1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1001
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |               mainly over the last 10 years and, when possible, over
   2    I,     2.  1        |            20th Century and the first years of the 21st Century, resulting
   3    I,     2.  2        |         competitiveness. In the first years of the 21st centurydespite
   4    I,     2.  2        |       global warming on Europe in the years ahead could increase this
   5    I,     2.  3        |           increasing over the past 25 years. For the European population
   6    I,     2.  3        |          colonies. During the past 20 years, Europe experienced very
   7    I,     2.  3        |         migration and over the last 5 years, EU net migrant inflows
   8    I,     2.  4        |        mutually supportive. In recent years, social protection reforms
   9    I,     2.  4        |             real GDP over the last 10 years of all the EU member States
  10    I,     2.  4        |            experienced in the last 10 years. However, recent EUROSTAT
  11    I,     2.  4        |           expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among men, 2 to 4 years
  12    I,     2.  4        |               years among men, 2 to 4 years among women). In many Western
  13    I,     2.  4        |           life expectancy' (number of years lived in good health).~Inequalities
  14    I,     2.  4        |              in Europe in the next 20 years. Larger numbers of people
  15    I,     2.  5        |               workplace of only a few years ago. Employers and employees
  16    I,     2.  5        |             rate declined in the last years down to 7%, the lowest level
  17    I,     2.  5        |             than for those 25 or more years old. Unemployment rates
  18    I,     2.  5        |              in Europe in the next 20 years. Larger numbers of people
  19    I,     2.  5        |              which people retire by 5 years (the Barcelona target).
  20    I,     2.  5        |        average retirement age is 59.9 years and in 2002 only 30% of
  21    I,     2.  6        |               adult population (25-64 years old) that has completed
  22    I,     2.  6        |           data are available for both years. The only exceptions are
  23    I,     2.  6        |               initially enrolled some years previously when the share
  24    I,     2.  7        |            production of more than 40 years of activity of the Italian
  25    I,     2.  7        |             lower. However, in recent years, there is a trend back to
  26    I,     2.  9        |             decade during the past 40 years, with the greatest losses
  27    I,     2.  9        |              1 mm/year in the past 15 years (compared with a global
  28    I,     2.  9        |              month earlier than 3040 years ago. Climate change may
  29    I,     2.  9        |        substantially over the past 15 years and is projected to extend
  30    I,     2. 10.  4    |  significantly increase over the next years. The US based Centre for
  31    I,     2. 11        |          Finnish Heart Health for the Years 2005-2011. Helsinki, Finnish
  32    I,     3.  1        |              first birth was 23 to 24 years in many EU Member States,
  33    I,     3.  1        |              levels between 24 and 26 years of age.~ ~Closer inspection
  34    I,     3.  1.  0(1) |               behaviour in successive years or to women from successive
  35    I,     3.  2        |        migration~ ~During the last 50 years, the population of the EU
  36    I,     3.  2        |          halved during the last fifty years due to the fact that the
  37    I,     3.  2        |         EUROSTAT). During the last 50 years, the population of the European
  38    I,     3.  2        |           population size in specific years since 1990.~ ~Compared to
  39    I,     3.  2        |     population growth in the last few years. In this period, the largest
  40    I,     3.  2        |          diminishing. In the past ten years, the balance shifted to
  41    I,     3.  2        |           increasing over the past 25 years. In countries with a net
  42    I,     3.  2        |           2004).~ ~During the past 20 years, Europe experienced very
  43    I,     3.  2        |         migration and over the last 5 years, EU net migrant inflows
  44    I,     3.  3        |                for the past 50 or 100 years or so. The issue is expected
  45    I,     3.  3        |             persons of 0 to about 100 years of age, these pyramids illustrate
  46    I,     3.  3        |               country in the past 100 years. In addition to population
  47    I,     3.  3        |             of those born in 1963 (43 years of age in 2005). People
  48    I,     3.  3        |           2005). People born in later years are less numerous and their
  49    I,     3.  3        |               World War (around 60-65 years of age now), as well as
  50    I,     3.  3        |            First World War (around 85 years now); both are more related
  51    I,     3.  3        |            population will be, in the years to come, much larger in
  52    I,     3.  3        |               1.5% during the last 20 years. The country with the most
  53    I,     3.  3        |          dependency ratios in certain years. Ireland is the only country
  54    I,     3.  3        |           stagnation over the last 20 years. All other countries saw
  55    I,     3.  3        |               be two persons of 15-64 years per one person of 65+ (compared
  56    I,     3.  3        |               noted:~ ~Children (0-14 years). Bulgaria, Italy, Greece,
  57   II,     4.Acr        |          DFLE0 at birth; DFLE65 at 65 years etc.)~ECHP~European Community
  58   II,     4.Acr        |            Indicator~HLY~Healthy Life Years~LE~Life Expectancy (LE0
  59   II,     4.Acr        |              LE0 at birth; LE65 at 65 years etc.)~LEwML~The expected
  60   II,     4.Acr        |          expected number of remaining years with moderate activity limitations~
  61   II,     4.Acr        |          expected number of remaining years with severe activity limitations~
  62   II,     4.  1        |           expectancy and healthy life years~ ~In 1980, male life expectancy
  63   II,     4.  1        |              expectancy was around 70 years as compared to the current
  64   II,     4.  1        |            1980, on average, about 67 years to live and currently around
  65   II,     4.  1        |               12 new Member States (8 years) than elsewhere in the EU (
  66   II,     4.  1        |           elsewhere in the EU (6 to 7 years). For the future, a further
  67   II,     4.  1        |           expected.~Whether the extra years of life gained during the
  68   II,     4.  1        |            the risk of surviving many years with functional restrictions
  69   II,     4.  1        |             the name of “Healthy Life Years” (HLY), a health expectancy
  70   II,     4.  1        |               increasing Healthy Life Years is crucial in increasing
  71   II,     4.  1        |         expectancy (LE), Healthy Life Years (HLY), the expected number
  72   II,     4.  1        |          expected number of remaining years with moderate activity limitations (
  73   II,     4.  1        |          expected number of remaining years with severe activity limitations (
  74   II,     4.  1        |        expectancy to the Healthy Life Years expressed a percentage (
  75   II,     4.  1        |      expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (HLY) at birth, at 50 and
  76   II,     4.  1        |            The number of Healthy Life Years (HLY) lived in 2005 by the
  77   II,     4.  1        |              of the EU25 reached 61.1 years for men and 63.0 years for
  78   II,     4.  1        |              1 years for men and 63.0 years for women. These years represent
  79   II,     4.  1        |              0 years for women. These years represent 81% and 77% of
  80   II,     4.  1        |               the world, at almost 76 years for men and 82 years for
  81   II,     4.  1        |               76 years for men and 82 years for women (EU25), for its
  82   II,     4.  1        |         million inhabitants, too many years are still lived with activity
  83   II,     4.  1        |              limitations, close to 15 years for men and 19 years for
  84   II,     4.  1        |               15 years for men and 19 years for women including 5 to
