1-500 | 501-960
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |            trends mainly over the last 10 years and, when possible,
  2    I,     2.  4        |              of real GDP over the last 10 years of all the EU member
  3    I,     2.  4        |                experienced in the last 10 years. However, recent EUROSTAT
  4    I,     2.  5        |         workers + 15.5%, young adults -10%).~ ~A possible trend that
  5    I,     2.  6        |               with reductions of about 10 percentage points (European
  6    I,     2.  7        |              18 of which had more than 10 million inhabitants). In
  7    I,     2.  7        |             new Hammarby Sjostad zone, 10,000 flats for 25,000 inhabitants,
  8    I,     2.  9        |              are dealt with in Chapter 10.~ ~ ~
  9    I,     2. 10        |                                      2.10 Technological developments~ ~
 10    I,     2. 10.  1    |                                      2.10.1. Human genomics and other “
 11    I,     2. 10.  2    |                                      2.10.2. Nanotechnologies~ ~Due
 12    I,     2. 10.  3    |                                      2.10.3. Information and communication
 13    I,     2. 10.  4    |                                      2.10.4. Automatic identification
 14    I,     2. 10.  4    |           adverse drug errors9. Around 10% of admissions are likely
 15    I,     2. 10.  4    |          administration errors (from 3.10% to 0.84%)11. Chelsea and
 16    I,     2. 10.  4(11)|         Wesselink, Gerle Ziekenhuizen, 10 November 2006~
 17    I,     2. 10.  4    |               estimated that less than 10% of hospitals currently
 18    I,     2. 10.  5    |                                      2.10.5. Health technology assessment~ ~
 19    I,     3.  1        |           childlessness stood at about 10% in birth cohort 1935 in
 20    I,     3.  1        |               or less stable (at about 10%) and even lower in France (
 21    I,     3.  1        |          childlessness level of around 10%. This ‘pattern of early
 22    I,     3.  1        |             Latvia and Sweden had over 10% of children born outside
 23    I,     3.  1        |              Greece have a level below 10%. More than 40% of children
 24    I,     3.  2        |              population growth between 10 and 15%, France, the Netherlands
 25    I,     3.  2        |               and the UK between 5 and 10%. Five Countries will have
 26    I,     3.  2        |              and Spain. A decline of 4-10% is foreseen for Germany,
 27    I,     3.  2        |               Portugal and Slovenia, a 10-20% decrease in the Czech Republic,
 28    I,     3.  2        |            Italy (3%) and Netherlands (10%) all have more than 1 million
 29   II,     4.  1        |             2004).~ ~Table 4.1.3 shows 10-year trends in life expectancy
 30   II,     4.  1        |            2005, per gender~ ~Over the 10 year period 1995-2005, life
 31   II,     4.  1        |            years gap) for men and from 10.4 years to 24.1 years (13.
 32   II,     4.  1        |               life expectancy over the 10-year period 1995-2005 and
 33   II,     4.  2        |                external causes (causes 10, 11 and 12 in table 3) has
 34   II,     5.  1.  1    |             the toddlers usually after 10 months of age.~Liver Cirrhosis~
 35   II,     5.  2.  2    |              events rates derived from 10-year surveillance (from
 36   II,     5.  2.  3    |               see mean attack rates of 10-year surveillance for coronary
 37   II,     5.  2.  3    |             events) per 100.000 during 10-year registration in men
 38   II,     5.  2.  3    |              in coronary event rate in 10 years.~ ~To summarize, IHD,
 39   II,     5.  2.  3    |                84, stroke accounts for 10% of all-cause mortality.
 40   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 Mortality increased by 10% in Eastern Europe (from
 41   II,     5.  2.  3    |              those collected more than 10 years ago through the same
 42   II,     5.  2.  3    |                the last 3 years of the 10- year surveillance in men
 43   II,     5.  2.  3    |                average annual trend in 10 years of stroke events .~ ~
 44   II,     5.  2.  3    |              mortality during the last 10 years suggest that acute
 45   II,     5.  2.  4    |              and overweight (Table 5.2.10) are also included alongside
 46   II,     5.  2.  4    |              CV risk (see also Chapter 10).~ ~Table 5.2.10. Estimated
