10% in men and women (Figures 5.3.32). Estimates
 242   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   and from 8.1% to 9.8% in women (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure
 243   II,     5.  3.  6   |                   to 31st December 1999 B) Women~ ~The prognosis for breast
 244   II,     5.  3.  6   |                Even though the survival of women with cervical cancer in
 245   II,     5.  3.  7   |                   frequent cancers amongst women and colorectal cancer is
 246   II,     5.  3.  7   |                Recommendations referred to women aged 25 to 64 for the screening
 247   II,     5.  3.  7   |                   or 5 years of interval); women aged 50 to 69 for breast
 248   II,     5.  3.  7   |                   of interval) and men and women aged 50 to 74 for the screening
 249   II,     5.  3.  9   |                   cancer in postmenopausal women. Reanalysis of nine prospective
 250   II,     5.  4.  1   |                   age;~Pregnancy: Pregnant women with uncontrolled diabetes
 251   II,     5.  4.  2   |                   men and <1.25 mmol/l for women is measured as the percentage
 252   II,     5.  4.  2   |                    men and 1.25 mmol/l for women.~Measurement of triglycerides
 253   II,     5.  4.  3   |                   men and <1.25 mmol/l for women. Crude percentages published
 254   II,     5.  4.  3   |                    is lower in men than in women. The influence of age is
 255   II,     5.  5.Int   |                   mortality in Europe with women twice as susceptible as
 256   II,     5.  5.Int   |                   common mental disorders. Women are at much greater risk
 257   II,     5.  5.Int   |                 maintaining relationships. Women living in poverty and women
 258   II,     5.  5.Int   |                Women living in poverty and women from minority groups are
 259   II,     5.  5.Int   |                    by violence. Similarly, women living on a low income for
 260   II,     5.  5.Int   |                   lone parents and retired women living alone10. Moreover,
 261   II,     5.  5.Int   |                  living alone10. Moreover, women are more likely to approach
 262   II,     5.  5.Int   |                  to diagnose depression in women compared to men, even when
 263   II,     5.  5.Int   |                    of inpatient care11,12. Women’s social roles as primary
 264   II,     5.  5.Int   |                  in “role overload”, where women undertake both employment
 265   II,     5.  5.Int   |               proportions of depression in women than in men in almost all
 266   II,     5.  5.Int   |                risk of depression in older women and in people of lower socio
 267   II,     5.  5.Int   |                       judged depression in women as the leading cause of
 268   II,     5.  5.Int   |                ranges from 0.3% to 7.3% in women and from 0.1% to 2.1% in
 269   II,     5.  5.Int   |                  the under-25s, with older women excluded because bulimia
 270   II,     5.  5.Int   |                   Disease (AD) increase in women but not in men19. The EURODEM
 271   II,     5.  5.Int   |                    of AD were higher among women of lower education, but
 272   II,     5.  5.Int   |                 children, young people and women. Such violence can cause
 273   II,     5.  5.  1   |                  is much more common among women; in Europe, prevalence is
 274   II,     5.  5.  1   |                adult men and 17% for adult women (Alonso et al., 2004a).
 275   II,     5.  5.  1   |            citizens, 45 000 men and 14 000 women committed suicide in 2006 (
 276   II,     5.  5.  1   |                  suicide, especially among women (1:9 for males, 1:42 for
 277   II,     5.  5.  1   |                   percentage was higher in women (20%) than in men (13%)
 278   II,     5.  5.  1   |                distress was more common in women than in men. This was particularly
 279   II,     5.  5.  1   |             interval) for a score MH<55 in women with reference to men, by
 280   II,     5.  5.  1   |                 per 100 000 and Lithuanian women have the fourth highest
 281   II,     5.  5.  2   |               prevalence rates for men and women in 9 different age groups (
 282   II,     5.  5.  2   |                  world region, for men and women combined, in five year age
 283   II,     5.  5.  2   |                  age group and for men and women separately, whereas in the
 284   II,     5.  5.  2   |                  were obtained for men and women separately from 30 to 99
 285   II,     5.  5.  3   |                  Vienna’s Commissioner for Women’s Health).~Bulgaria~ ~X~ ~
 286   II,     5.  5.  3   |                     the incidence rate for women and men older than 25 remains
 287   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 bulimia for 10-39-year-old women during 1988-1993. The highest
 288   II,     5.  5.  3   |        eating-related outcomes for men and women separately and represents
 289   II,     5.  5.  3   |         particularly adolescents and young women (Gupta, 1995). Young girls
 290   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 Finland, while for Finnish women schizophrenia seems to be
 291   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 main medical conditions in women and men with schizophrenia
 292   II,     5.  5.  3   |                     Medical comorbidity in women and men with schizophrenia:
 293   II,     5.  5.  3   |                   be higher in men than in women, although this finding does
 294   II,     5.  5.  3   |        distribution of epilepsy in men and women can be mostly explained
 295   II,     5.  5.  3   |              concealment of the disease in women due to socio-cultural reasons.~
 296   II,     5.  5.  3   |                  is greater in men than in women, as shown in most population-based