  85   II,     4.  1        |            for women including 5 to 6 years with severe limitations.
  86   II,     4.  1        |               Women live on average 6 years longer than men but most
  87   II,     4.  1        |              most of these additional years correspond to years with
  88   II,     4.  1        |        additional years correspond to years with reported moderate or
  89   II,     4.  1        |             much smaller, less than 2 years, than the total longevity
  90   II,     4.  1        |           remaining HLY at 50 is 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for
  91   II,     4.  1        |              6 years for men and 19.1 years for women representing 62%
  92   II,     4.  1        |           indication of the number of years with good functioning which
  93   II,     4.  1        |             live longer than men, 4.9 years on average, but more than
  94   II,     4.  1        |        two-thirds of these additional years correspond to years lived
  95   II,     4.  1        |        additional years correspond to years lived with activity limitations.
  96   II,     4.  1        |               50 is much smaller, 1.5 years, than the total longevity
  97   II,     4.  1        |       remaining HLY still reaches 8.8 years for men and 9.9 years for
  98   II,     4.  1        |               8 years for men and 9.9 years for women, representing
  99   II,     4.  1        |             in the number of expected years with activity limitations
 100   II,     4.  1        |             increase in the number of years without disability than
 101   II,     4.  1        |           increased in the EU27, by 3 years for men and by 2 years for
 102   II,     4.  1        |              3 years for men and by 2 years for women, thereby reducing
 103   II,     4.  1        |      expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (HLY), at birth, at 50 and
 104   II,     4.  1        |               in 2005 range from 65.3 years to 78.5 years (13.2 years
 105   II,     4.  1        |               from 65.3 years to 78.5 years (13.2 years gap) for men
 106   II,     4.  1        |             years to 78.5 years (13.2 years gap) for men and from 76.
 107   II,     4.  1        |            gap) for men and from 76.5 years to 84.0 years (7.5 years
 108   II,     4.  1        |               from 76.5 years to 84.0 years (7.5 years gap) for women.
 109   II,     4.  1        |              years to 84.0 years (7.5 years gap) for women. The corresponding
 110   II,     4.  1        |          range respectively from 48.0 years to 68.5 years (20.5 years
 111   II,     4.  1        |               from 48.0 years to 68.5 years (20.5 years gap) for men
 112   II,     4.  1        |             years to 68.5 years (20.5 years gap) for men and from 52.
 113   II,     4.  1        |            gap) for men and from 52.2 years to 70.2 years (18.0 years
 114   II,     4.  1        |               from 52.2 years to 70.2 years (18.0 years gap) for women.
 115   II,     4.  1        |             years to 70.2 years (18.0 years gap) for women. Table 4.
 116   II,     4.  1        |           range respectively from 9.1 years to 23.6 years (14.5 years
 117   II,     4.  1        |   respectively from 9.1 years to 23.6 years (14.5 years gap) for men
 118   II,     4.  1        |             years to 23.6 years (14.5 years gap) for men and from 10.
 119   II,     4.  1        |            gap) for men and from 10.4 years to 24.1 years (13.7 years
 120   II,     4.  1        |               from 10.4 years to 24.1 years (13.7 years gap) for women,
 121   II,     4.  1        |             years to 24.1 years (13.7 years gap) for women, highlighting
 122   II,     4.  1        |                LE0 ) and healthy life years (HLY0 ) in the Member States
 123   II,     4.  1        |           broken down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor Limitations
 124   II,     4.  1        |           down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor Limitations and
 125   II,     4.  1        |            with Minor Limitations and Years with Severe Limitations,
 126   II,     4.  1        |           broken down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor Limitations
 127   II,     4.  1        |           down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor Limitations and
 128   II,     4.  1        |            with Minor Limitations and Years with Severe Limitations,
 129   II,     4.  1        |           between total longevity and years lived free of disability),
 130   II,     4.  1        |            live slightly more than 60 years in good health, as estimated
 131   II,     4.  1        |          birth are expected to live 6 years more than men. They will
 132   II,     4.  1        |            men. They will also live 4 years more with activity limitations,
 133   II,     4.  1        |      remaining HLY still reaches 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for
 134   II,     4.  1        |              6 years for men and 19.1 years for women, providing possibilities
 135   II,     4.  1        |      expectancies at birth is over 13 years for men and over 7 years
 136   II,     4.  1        |              years for men and over 7 years for women. Gaps in HLY between
 137   II,     4.  1        |               are even wider: over 20 years for men and 18 years for
 138   II,     4.  1        |               20 years for men and 18 years for women in total. At 50
 139   II,     4.  1        |               the HLY gaps reach 14.5 years for men and 13.7 years for
 140   II,     4.  1        |              5 years for men and 13.7 years for women, highlighting
 141   II,     4.  1        |              to a level of around two years from the highest EU27 values.
 142   II,     4.  1        |              that LE in Japan is four years higher than in both EU27
 143   II,     4.  1        |         compared to the USA but three years lower than in Japan. Secondly,
 144   II,     4.  1        |            gender gaps range from 5.2 years in the USA to 7 years in
 145   II,     4.  1        |               2 years in the USA to 7 years in Japan. Finally, the EU27
 146   II,     4.  1        |     introduction in 2004 Healthy Life Years (HLY) have featured significantly
 147   II,     4.  1        |               increasing healthy life years are those aimed at increasing
 148   II,     4.  1        |              increase the quality and years of healthy life and eliminate
 149   II,     4.  1        |              made during the last few years in developing sustainable
 150   II,     4.  1        |               Indeed, after almost 20 years of research on health expectancies (
 151   II,     4.  1        |           annually) and EHIS (every 5 years) will provide the required
 152   II,     4.  2        |                on average, by about 2 years per decade. In several Central
 153   II,     4.  2        |   particularly for men, but in recent years life expectancy has been
 154   II,     4.  2        |           expectancy. Since in recent years the decline in mortality
 155   II,     4.  2        |           been slowing down in recent years, which would suggest that
 156   II,     4.  2        |            birth has increased by 2.3 years per decade for both men
 157   II,     4.  2        |           expectancy increased by 1.8 years in the 1970s, 2.1 years
 158   II,     4.  2        |               years in the 1970s, 2.1 years in the 1980s and 3.0 years
 159   II,     4.  2        |            years in the 1980s and 3.0 years in the 1990s. For women,
 160   II,     4.  2        |            increase in the 1980s (1.9 years) was lower than in the 1970s (
 161   II,     4.  2        |          lower than in the 1970s (2.3 years), but similarly to men the
 162   II,     4.  2        |            observed in the 1990s (2.7 years).~ ~Table 4.2.1 shows the
 163   II,     4.  2        |               4.2.4 shows by how many years life expectancy at birth
 164   II,     4.  2        |           than for men, but in recent years the increase for men is
 165   II,     4.  2        |          implies that it will take 50 years until convergence is completed.~ ~
 166   II,     4.  2        |         convergence will take some 40 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.4. Relationship
 167   II,     4.  2        |              convergence will take 30 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.5. Relationship