 47   II,     5.  2.  4    |               Chapter 10).~ ~Table 5.2.10. Estimated prevalence of
 48   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 20-30 g/day in men and 10-20 g/day in women) is associated
 49   II,     5.  2.  4    |                been found that in over 10 years the prevalence of
 50   II,     5.  2.  7    |            risk profile (Low Risk) and 10-year stroke incidence in
 51   II,     5.  2.  7    |      population samples. Am J Epid 163(10): 893-902.~Gra ). European
 52   II,     5.  2.  7    |        cardiovascular risk profile and 10-year coronary heart disease
 53   II,     5.  2.  7    |                CUORE study [htt rg/doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.023] (
 54   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Group. N Engl J Med 344: 3-10.~Sans S, Kesteloot H, Kromhout
 55   II,     5.  2.  7    |               heart disease mortality: 10-year results from 37 WHO
 56   II,     5.  3.  5    |             men and women (Figures 5.3.10) (65 new cases in men and
 57   II,     5.  3.  6    |                year relative survival ~10% in men and women (Figures
 58   II,     5.  3.  7    |               al, 2003).~ ~See Chapter 10 for primary prevention approaches
 59   II,     5.  3.  8    |                incidence over the next 10-20 years (i.e.: European
 60   II,     5.  4.  1    |         process. A percentage of about 10% of the diabetic population
 61   II,     5.  4.  1    |      experience prevalence rates above 10%. Diabetes mellitus has
 62   II,     5.  4.  1    |             the disease, leading about 10% of those affected to develop
 63   II,     5.  4.  2    |             Diabetes mellitus 250; ICD 10: Diabetes mellitus E10–14;
 64   II,     5.  4.  2    |                showing a value >140/90~10~Percent of diabetic subjects
 65   II,     5.  4.  2    |                of diabetes mellitus by 10 year age bands~2~IV Epidemiology
 66   II,     5.  4.  2    |             100,000 general population~10~Annual incidence of myocardial
 67   II,     5.  4.  2    |             100,000 general population~10~ ~Definitions:~In terms
 68   II,     5.  4.  3    |                and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (Green, 2001).~
 69   II,     5.  4.  3    |               Portugal) per 100,000 in 10 countries delivering accurate
 70   II,     5.  4.  3    |       different databases collected by 10 countries from 25% (Finland)
 71   II,     5.  4.  3    |        countries report values between 10% for Ireland and 37% for
 72   II,     5.  4.  3    |        inspection. In EUCID there were 10 countries contributing data,
 73   II,     5.  4.  3    |             Portugal), ranging between 10 (Italy) and 1380 (Slovak
 74   II,     5.  4.  3    |           stroke. In EUCID, a total of 10 countries reported a range
 75   II,     5.  4.  3    |      myocardial infarction. A total of 10 EUCID collaborators reported
 76   II,     5.  4.  4    |              high as that of diabetes. 10% of these subjects will
 77   II,     5.  4.  6    |               risk factors see Chapter 10.~To prevent the occurrence
 78   II,     5.  4.  8    |           document online, accessed on 10 October 2008)~De Beaufort
 79   II,     5.  4.  8    |             report online, accessed on 10 October 2008)~FEND, IDF
 80   II,     5.  4.  8    |             report online, accessed on 10 October 2008)~EURODIAB ACE
 81   II,     5.  4.  8    |             report online, accessed on 10 October 2008)~Jes . (2007);
 82   II,     5.  4.  8    |             report online, accessed on 10 October 2008)~Wil H (2004):
 83   II,     5.  5.Int    |             Europe. Depression affects 10-15% of people over 65. Older
 84   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|          Official Journal L294/1 of 29.10.02.~
 85   II,     5.  5.  1    |               disorder to vary between 10-22% and projected lifetime
 86   II,     5.  5.  1    |           self-harm is estimated to be 1040 times more common than
 87   II,     5.  5.  1    |            year as registered by ICD-9/10. These data has been derived
 88   II,     5.  5.  2    |               Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(10): 895-906~ ~European Public
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |            body fat, but not less than 10 percent body fat as it is
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |               are female; nonetheless, 10% of cases occur in male.