 297   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 RR- versus PP-MS and among women versus men. A fluctuating
 298   II,     5.  5.  3   |                    Vaasa, especially among women.~The DMSR provides epidemiological
 299   II,     5.  5.  3   |                  11 and 282 per 100 000 in women and between 10 and 123 per
 300   II,     5.  5.  3   |                  Bulgaria and in Italy for women. The highest mortality rates
 301   II,     5.  6.  3   |                chronic sickness in men and women from 16 to 74 years of age
 302   II,     5.  6.  3   |                disability for both men and women, as well as for the whole
 303   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    prevalence is higher in women, and increases strongly
 304   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    For example, a study of women aged 45-65 in the UK showed
 305   II,     5.  6.  3   |                   affected more often than women among those aged <45, whereas
 306   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    those aged <45, whereas women are affected more frequently
 307   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  radiographic OA by age B) Women~ ~Determinants, risk factors
 308   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  men and 3-12 per 1000 for women. In all studies the prevalence
 309   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    prevalence is higher in women than men (the ratio varied
 310   II,     5.  6.  3   |                     The incidence of RA in women appears to have fallen between
 311   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  25% fall in prevalence in women aged 16-74.~ ~The incidence
 312   II,     5.  6.  3   |              Prevalence~ ~For both men and women there appears to be a gradient
 313   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    32% and Italy 0.13%. In women, the prevalence in the same
 314   II,     5.  6.  3   |                 more common in nulliparous women. The oral contraceptive
 315   II,     5.  6.  3   |             prevalence, particularly among women (Spector et al, 1993). On
 316   II,     5.  6.  3   |              present when the BMD level in women was 2.5 standard deviations
 317   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  the normal mean for young women.~ ~The International Osteoporosis
 318   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    mean BMD of young adult women (BMD Tscore2.5).~ ~Osteopenia (
 319   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    mean BMD of young adult women (–2.5 BMD Tscore1).~ ~
 320   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    100,000 person-years in women aged under 35,rising to
 321   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    100,000 person-years in women 85 years of age and older,
 322   II,     5.  6.  3   |                more, 80% of which occur in women (due in part to the presence
 323   II,     5.  6.  3   |                   presence of more elderly women than men). In Europe it
 324   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    over 50, and 711.223 by women over 50 (Kanis and Johnell,
 325   II,     5.  6.  3   |                 forearm fractures occur in women (the age-adjusted female
 326   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    and around 50% occur in women aged 65 or more. A multicentre
 327   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  and 37 per 10 000 men and women respectively, with hospitalization
 328   II,     5.  6.  3   |                  after the age of 70 among women, perhaps pointing to increasing
 329   II,     5.  6.  3   |                with age and are greater in women than in men. About 80% of
 330   II,     5.  6.  3   |           three-quarters of which occur in women. Similar patterns have been
 331   II,     5.  6.  3   |                    in one in eight men and women aged over 50 in Europe.
 332   II,     5.  6.  3   |            deformity are 1% per year among women and 0.6% per year among
 333   II,     5.  6.  3   |               estimated that around 23% of women aged 50 or more in the United
 334   II,     5.  6.  3   |              osteoporosis rises from 5% in women at the age of 50 to 50%
 335   II,     5.  6.  3   |               occur after a fall in men or women with reduced bone strength.
 336   II,     5.  6.  3   |               fractures will also occur in women without osteoporosis. The
 337   II,     5.  6.  3   |                   of 23% of men and 19% of women (ONeill et al, 2001; Sernbo
 338   II,     5.  6.  3   |                 year, perhaps up to 25% in women and 35% in men (Cooper,
 339   II,     5.  6.  3   |           affecting men a little more than women, more frequent in the working
 340   II,     5.  6.  6   |           osteoporotic fracture in men and women: an observational study.
 341   II,     5.  6.  6   |                  for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
 342   II,     5.  6.  6   |                  of life in postmenopausal women with low BMD with or without
 343   II,     5.  6.  6   |                fracture in British men and women. Osteoporos Int 12:555-558~
 344   II,     5.  6.  6   |                   and rheumatoid factor in women: evidence for a secular
 345   II,     5.  7.  7   |           mortality in middle-aged men and women from the general population.
 346   II,     5.  8.  3   |          Copenhagen, Denmark, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 with normal lung
 347   II,     5.  8.  3   |                  male never smokers (9% in women). The 25-year cumulative
 348   II,     5.  8.  3   |                differences between men and women.~ ~Prevalence and disease
 349   II,     5.  8.  3   |                   men, <89th percentile in women) to 18.3% with the “clinical 350   II,     5.  8.  3   |                    of GOLD-COPD in men and women respectively to: mild 12.