 168   II,     4.  2        |              men it will take some 40 years to reach convergence, while
 169   II,     4.  2        |           women it will take about 30 years.~ ~
 170   II,     5.  1.  1    |              total causes of death; 3 years average (2001-2003), EU27 –
 171   II,     5.  1.  1    |              total causes of death; 3 years average (2001-2003), EU27 –
 172   II,     5.  1.  1    |             and older age, after many years of exposure to unhealthy
 173   II,     5.  1.  1    |              HPV infection, take many years to progress into cervical
 174   II,     5.  2.  1    |            caregivers and the loss of years of productive life.~In most
 175   II,     5.  2.  2    |            age-standardized for 35-74 years using the EUROSTAT European
 176   II,     5.  2.  2    |         standard. The age range 35-74 years is recommended because below
 177   II,     5.  2.  2    |          recommended because below 35 years events are rare and above
 178   II,     5.  2.  2    |          events are rare and above 74 years age structure differs among
 179   II,     5.  2.  2    |              individuals aged over 75 years CVD mortality becomes increasingly
 180   II,     5.  2.  2    |            age-standardized for 35-84 years: the recommended upper age
 181   II,     5.  2.  2    |     recommended upper age limit is 84 years given that between 75 and
 182   II,     5.  2.  2    |          given that between 75 and 84 years the number of events doubles.
 183   II,     5.  2.  2    |              events doubles. Above 84 years of age it is difficult to
 184   II,     5.  2.  2    |             the average of the last 3 years available (2001-2003) in
 185   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Age-standardized (35-74 years) mortality rates were calculated
 186   II,     5.  2.  2    |           calculated for the last ten years (1994-2003) to estimate
 187   II,     5.  2.  2    |               age-standardized (35-74 years) mortality rate are presented
 188   II,     5.  2.  2    |              as average of the last 3 years available.~To make trends
 189   II,     5.  2.  2    |           greatly increased in recent years, are not available, mainly
 190   II,     5.  2.  2    |               for the age range 35-64 years as mean annual coronary
 191   II,     5.  2.  2    |            although collected several years ago and not necessarily
 192   II,     5.  2.  2    |            age groups 35-74 and 35-84 years separately were calculated
 193   II,     5.  2.  2    |             the average of the last 3 years available in EU Member States.~
 194   II,     5.  2.  2    |           Member States.~The last ten years (1994-2003) were selected
 195   II,     5.  2.  2    |               for the age range 35-64 years as mean stroke attack rates
 196   II,     5.  2.  2    |               derived from the last 3 years of surveillance. Annual
 197   II,     5.  2.  2    |            although collected several years ago and not necessarily
 198   II,     5.  2.  2    |             and older age, after many years of exposure to unhealthy
 199   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Even below the age of 75 years, IHD mortality is higher
 200   II,     5.  2.  3    |          ICD-9 410-14) Men aged 35-74 years~ ~Figure 5.2.2. Age-standardized
 201   II,     5.  2.  3    |              410-14) Women aged 35-74 years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.
 202   II,     5.  2.  3    |             This means that in recent years there has been a notable
 203   II,     5.  2.  3    |              men and women aged 35-64 years. Trends for age-adjusted
 204   II,     5.  2.  3    |              men and women aged 35-64 years; 28-day case fatality (including
 205   II,     5.  2.  3    |             coronary event rate in 10 years.~ ~To summarize, IHD, the
 206   II,     5.  2.  3    |           countries (approximately 20 years later than Western European
 207   II,     5.  2.  3    |               women over the last ten years, but have not eliminated
 208   II,     5.  2.  3    |              aged 35-74 and 35-84 - 3 years average~ ~In men, mortality
 209   II,     5.  2.  3    |                in the age range 75-84 years stroke events double in
 210   II,     5.  2.  3    |              430-38) - Men aged 35-84 years~ ~Similar results can be
 211   II,     5.  2.  3    |            430-38) - Women aged 35-84 years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.