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in different countries (10 EU Member States: Austria,
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the incidence rate among 10-14-year-old females has
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |                increase in bulimia for 10-39-year-old women during
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |         follow-up measurements of 5 or 10 years allowing conclusions
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Wiley InterScience DOI: 10.1002/eat.1022.~Levey R (
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Disorder 00:0 000-000 2008-DOI 10.1002/eat.~Misra M, Aggarwal
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |               premature deaths). About 10 percent of affected people
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |             rates for schizophrenia of 10% are widely cited. More
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |             beds in general hospitals (10%) than the world average (
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Ment Health Policy Econ 10:63-71.~Fors BM, Isacson
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |       literature. J Clin Psychiatry 63(10):892-909.~Lange W, Munk-Jørgensen
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(10):1123-31.~Sartorius N (2007):
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |               05; Copenhagen, Helsinki 10. Jan. 2005. Available at: htt 1;
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |           study included approximately 10 percent of U.S. eight-year-old
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |             eight-year-olds (65.88 per 10,000) were identified as
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Disorders (ASD) from 4 per 10,000 to 66 per 10000 children
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Psychiatry 2005, 66 (suppl. 10)~Knapp M, Romeo R, Beecham
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |             and Development Disorders, 10.~ ~ ~
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2-16%) and neoplasms (6-10%).~There are only few observations
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |              1991 (*)~Spain ~Children >10 years and adults~Two-phase
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |              unclassified syndromes (5-10%)(Eriksson & Koivikko, 1997;
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |             probability of survival at 10, 20 and 40 years after seizure
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |              epilepsy during the first 10 to 14 years of disease.
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |        conditions with PR greater than 10 in patients aged 16-64 and
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |               5-year remission rate at 10 years was 61% in adults (
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |      literature review. Epilepsy Behav 10:354-362.~Taylor J, Chadwick
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Economics. www f (accessed 10 May 2005).~Van den Broek
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |               000 in women and between 10 and 123 per 100 000 in men,
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |            case in Europe ranges from €10 000 to €54 000, with a mean
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |         categories (0, 0.5, 1, etc. to 10) which indicate the level
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and totally helpless and 10 is death due to MS.~ ~Treatment~
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Trisolini et al, 2002)~These 10 principles were designed
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Neuroepidemiology 11:1-10.~Koch-Henriksen N (1999):
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Disability 1985;38(2):203-10.~Lensky P (1994): Geographic
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 however, approximately 10% of the patients are younger
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |                due to PD resulting in €10.7 billion per year in Europe (
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |               as stage HYI or HYII and 10% were classified as stage
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and Mutch et al (in which 10.2% of the study population
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |            followed PD patients over a 10-year time-period, reports
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of PD was estimated at €10.7 billion in 2004 in EU25
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |               s 5 most and the world's 10 most populous nations: in
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |               San Marino. Neurology 37(10):1679-1682.~de Rijk MC,
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |     neurosurgery, and psychiatry 62(1):10-15.~Dodel RC, Singer M,
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |          United Kingdom. Mov Disord 18(10):1139-1145.~Gasser T (2007):
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |           progression and mortality at 10 years. Journal of neurology,
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |        post-levodopa eras. Neurol Clin 10(2):331-339.~Horstink M,
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Parkinsonism Relat Disord 10(1):19-21.~Orphanet (2007):
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |           County project. Neurology 43(10):1918-1926.~van de Vijver
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 10(6):549-554.~Vanacore N (