 351   II,     5.  8.  3   |                   8% for men, and 8.5% for women (Buist et al, 2007). In
 352   II,     5.  8.  3   |                  is greater in men than in women. Moreover, it is clear that
 353   II,     5.  8.  4   |          Copenhagen, Denmark, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 with normal lung
 354   II,     5.  8.  4   |                  male never smokers (9% in women) to 41% for male continuous
 355   II,     5.  8.  4   |                 continuous smokers (31% in women). The 25-year cumulative
 356   II,     5.  8.  4   |                differences between men and women. The risk of developing
 357   II,     5.  8.  4   |                  rapidly in 20-44 year old women. This was confirmed in the
 358   II,     5.  8.  7   |                physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK. Thorax
 359   II,     5.  9. FB   |                 has been found among obese women compared to normal weight
 360   II,     5.  9. FB   |                  compared to normal weight women. However, the existence
 361   II,     5.  9.  3   |                    people per year) and in women aged 30 or more (3.1/1000
 362   II,     5.  9.  3   |                   rate was 45.8% (41.6% in women and 49.5% in men, P 001).
 363   II,     5. 10.  4   |                  and pregnant or lactating women.~The social burden of FA
 364   II,     5. 11.  3   |                that between 10% and 15% of women and 2-5% of men in Europe
 365   II,     5. 11.  3   |          prevalence of body piercing among women, particularly in European
 366   II,     5. 11.  3   |            patients; all the reactors were women and had their ears pierced
 367   II,     5. 11.  3   |                   7% to 25.8% among German women below 30 years over a 9-
 368   II,     5. 11.  3   |        occupational hand eczema in men and women in the 40 to 60 years of
 369   II,     5. 11.  3   |                   disease afflicts men and women equally and is present in
 370   II,     5. 11.  3   |                  equally common in men and women, BCC were nearly three times
 371   II,     5. 11.  3   |                   reported in both men and women. Its incidence has been
 372   II,     5. 11.  3   |       substantially in men (by 42%) and in women (by 146%) during this period
 373   II,     5. 11.  3   |                   600 in men and 19 029 in women). During this period, incidence
 374   II,     5. 11.  3   |                    70.4% in men and 65% in women, while incidence rates of
 375   II,     5. 11.  3   |                  13.5% in men and 18.8% in women. Head and neck were the
 376   II,     5. 11.  3   |                 BCC (17% in men and 11% in women) and upper limbs for SCC (
 377   II,     5. 11.  3   |                    12% in men and 12.5% in women) (Plesko et al, 2000).~Mortality
 378   II,     5. 11.  3   |                rates are higher in men and women in Southern European countries (
 379   II,     5. 11.  5   |                  affect up to 20% of young women. Infectious skin diseases,
 380   II,     5. 12.  1   |                  000 men and 10-16/100,000 women) in Europe were observed
 381   II,     5. 12.  1   |                  100,000 men and 5/100,000 women) were registered in the
 382   II,     5. 12.  1   |                 100,000 men and 22/100,000 women in Hungary in 1990 (Corrao
 383   II,     5. 12.  3   |            cirrhosis mortality for men and women since the 1970’s have been
 384   II,     5. 12.  3   |                    cirrhosis were lower in women from all countries (Table
 385   II,     5. 12.  3   |                     rises were observed in women from a few Nordic countries (
 386   II,     5. 12.  3   |         particularly Hungary). In European women, the highest rates in 2000-
 387   II,     5. 12.  3   |                  02 the highest values for women were 53.9/100,000 in Hungary
 388   II,     5. 12.  3   |                 from cirrhosis per 100,000 women at all ages and at 35-64
 389   II,     5. 12.  3   |                    and in Table 5.12.4 for women. Given the substantial variation
 390   II,     5. 12.  3   |               around +7% in men and +3% in women from England and Wales,
 391   II,     5. 12.  3   |               around +9% in men and +7% in women from Scotland and around +
 392   II,     5. 12.  3   |               around +9% in men and +4% in women from Ireland.~ ~Table 5.
 393   II,     5. 12.  3   |               cirrhosis mortality rates in women from selected EUGLOREH countries,
 394   II,     5. 13       |                European countries for both women and men. According to WHO
 395   II,     5. 13       |                   can vary between men and women and in accordance with the
 396   II,     5. 13       |                     pregnant and lactating women.~ ~The above-mentioned diseases
 397   II,     6.  3.  3   |                    between 1.7% and 17% of women with no symptoms are infected.
 398   II,     6.  3.  3   |                  is reported more often in women than in men (female to male
 399   II,     6.  3.  3   |                times higher in men than in women.~ ~Figure 6.3. Trends of
 400   II,     6.  3.  3   |                  was higher in men than in women (male to female ratio, 4.
 401   II,     6.  3.  3   |                    labour care of pregnant women.~ ~ ~