 212   II,     5.  2.  3    |          those collected more than 10 years ago through the same standardized
 213   II,     5.  2.  3    |            attack rates of the last 3 years of surveillance for stroke
 214   II,     5.  2.  3    |            100.000 mean of the last 3 years of the 10- year surveillance
 215   II,     5.  2.  3    |            average annual trend in 10 years of stroke events .~ ~In
 216   II,     5.  2.  3    |          mortality during the last 10 years suggest that acute stroke
 217   II,     5.  2.  4    |              men and women aged 35-64 years~ ~Also the INTERHEART (Yusuf
 218   II,     5.  2.  4    |            been found that in over 10 years the prevalence of patients
 219   II,     5.  2.  5    |              expenditures in the last years of life (Daviglus et al,
 220   II,     5.  2.  5    |         educate residents. After five years, significant improvements
 221   II,     5.  2.  5    |     lifestyle-related disease. Twenty years later, major reductions
 222   II,     5.  2.  6    |            was elucidated in the same years. Low Density Lipoprotein (
 223   II,     5.  2.  6    |               1% will induce within 5 years a 1% reduction of CVD incidence (
 224   II,     5.  3.  1    |             diagnosis (i.e. 1-year, 3-years, 5-years after diagnosis);~ ~
 225   II,     5.  3.  1    |               i.e. 1-year, 3-years, 5-years after diagnosis);~ ~ Prevalence:
 226   II,     5.  3.  4    |              HPV infection, take many years to progress into cervical
 227   II,     5.  3.  5    |             incidence rates in recent years in the more affluent world
 228   II,     5.  3.  5    |               of the incidence in the years following full screening
 229   II,     5.  3.  5    |         diffusion. Mortality rates by years (Figure 5.3.28) are constant
 230   II,     5.  3.  6    |         diagnosed under the age of 15 years from 1983 to 1994. Sex-and-age-adjusted
 231   II,     5.  3.  6    |         childhood cancers combined, 5-years survival increased from
 232   II,     5.  3.  6    |        survival for prostate cancer 5 years after diagnosis stood at
 233   II,     5.  3.  7    |       pre-cancer lesions (with 3 or 5 years of interval); women aged
 234   II,     5.  3.  7    |         cancer screening (with 2 or 3 years of interval) and men and
 235   II,     5.  3.  7    |        colorectal cancer (with 1 or 2 years of interval).~ ~It has been
 236   II,     5.  3.  7    |             with a perspective of 12 years (as increases in costs >
 237   II,     5.  3.  8    |          strongly increased in recent years (Coleman et al, 2003). Cancer
 238   II,     5.  3.  8    |         incidence over the next 10-20 years (i.e.: European implementation
 239   II,     5.  4.  1    |              and often in the teenage years, is inevitably linked to
 240   II,     5.  4.  1    |             reported over the last 30 years.~ ~·Type 2 diabetes mellitus (
 241   II,     5.  4.  1    |              people) over the next 20 years. (Figure 5.4.1). The latest
 242   II,     5.  4.  1    |            increase of 1.0% in only 3 years. Very important differences
 243   II,     5.  4.  2    |            are still very relevant 20 years later.~Tracking quality
 244   II,     5.  4.  2    |            than 200 Countries for the years 2007 and forecasts are given
 245   II,     5.  4.  2    |              constant during the last years.~Normally, an HDR involves
 246   II,     5.  4.  2    |               100,000 population 014 years~12~HES/HIS Registry~Prevalence
 247   II,     5.  4.  2    |     prevalence reaches a peak over 75 years of age, with values all
 248   II,     5.  4.  3    |             all EU countries over ten years, corresponding to 3.2% annually.
 249   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 for children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9
 250   II,     5.  4.  3    |               3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for
 251   II,     5.  4.  3    |               4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (Green, 2001).~Prevalence
 252   II,     5.  4.  3    |              8.7% of the adult (20-79 years) EU-27 population was diagnosed
 253   II,     5.  4.  3    |          before the age band of 75-84 years of age.~Prevalence (stock)
 254   II,     5.  4.  4    |             often unstable across the years, thus all estimates must
 255   II,     5.  4.  6    |               development in the last years, with several countries
 256   II,     5.  4.  8    |               of medical care 1 and 8 years after diagnosis of diabetes:
 257   II,     5.  5.Int    |             the six leading causes of years lived with disability are
 258   II,     5.  5.Int    |              age, doubling every four years over 65. After the age of
 259   II,     5.  5.Int    |               65. After the age of 85 years rates of Alzheimer’s Disease (
 260   II,     5.  5.  1    |        depression have doubled in ten years, and most of the increase
 261   II,     5.  5.  1    |         important contributor to life years lost because it frequently
 262   II,     5.  5.  1    |          available in age groups 0-64 years and all ages. The data availability
 263   II,     5.  5.  1    |               mortality and potential years of life lost from external
 264   II,     5.  5.  1    |               mortality and potential years of life lost from mental
 265   II,     5.  5.  1    |             the oldest age range (³65 years) have lower risk than younger
 266   II,     5.  5.  1    |      variations over approximately 12 years is given in Table 5.5.1.
 267   II,     5.  5.  1    |               of the last 3 available years for suicide and self inflicted
 268   II,     5.  5.  1    | health promotion for Children up to 6 years of age(1997-99): Early years
 269   II,     5.  5.  1    |          years of age(1997-99): Early years of life have a significant
 270   II,     5.  5.  2    |          onset of the disease by five years would halve the number of
 271   II,     5.  5.  2    |              age groups from 60 to 84 years and for people over 85.
 272   II,     5.  5.  2    |              will double every twenty years. Therefore Ferri et al predict
 273   II,     5.  5.  2    |           increasing over the last 50 years and that this is likely
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |       categories are observed 0 to 14 years and 15 to 19 years. The
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |              to 14 years and 15 to 19 years. The source of this information
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |         adolescents between 13 and 16 years of age (3000 adolescents).
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |               measurements of 5 or 10 years allowing conclusions about
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Europe by nutrition in 13-16 years adolescents across Europe.
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Disability Adjusted Life Years) and YLDs (Years Lived with
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Adjusted Life Years) and YLDs (Years Lived with Disability).
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |           prodromal period of up to 5 years characterized by unspecific
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disability adjusted life years for the 15 to 44 age group,
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |             list of leading causes of years lived with disability (WHO,
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |               again between 45 and 49 years of age with a continuous
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |           continuous increase from 54 years on in Hungary, while in
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |               a positive trend in the years to come. This is in contrast
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |     pre-community care era and in the years 19941998 (based on cohorts
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |           increase in the more recent years possibly mediated by deinstitutionalization
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in the WHO European
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO, 2007). In terms of years lived with disability (YLD),
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |              accounts for 2.3% of the years lived with disability (unipolar
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |           increasing trend over time (years 19932002) in prescribing
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |             with schizophrenia over 5 years. They found that the direct
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |            total costs within these 5 years (Lindström et al, 2007)~
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |             will be available in some yearstime is the so called indicated
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |        surveys before and after three years of antistigma interventions.
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of schizophrenia during 5 years. Acta Psych Scand 116(s435):
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Disability Adjusted Life Years~DDD~Defined Daily Dose~YLDs~
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Defined Daily Dose~YLDs~Years Lived with Disability~HMDB~
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |          specified). In the last five years, research has shown that
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |          condition was described many years before autism but has only
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |          autism have changed over the years, these changes are not so
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |               children in the last 20 years have alerted the scientific
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |          autism have changed over the years, these changes do not prevent
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |            seizures for at least five years in patients still receiving
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |           remission for at least five years in patients off medications
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |            seizure in the preceding 5 years regardless of treatment
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Spain ~Children >10 years and adults~Two-phase across
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   U.K. ~Children 4-20 years ~MR review ~69 ~4.3 ~Tidman
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |             et al., 2003 (*)~+ = 5-14 years - = 6-12 years MR = Medical
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   5-14 years - = 6-12 years MR = Medical record P =
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Pediatricians ~ = 6-16 years Ø = 6-14 years GP = General
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   6-16 years Ø = 6-14 years GP = General practitioners
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epilepsy followed up for 35 years, a mortality rate of 6.23
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |             survival at 10, 20 and 40 years after seizure onset was
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |             mortality in the past 100 years, the SMR for epilepsy in
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |             during the first 10 to 14 years of disease. Generalised
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |              year remission rate at 9 years of age (Cockerell et al,
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |             year remission rate at 10 years was 61% in adults (Lindsen
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |               remission rate at 12-30 years of age children was 74-78% (
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |           First unprovoked seizure (5 years)~ normal EEG) First provoked
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |             First provoked seizure (2 years)~Croatia I 24 months Ban
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |              license valid 1 year;~ 2 years if seizure freedom >2 years;
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |           years if seizure freedom >2 years; 5 years~ if seizure freedom >
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |           seizure freedom >2 years; 5 years~ if seizure freedom >4 years)~
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |          years~ if seizure freedom >4 years)~ First unprovoked seizure (
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |            120; Must be off AED for 5 years; license valid for~ bus
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |         license valid for~ bus 240) 5 years~Estonia I 24 months -~ II -
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |             No seizures in previous 3 years~Germany I 12 months Single
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |      epileptiform epileptiform EEG (2 years)~ activity)~ ~ ~Norway I
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |             pattern established~ by 3 years~ II 120 months (no AED)
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |               a follow-up study three years after the first seizure.