140   II,     5.  6.  3    |             conditions rank in the top 10 causes of DALY in Europe (
141   II,     5.  6.  3    |              70%, foot OA 40%, knee OA 10% and hip OA 3% (Lawrence
142   II,     5.  6.  3    |               study that approximately 10% of the population 60 years
143   II,     5.  6.  3    |                is lower, namely around 10-30%. Clinic-based established
144   II,     5.  6.  3    |           significant progression over 10 years with few being controlled
145   II,     5.  6.  3    |              with a median duration of 10 months. There is also an
146   II,     5.  6.  3    |                due to RA and less than 10% had severe disability.
147   II,     5.  6.  3    |               of the total costs after 10 years (Hulsemann et al,
148   II,     5.  6.  3    |                to increase in the next 10 years in Europe due to the
149   II,     5.  6.  3    |               fractures. Approximately 1015 years later, at the age
150   II,     5.  6.  3    |               The lifetime risk or the 10 year probability of fracture
151   II,     5.  6.  3    |             incidences of 9 and 37 per 10 000 men and women respectively,
152   II,     5.  6.  3    |              comprehensible, i.e. 5 to 10 years (Kanis et al, 2002) (
153   II,     5.  6.  3    |                et al, 2002) (Table 5.6.10).~ ~Table 5.6.10. Estimated
154   II,     5.  6.  3    |             Table 5.6.10).~ ~Table 5.6.10. Estimated 10 year risks
155   II,     5.  6.  3    |                Table 5.6.10. Estimated 10 year risks of fractures
156   II,     5.  6.  3    |               causes account for about 10% of cases whereas 90% of
157   II,     5.  6.  3    |           costs are mainly incurred by 1025% of those with back
158   II,     5.  6.  6    |          Perspective. Ann Rheum Dis 64(10):1456-61~Jacobson L. and
159   II,     5.  6.  6    |              surveys at an interval of 10 years. BMJ 320:1577-1578~
160   II,     5.  6.  6    |                population with that in 10 other populations. Ann Rheum
161   II,     5.  7.  1    |             III) show that about 1 out 10 adult Americans exhibit
162   II,     5.  7.  3    |               of 1-5 CKD in Norway was 10.2% which is similar to the
163   II,     5.  7.  3    |                Cirillo et al, 2006) to 10.2% (Iceland) (Viktorsdottir
164   II,     5.  7.  7    |      Circulation 2002 Aug 6;106(6):703-10.~Ejerblad E, Fored CM, Lindblad
165   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Soc Nephrol 2003 Oct;14(10):2573-80.~Loucks EB, Rehkopf
166   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Eur Heart J 2006 May;27(10):1245-50.~National Kidney
167   II,     5.  8.  3    |             1950 in Northern Sweden, a 10-year cumulative incidence
168   II,     5.  8.  3    |       suggested COPD GOLD stage II was 10.1% overall, 11.8% for men,
169   II,     5.  8.  3    |               at stage II or higher at 10.7%. A doctor diagnosis of
170   II,     5.  8.  3    |               that COPD was present in 10.4% of the 2497 subjects
171   II,     5.  8.  3    |            than in male COPD patients (10% and 20%). Moreover, depletion
172   II,     5.  8.  3    |            Spanish population of about 10 700 COPD patients, with
173   II,     5.  8.  3    |               an average FEV of 35.9 ± 10% (Carrasco Garrido, 2006).
174   II,     5.  8.  3    |        treatment of 40+ year patients, 10% was directed to treatment
175   II,     5.  8.  4    |          exposure contributes by about 10-20% to the burden of COPD (
176   II,     5.  8.  4    |            were found to contribute by 10% in smokers and by 50% in
177   II,     5.  8.  5    |              with a smoking history of 10+ pack-years (n=11,027).
178   II,     5.  8.  5    |               25.1% former smokers and 10.9% lifelong non-smokers.
179   II,     5.  8.  5    |              aged 40 with a history of 10 pack-yrs. Therefore, it
180   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Burden of Airway Disease. 10.1164/ rccm.167.5.787. Am.