 402   II,     6.  3.  3   |           Incidence was higher in men than women (male to female ratio, 2.
 403   II,     6.  3.  5   |          vaccination programmes started in women first) together with a variation
 404   II,     6.  3.  5   |                    to rubella in girls and women).~ ~Polio~ ~Polio is caused
 405   II,     6.  3.  6   |                    to abortion in pregnant women. In immuno-compromised or
 406   II,     6.  3.  6   |                     Infections in pregnant women can cause congenital toxoplasmosis,
 407   II,     7.  3.  5   |                 the EU27~ ~ ~More men than women commit suicide in the European
 408   II,     7.  3.  5   |                   in the EU27 whereas more women commit more suicide attempts (
 409   II,     7.  3.  5   |                  age groups. More men than women are victims of violence (
 410   II,     8.  1.  3   |                  that about 16% of men and women aged 16-64 in the EU have
 411   II,     8.  1.  3   |              experienced by 10% of men and women aged 16-64.~ ~Table 8.1.
 412   II,     8.  1.  3   |                  problems.~ ~Slightly more women than men result limited
 413   II,     8.  1.  3   |                    a different attitude of women with limitations, compared
 414   II,     8.  1.  3   |                training is more evident in women than men with considerable
 415   II,     8.  1.  3   |                   wage gap between men and women is also apparent here: earnings
 416   II,     8.  1.  3   |                  12% lower, while those of women considerably limited are
 417   II,     8.  1.  3   |              limited to some extent. Among women of working age, about 16%
 418   II,     8.  1.  3   |             compare with just under 11% of women and 10% of men, who were
 419   II,     8.  1.  6   |               ALPHAMETRICS (2007): Men and women with disabilities in the
 420   II,     8.  2.  1   |                   associated with genderwomen were at increased risk of
 421   II,     8.  2.  1   |                   intellectual disability. Women should be informed of the
 422   II,     8.  2.  1   |                  having an affected child. Women who plan to get pregnant
 423   II,     8.  2.  1   |              particularly against rubella. Women who are at risk for infectious
 424   II,     8.  2.  1   |                 sampling is often used for women at high risk of having a
 425   II,     8.  2.  1   |                 aged 35 and older, and for women with family histories of
 426   II,     8.  2.  1   |                   It is also important for women with PKU to follow a special
 427   II,     8.  2.  2   |                  of the available surveys, women seem more likely than men
 428   II,     8.  2.  2   |                  of the available surveys, women seem more likely than men
 429   II,     8.  2.  2   |                   EU-SILC) (2007): Men and women with disabilities in the
 430   II,     8.  2.  3   |                   EU-SILC) (2007): Men and women with disabilities in the
 431   II,     9           |                   unit admissions in older women (Clearly-Goldman et al,
 432   II,     9           |                 proportion of childbearing women in the EU who are aged under
 433   II,     9           |                States. Although many fewer women bear children late in life
 434   II,     9           |                  The rate of smoking among women of childbearing age varies
 435   II,     9           |            outcomes, however, because many women stop smoking during pregnancy,
 436   II,     9           |                    data, the proportion of women smoking during pregnancy
 437   II,     9           |                 Rates of Smoking Among all Women 25-34 vs Women During 3rd
 438   II,     9           |                   Among all Women 25-34 vs Women During 3rd Trimester of
 439   II,     9           |               alcohol drinking among young women in some countries, especially
 440   II,     9           |                    not be promoted.~ ~Some women are at higher risk of delivering
 441   II,     9           |               countries to ensure that all women with these conditions receive
 442   II,     9           |                 Northern countries men and women have their first sexual
 443   II,     9           |         atherosclerotic CHD are similar in women and men and include dyslipidemia,
 444   II,     9           |          atherogenic risk profile of older women is appreciably more adverse
 445   II,     9           |               adverse than that of younger women, although it is uncertain
 446   II,     9           |              reduce risk for CHD events in women as well as in men. For some
 447   II,     9           |                    appear to be similar in women and men. For example, meta-analysis
 448   II,     9           |                    for major CHD events in women, similar to the 31-percent
 449   II,     9           |              management of risk for CHD in women is imperative. Despite similar
 450   II,     9           |              Despite similar stroke rates, women are more likely than men
 451   II,     9           |                 men (as compared to 10% in women). It has been noted that
 452   II,     9           |               factors for breast cancer in women may include regular use