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prospectively over 11-14 years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the UK for more than 70 years show three main epidemiological
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |           time trend over the past 30 years. The 4-fold increase in
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |               at death from MS was 59 years between 1990-2001, with
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disability adjusted life years (DALYs) is one of the most
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |               present value of future years of lifetime lost due to
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |               to premature mortality (years of life lost, YLLs) and
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |               or physical disability (years of life with disability,
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |               MS in Europe is 307 000 years and varies according to
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |            will be updated every four years. Data will also be collected
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disability adjusted life years (DALYs): in cost-effectiveness
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |              patterns of adult (4574 years) neurological deaths in
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |         temporal comparison during 30 years. Acta Neurol Scand 110:
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Disability Adjusted Life Years~DMSR~Danish Multiple Sclerosis
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Health Organization~YLD~Years Of Life With Disability~
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Life With Disability~YLL~Years Of Life Lost~ ~ ~ ~
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |          patients are younger than 50 years old (Hoehn, 1992). After
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |           After a mean duration of 12 years, patients require assistance
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |            daily living, and after 18 years they may become confined
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |            decrease between 70 and 90 years of age.~Estimated prevalence
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |            only older age groups (>60 years) were included, the rates
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |         diminished over a period of 4 years on levodopa, but continued
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |        significantly reduced. After 4 years, increasing survival benefit
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |              over time to at least 17 years of levodopa treatment (Uitti
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |               longer working within 5 years after disease onset, and
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |              rose to 80% five to nine years after disease onset.~Similar
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |         retired at a mean age of 50.5 years compared to a mean of 57.
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |            compared to a mean of 57.9 years for the healthy population.
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |          increased in the last thirty years, no major changes in employment
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |       progression and mortality at 10 years. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery,
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |               problems dominate at 15 years. Mov Disord 20(2):190-199~