181   II,     5.  8.  7    |                and social conditions”, 10/2006, Eurostat.~ ~Pelkonen
182   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Journal of Public Health 3(10)- www/hcjz.hr~ ~Wagena EJ,
183   II,     5.  9.  1    |              AR is estimated to affect 1030%. Asthma and AR are often
184   II,     5.  9.  2    |              of status asthmaticus 493.10Intrinsic asthma with
185   II,     5.  9.  2    |        prospective survey of more than 10,000 young adults begun in
186   II,     5.  9.  3    |          peaked in boys aged less than 10 years (4.38/1000 people
187   II,     5.  9.  3    |                62.8% and 15.0% in the <10- and > or =20-years age-at-onset
188   II,     5.  9.  3    |              11.6%, Iceland 11%, Spain 10.6% and Poland 8.5% and Germany
189   II,     5.  9.  4    |                to determine about 1 in 10 cases of asthma in the working
190   II,     5.  9.  4    |     occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an
191   II,     5.  9.  4    |           sample of 4470 children from 10 different areas; the prevalence
192   II,     5.  9.  4    |            used; ninety-nine children (10.2%) had a physician's diagnosis
193   II,     5.  9.  4    |             POR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.47-1.10) were found in children
194   II,     5.  9.  4    |             animal models. Coarse (2.5-10 microm) and fine (0.15-2.
195   II,     5.  9.  7    |              Indoor Air. 2005;15 Suppl 10:33-9.~ ~European Community
196   II,     5.  9.  7    |                2006, 6(Suppl 1):S2 doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S2).~ ~
197   II,     5.  9.  7    | Gesundheitsschutz. May-Jun;50(5-6):701-10~ ~Simpson A, Custovic A (
198   II,     5.  9.  7    |               of Public Health 2007; 3(10) - www.hcjz.hr~ ~Wang Y,
199   II,     5. 10        |                                      5.10. Food allergy and intolerance~ ~
200   II,     5. 10.  1    |                                      5.10.1. Introduction~ ~Adverse
201   II,     5. 10.  1    |         unknown mechanisms.~ ~Figure 5.10.1. Classification of adverse
202   II,     5. 10.  2    |                                      5.10.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
203   II,     5. 10.  2    |                                      5.10.2.1. Allergen databases~ ~
204   II,     5. 10.  2    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.10.1. Available allergen databases.~ ~
205   II,     5. 10.  2    |                                      5.10.2.2 Most common allergenic
206   II,     5. 10.  2    |                                      5.10.2.3. Prevalence of food
207   II,     5. 10.  2    |              food (Table 2).~ ~Table 5.10.2. ICD codes presumed to
208   II,     5. 10.  3    |                                      5.10.3. Data description and
209   II,     5. 10.  3    |              to Sweden (18%) (Figure 5.10.2). The most commonly identified
210   II,     5. 10.  3    |               et al, 2007).~ ~Figure 5.10.2. Reported food allergy/
211   II,     5. 10.  3    |      intolerant to food (see section 5.10.3.1.) and the number confirmed
212   II,     5. 10.  3    |                                      5.10.3.3. Prevalence of non IgE-mediated
213   II,     5. 10.  3    |            allergy worldwide (Figure 5.10.3), with an overall prevalence
214   II,     5. 10.  3    |             Catassi, 2001).~ ~Figure 5.10.3. Prevalence of celiac
215   II,     5. 10.  4    |                                      5.10.4. Data discussion~ ~An
216   II,     5. 10.  5    |                                      5.10.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
217   II,     5. 10.  5    |             allergenic source (Table 5.10.1). Alcoholic beverages
218   II,     5. 10.  5    |               to foodstuffs.~ ~Table 5.10.3. List of food ingredients/
219   II,     5. 10.  5    |            concentrations of more than 10 mg/kg or 10 mg/litre expressed
220   II,     5. 10.  5    |               of more than 10 mg/kg or 10 mg/litre expressed as SO2 .~ ~
221   II,     5. 10.  5    |                form labelling (Table 5.10.1). It is to note that the
222   II,     5. 10.  6    |                                      5.10.6. Future developments~ ~
223   II,     5. 10.  7    |                                      5.10.7. References~ ~Asero R,
224   II,     5. 10.  7    |              Parliament and Council of 10 November 2003 amending Directive