 453   II,     9           |               proportions of older men and women could be at risk of vitamin
 454   II,     9.  1.  1   |             morbidities affecting pregnant women and their newborns. Furthermore,
 455   II,     9.  1.  1   |                    parity~R: Percentage of women who smoke during pregnancy~
 456   II,     9.  1.  1   |                    Indicator of support to women~F: Indicator of maternal
 457   II,     9.  1.  1   |            characteristics of childbearing women and the risk factors associated
 458   II,     9.  1.  1   |                    delivery in primiparous women at low risk in Denmark:
 459   II,     9.  1.  1   |           Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women 35 years and older. Obstet
 460   II,     9.  1.  2   |             psychological cost to pregnant women.~ ~Congenital (“present
 461   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   the entire community, or women of childbearing age, rather
 462   II,     9.  1.  2   |                  age, rather than pregnant women only, and on developing
 463   II,     9.  1.  2   |                thus, foetuses and pregnant women must have a special status
 464   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   unit admissions in older women (Clearly-Goldman et al,
 465   II,     9.  1.  2   |                 proportion of childbearing women in the EU who are aged under
 466   II,     9.  1.  2   |                States. Although many fewer women bear children late in life
 467   II,     9.  1.  2   |                  The rate of smoking among women of childbearing age varies
 468   II,     9.  1.  2   |            outcomes, however, because many women stop smoking during pregnancy,
 469   II,     9.  1.  2   |                    data, the proportion of women smoking during pregnancy
 470   II,     9.  1.  2   |                 Rates of Smoking Among all Women 25-34 vs Women During 3rd
 471   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   Among all Women 25-34 vs Women During 3rd Trimester of
 472   II,     9.  1.  2   |               alcohol drinking among young women in some countries, especially
 473   II,     9.  1.  2   |                    not be promoted.~ ~Some women are at higher risk of delivering
 474   II,     9.  1.  2   |               countries to ensure that all women with these conditions receive
 475   II,     9.  1.  2   |               raising the folate status of women preconceptionally has not
 476   II,     9.  1.  2   |                     i.e. recommending that women start taking supplements
 477   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   it is difficult to reach women preconceptionally, particularly
 478   II,     9.  1.  2   |              ethical questions, and giving women fully informed choices during
 479   II,     9.  1.  2   |                late in pregnancy. Pregnant women need to be given full information
 480   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   pay special attention to women in childbearing age, remembering
 481   II,     9.  1.  2   |                   pay special attention to women in childbearing age, for
 482   II,     9.  1.  2   |                    to reduce the number of women having to consider termination
 483   II,     9.  1.  2   |              genetic screening of pregnant women and newborns: a systematic
 484   II,     9.  1.  2   |          congenital anomalies in babies of women with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes
 485   II,     9.  2.  3   |             biological and social reasons, women are becoming infected with
 486   II,     9.  2.  3   |             incidence of HIV/AIDS in young women has also led to an increase
 487   II,     9.  2.  3   |                 that increasing numbers of women are reaching child-bearing
 488   II,     9.  2.  4   |                 Northern countries men and women have their first sexual
 489   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 expectancy, as compared to women, is much smaller than at
 490   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 that should affect men and women equally.~ ~The key biological
 491   II,     9.  3.  1   |                   health status of men and women is provided in chapter 9.
 492   II,     9.  3.  1   |              chapter 9.5.~ ~As compared to women, men have a reduced life
 493   II,     9.  3.  1   |           mortality in men, as compared to women, underlying motivations
 494   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  so much more at risk than women’s health.~ ~Even some male
 495   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  the other hand, moving to women’s specific health problems,
 496   II,     9.  3.  1   |               questions remain unanswered, women seeking advice about menopause
 497   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  have explicitly looked at women and health on a European
 498   II,     9.  3.  1   |           International Position Paper on “Women’s Health and Menopause:
 499   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  in middle age: two in ten women and four in ten men die
 500   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 expectancy, as compared to women, is much smaller than at