 364   II,     5.  6.Acr    |              Disability Adjusted Life Years~HRT~Hormone Replacement
 365   II,     5.  6.Acr    |             Rheumatoid Arthritis~YLDs~Years Lived With Disability~ ~ ~
 366   II,     5.  6.  3    |               and women from 16 to 74 years of age in the UK General
 367   II,     5.  6.  3    |       increases mainly up to about 65 years of age (Andersson et al,
 368   II,     5.  6.  3    |              has been noticed over 65 years of age; a plausible explanation
 369   II,     5.  6.  3    |              disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived
 370   II,     5.  6.  3    |       adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs).
 371   II,     5.  6.  3    |              10% of the population 60 years old or older have symptomatic
 372   II,     5.  6.  3    |               everyone who reaches 90 years of age will have OA in some
 373   II,     5.  6.  3    |               OA: 4.5 for farming 1-9 years and 9.3 for farming ten
 374   II,     5.  6.  3    |               and 9.3 for farming ten years or more when compared to
 375   II,     5.  6.  3    |              in 75% of people after 5 years. However the remission in
 376   II,     5.  6.  3    |       significant progression over 10 years with few being controlled
 377   II,     5.  6.  3    |              et al, 1992). Within ten years of onset, at least 50% of
 378   II,     5.  6.  3    |             have improved over recent years with new disease modifying
 379   II,     5.  6.  3    |               high during the first 2 years, largely related to consultations;
 380   II,     5.  6.  3    |          increase over the subsequent years due to the costs of devices,
 381   II,     5.  6.  3    |              the total costs after 10 years (Hulsemann et al, 2005).
 382   II,     5.  6.  3    |               increase in the next 10 years in Europe due to the ageing
 383   II,     5.  6.  3    |           present in a woman about 55 years of age with a wrist fracture.
 384   II,     5.  6.  3    |            with a wrist fracture. Ten years later she may present back
 385   II,     5.  6.  3    |        fractures. Approximately 1015 years later, at the age of 75–
 386   II,     5.  6.  3    |              person-years in women 85 years of age and older, with rates
 387   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Melton, 1992). Above 50 years of age there is a female