225   II,     5. 11.  1    |         conditions. However, less than 10 skin disease groups probably
226   II,     5. 11.  3    |        prevalence=4%,1-year prevalence=10%~Yngveson M, et al~ ~Danish
227   II,     5. 11.  3    |               Europe, affecting around 10% of all children. The highest
228   II,     5. 11.  3    |              eczema of between 1.2% to 10% (Rea et al, 1976; Johnson,
229   II,     5. 11.  3    |              is estimated that between 10% and 15% of women and 2-
230   II,     5. 11.  3    |     Engineering Failure Analysis, 2003;10:255263.~DV Belsito, Allergic
231   II,     5. 11.  3    |      Dermatological Research, 1998;290(10):523-7~The ESSCA Writing
232   II,     5. 11.  3    |               problem affecting around 10% of adults in Europe.~Hand
233   II,     5. 11.  3    |          patient to patient, and up to 10-20% of patients with plaque
234   II,     5. 11.  3    |              the number of cases every 10-15 years), probably due
235   II,     5. 11.  7    |                 Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10:371373.~ ~Mar A, Marks
236   II,     5. 12.  1    |           around 30-40/100,000 men and 10-16/100,000 women) in Europe
237   II,     5. 12.  1    |         whereas the lowest ones (below 10/100,000 men and 5/100,000
238   II,     5. 12.  3    |                where rates were around 10-13/100,000 men in the early
239   II,     5. 12.  5    |         European countries but up to 5-10% in Italy (Alter et al,
240   II,     5. 13        |              are dealt with in Chapter 10.2.1.7 in view of the close
241   II,     5. 13        |                references, see Chapter 10.2.1.7.~ ~ ~
242   II,     5. 14.  1    |                fall out normallyage 10 to 12allows adequate
243   II,     5. 14.  3    |               DMFT teeth. In contrast, 10.8% of all children have
244   II,     5. 14.  3    |                about 65% of DMF teeth, 10% of the children have about
245   II,     5. 14.  3    |         pockets (6 mm or more) affects 10% to 15% of adults (Figure
246   II,     5. 14.  3    |                clustered in only 5% to 10% of any population.~The
247   II,     5. 14.  3    |                clustered in only 5% to 10% of the adult population.
248   II,     5. 14.  3    |               pockets (> 5 mm) is low (10.21%); this underlines that
249   II,     5. 14.  3    |       periodontal disease could affect 10% of all European adults
250   II,     5. 15.  1    |              around 1 in 5 000 or 1 in 10 000~( ht ).~From a public
251   II,     5. 15.  3    |      prevalence ranging from 5 to 1 in 10 000 and 233 RD have a prevalence
252   II,     5. 15.  3    |        prevalence ranging between 1 in 10 000 and 1 in 100 000. Another
253   II,     5. 15.  3    |               RD are disabling and for 10% of studied diseases, the
254   II,     5. 15.  3    |           reach the market in the next 10 years.~ ~A survey, conducted
255   II,     5. 15.  4    |         describes the incentives (e.g. 10-year market exclusivity,
256   II,     5. 15.  6    |             Intern Med. 2006; 260(1):1-10.~ ~ ~
257   II,     6.  3.  1    |            sectors) with costs around €10 billion per episode in some
258   II,     6.  3.  2    |         infections (17%), bacteraemia (10%), and others (including
259   II,     6.  3.  3    |         systemic symptoms. In the last 10 years, the Baltic States (
260   II,     6.  3.  3    |  industrialised countries.~In the last 10 years, the incidence decreased
261   II,     6.  3.  3    |               incidence remained below 10 cases per 100 000 per year,
262   II,     6.  3.  3    |              in Europe during the last 10 years, with an overall decreasing
263   II,     6.  3.  4    |         clinical influenza activity in 10 out of 23 countries was
264   II,     6.  3.  4    |         laboratory contamination. Only 10% of people infected develop
265   II,     6.  3.  5    |               infections over the last 10 years were stable in most
266   II,     6.  3.  5    |                in Europe over the last 10 years (most markedly in
267   II,     6.  3.  5    |              this disease.~In the last 10 years, an overall higher
268   II,     6.  3.  5    |          Norway reporting a rate of 19.10 per 100 000. By contrast,
269   II,     6.  3.  5    |         incidence rate in the EU was 4.10 per 100 000 per year. Thus