 388   II,     5.  6.  3    |        osteoporosis between 50 and 80 years of age.~ ~On the basis of
 389   II,     5.  6.  3    |          comprehensible, i.e. 5 to 10 years (Kanis et al, 2002) (Table
 390   II,     5.  6.  3    |             been demonstrated several years after the fracture. Physical
 391   II,     5.  6.  3    |              increased mortality at 5 years as seen with hip fracture,
 392   II,     5.  6.  3    |              higher between 25 and 64 years of age (van den Velden et
 393   II,     5.  6.  3    |            return to work and after 2 years absence, there is little
 394   II,     5.  6.  6    |          surveys at an interval of 10 years. BMJ 320:1577-1578~Petersson
 395   II,     5.  7.  2    |           patient data in another few years. These different stages
 396   II,     5.  7.  3    |        adolescents in the 6 months-16 years range) the corresponding
 397   II,     5.  7.  3    |            enrolled individuals 45-64 years old, the incidence rate
 398   II,     5.  7.  3    |               7.8 per 1000 patients x years (Kurella et al, 2005). Similarly
 399   II,     5.  7.  3    |              rate in patients over 65 years of age which had more than
 400   II,     5.  7.  3    |              including all people <20 years reported a prevalence of
 401   II,     5.  7.  3    |     restricted age-range (6 months-16 years) and applying a lower GFR
 402   II,     5.  7.  3    |       undergoing RRT in children (<20 years) in Europe is about 60 cases
 403   II,     5.  7.  3    |         prevalence of RRT in the 0-14 years age group was 43 per million
 404   II,     5.  7.  3    |               0-14, 15-64 and over 65 years of age respectively (Table
 405   II,     5.  7.  5    |           Kidney Day, in the last two years.~· In Poland in 2007 a programme
 406   II,     5.  7.  5    |            transplantation is about 2 years. Accessibility of dialysis
 407   II,     5.  7.  6    |            centres. Over the next few years the number of these private
 408   II,     5.  7.  7    |          Chinese adults aged 35 to 74 years. Kidney Int 2005;68(6):2839-
 409   II,     5.  8.  1    |              disability adjusted life years (Mannino and Buist, 2007).
 410   II,     5.  8.  3    |         baseline were followed for 25 years (Lokke et al, 2006). Abnormal
 411   II,     5.  8.  3    |          definition in adults over 40 years of age. A total of 62 studies
 412   II,     5.  8.  3    |     population aged between 40 and 69 years is 9.1% (Sobradillo Pena
 413   II,     5.  8.  3    |               000 young adults (2044 years) enrolled between 1991 and
 414   II,     5.  8.  4    |         baseline were followed for 25 years (Lokke et al, 2006). Abnormal
 415   II,     5.  8.  4    |              affecting people over 50 years of age. This was contradicted
 416   II,     5.  8.  7    |     obstruction in male smokers 40-65 years old. Fam Pract 2005; 22:
 417   II,     5.  8.  7    |              of smokers aged 40 to 55 years. Br J Gen Pract 2004; 54:
 418   II,     5.  9. FB    |           early in life, persist over years or decades and often remit
 419   II,     5.  9. FB    |              East Germany only 6 to 8 years after the Germany reunification.
 420   II,     5.  9. FB    |          extensively studied over the years in cases where the mother
 421   II,     5.  9.  2    |               eczema in 6-7 and 13-15 years old were assessed through
 422   II,     5.  9.  2    |            children aged from 9 to 11 years. ISAAC Phase III is the
 423   II,     5.  9.  2    |             193 404 children aged 67 years from 66 centres in 37 countries
 424   II,     5.  9.  2    |               679 children aged 1314 years from 106 centres in 56 countries,
 425   II,     5.  9.  2    |             individuals aged 20 to 44 years from 29 centres in 14 countries (
 426   II,     5.  9.  3    |               adult population (20-44 years of age) (de Marco, 2000).~ ~
 427   II,     5.  9.  3    |             in boys aged less than 10 years (4.38/1000 people per year)
 428   II,     5.  9.  3    |             age at onset (7.8 vs 15.9 years, P 001) and a shorter duration
 429   II,     5.  9.  3    |              the disease (5.6 vs 16.1 years, P 001) than patients with
 430   II,     5.  9.  3    |              in the <10- and > or =20-years age-at-onset groups, respectively).
 431   II,     5.  9.  3    |               5.9.3. Asthma by age 14 years in ECHRS and ISAAC phase
 432   II,     5.  9.  3    |            mean age at diagnosis (9.6 years) and the predominance of
 433   II,     5.  9.  3    |              11.2% in children of 6-7 years of age and 16.9% in children
 434   II,     5.  9.  3    |               9% in children of 13.14 years of age), Romania (7%), Switzerland (
 435   II,     5.  9.  3    |      prevalence during the last three years, from 24% to 26% in the
 436   II,     5.  9.  3    |               26% in the age group 15 years and older, while adolescents
 437   II,     5.  9.  3    |            while adolescents 13 to 14 years old presented a 37.1% prevalence.
 438   II,     5.  9.  3    |              more commonly in the 67 years of age-group than in the
 439   II,     5.  9.  3    |           age-group than in the 1314 years of age-group: for the 6 440   II,     5.  9.  3    |             of age-group: for the 67 years of age-group, two of the
 441   II,     5.  9.  3    |               changes); for the 1314 years of age-group, 11 of 105
 442   II,     5.  9.  4    |              aged 9-11. Over these 15 years the male to female ratio (
 443   II,     5.  9.  4    |             in the bedroom in initial years of life (OR = 0.6); attending
 444   II,     5.  9.  4    |              OR = 3.8) in the first 2 years of life. The strength of
 445   II,     5.  9.  4    |             who had lived in Italy <5 years, while migrant children
 446   II,     5.  9.  4    |              had lived in Italy for 5 years or more had risks very similar
 447   II,     5.  9.  4    |         increased with the numbers of years of living in Italy. These
 448   II,     5. 10.  7    |            food - results after three years. Allergi i praksis (in press):~
 449   II,     5. 11.  3    |         hardly any individual over 50 years of age who does not need
 450   II,     5. 11.  3    |           three-fold over the last 30 years. The precise reasons for
 451   II,     5. 11.  3    |       piercing is practiced before 20 years of age (L Dotterud and E
 452   II,     5. 11.  3    |            the regulation. Since some years have elapsed from the Directive
 453   II,     5. 11.  3    |           among German women below 30 years over a 9-year period (A
 454   II,     5. 11.  3    |         Similarly, in Finland, in the years 199597 and 200002 the
 455   II,     5. 11.  3    |             and women in the 40 to 60 years of age group (Rea, 1976).~
 456   II,     5. 11.  3    |              universal during teenage years. Yet surveys have suggested
 457   II,     5. 11.  3    |           population over the last 30 years (doubling the number of
 458   II,     5. 11.  3    |           number of cases every 10-15 years), probably due in part to
 459   II,     5. 11.  5    |           European countries have for years now been actively included
 460   II,     5. 11.  7    |              atopic dermatitis at two years of age: A prospective, population-based
 461   II,     5. 11.  7    |              skin cancers between the years of 1990 and 1999 in Izmir,
 462   II,     5. 11.  7    |               care among persons 174 years, United States, 19711974.
 463   II,     5. 12.  2    |             truncated at age 35 to 64 years, were computed using the
 464   II,     5. 12.  2    |              for one or more calendar years. No extrapolation was made
 465   II,     5. 12.  2    |         analysis was used to identify years where a significant change
 466   II,     5. 12.  3    |              all ages and at 35 to 64 years of age for various European
 467   II,     5. 12.  3    |              at all ages and at 35-64 years of age from various European
 468   II,     5. 12.  3    |             in truncated rates (35-64 years of age) from cirrhosis in
 469   II,     5. 12.  3    |  consideration truncated rates (35-64 years of age), in 2000-02 the
 470   II,     5. 12.  3    |              at all ages and at 35-64 years of age from various European
 471   II,     5. 12.  3    |              countries in more recent years particularly in men, with
 472   II,     5. 12.  3    |              were observed around the years when subsequent Revisions
 473   II,     5. 12.  4    |             were followed after a few years by comparable changes in
 474   II,     5. 12.  6    |   transformation.~ ~Over the last few years, a contribution towards
 475   II,     5. 12.  6    |             be possible only in a few years time. Active monitoring
 476   II,     5. 13        |              adopted during the early years of life. Childhood obesity
 477   II,     5. 14.  1    |               in children aged 6 to 8 years. Retention of primary molars
 478   II,     5. 14.  2    |              per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~Numerator: Total
 479   II,     5. 14.  2    |              per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~Denominator: Total
 480   II,     5. 14.  2    |               of children at 6 and 12 years of age surveyed.~ ~b. Dental
 481   II,     5. 14.  2    |         dental clinic within the past years.~Denominator: Total number
 482   II,     5. 14.  2    |                18 and 35-44 and 65-74 years in the four categories:
 483   II,     5. 14.  2    |            group 12, 15, 18 and 35-74 years in each of the four categories.~
 484   II,     5. 14.  2    |            group 12, 15, 18 and 35-74 years examined.~Only bleeding
 485   II,     5. 14.  2    |          population aged more than 35 years who have lost all their
 486   II,     5. 14.  2    |              adults aged more than 35 years who have lost all their
 487   II,     5. 14.  3    |          health status in the last 20 years.~ ~Despite the widespread
 488   II,     5. 14.  3    |         health charts recorded in the years 1965, the same populations
 489   II,     5. 14.  3    |           population. In the 35 to 44 years old group, the prevalence
 490   II,     5. 14.  5    |               oral health. The school years are an influential stage
 491   II,     5. 14.  5    |            recommendations. In recent years, the European Commission
 492   II,     5. 14.  6    |             progress over the past 20 years with improving oral health
 493   II,     5. 15.  3    |               deaths between 5 and 15 years of age. In terms of hospitalisation,
 494   II,     5. 15.  3    |             the market in the next 10 years.~ ~A survey, conducted by
 495   II,     5. 15.  4    |            Products in the first five years.~ ~Regulation 1394/2007
 496   II,     5. 15.  6    |             orphan drugs -- two dozen years of treating rare diseases.
 497   II,     6.  2        |            for data on trends for the years 199520041. This information
 498   II,     6.  3.  1(3) |               s remit over the coming years is to bring more clarity
 499   II,     6.  3.  3    |             increased again in recent years in a number of countries,
 500   II,     6.  3.  3    |              symptoms. In the last 10 years, the Baltic States (Estonia,