270   II,     6.  3.  5    |              fatality rate ranges from 10% to over 80% with the highest
271   II,     6.  3.  5    |                been seen over the last 10 years, with a slight increase
272   II,     6.  3.  5    |             dramatically over the last 10 years from almost 35 per
273   II,     6.  3.  5    |               before 1997 to less than 10 per 100 000 per year after
274   II,     6.  3.  5    |                most countries over the 10-year period. A recrudescence
275   II,     6.  3.  5    |             fluctuated between one and 10 per 100 000 per year since
276   II,     6.  3.  5    |           peaks in incidence over this 10-year period, notably Poland
277   II,     6.  3.  5    |           trend of rubella in the last 10 years is declining, with
278   II,     6.  3.  6    |                declining over the last 10 years with a slight peak
279   II,     6.  3.  6    |             per 100 000), representing 10% of all cases. Lithuania (
280   II,     6.  3.  6    |       preventive measures.~In the last 10 years, the incidence has
281   II,     6.  3.  6    |            long periods.~ ~In the last 10 years, the incidence rate
282   II,     6.  3.  6    |                the most cases over the 10-year period. In 2005, a
283   II,     6.  3.  6    |              lower levels. In the last 10 years, 237 cases were reported (
284   II,     6.  3.  6    |             stable trend over the last 10 years. In 2005, some 15
285   II,     6.  3.  6    |                be avoided.~In the last 10 years, the incidence of
286   II,     6.  3.  7    |     intentional release.~ ~In the last 10 years the reported number
287   II,     6.  3.  7    |               most cases over the last 10 years and trends for both
288   II,     6.  3.  7    |           fever in Europe. In the past 10 years, there has been an
289   II,     6.  3.  7    |            incomplete, but in the last 10 years the overall trend
290   II,     6.  3.  7    |            since 1941.~ ~Over the last 10 years, the overall incidence
291   II,     6.  3.  7    |       countries reported for the whole 10-year period). The most cases
292   II,     6.  3.  7    |                countries reported just 10 cases.~ ~West Nile fever~ ~
293   II,     6.  3.  7    |                outdoors.~ ~In the past 10 years, indigenous WNV outbreaks
294   II,     6.  3.  7    |               populations. In the last 10 years no more than seven
295   II,     6.  3.  7    |         reported in Europe in the past 10 years.~ ~Yellow fever~ ~
296   II,     6.  3.  7    |           endemic regions. In the last 10 years, one case was reported
297   II,     7.  3.  4    |       registration practices (Figure 7.10).~ ~Figure 7.10. Fatalities
298   II,     7.  3.  4    |               Figure 7.10).~ ~Figure 7.10. Fatalities and injured
299   II,     7.  4.  2    |             the EU27.~On average, 1 in 10 elderly will receive medical
300   II,     7.  4.  4    |      Eurobarometer survey, about 6 out 10 European citizens participate
301   II,     7.  7        |               europa.eu/idb/, accessed 10 March 2008].~ ~European
302   II,     8.  1.  3    |                work are experienced by 10% of men and women aged 16-
303   II,     8.  1.  3    |             more than 50% to less than 10% of persons with considerable
304   II,     8.  1.  3    |              assistance with mobility (10%). People with considerable
305   II,     8.  1.  3    |            just under 11% of women and 10% of men, who were not limited
306   II,     8.  2.  1    |            sample sizes in excess of N=10 million. Preliminary findings
307   II,     8.  2.  1    |           disability is defined by ICD 10 (World Health Organisation’
308   II,     8.  2.  1    |    Classification of Diseases, Version 10, 1992) as a condition of
309   II,     8.  2.  1    |        examined data for a sample of n=10,438 British children, finding
310   II,     8.  2.  1    |           Public Health 13: 47-50; doi:10.1093/eurpub/13.suppl_1.47~
311   II,     8.  2.  2    |                field loss to less than 10 degrees in the better eye
312   II,     9            |            pregnancy varies from under 10% to almost 25%.~ ~Figure
313   II,     9            |                data) (see also Section 10.2).~ ~Cannabis use. Cannabis
314   II,     9            |                data) (see also Section 10.2).~ ~Sexual health and
315   II,     9            |              young men (as compared to 10% in women). It has been
316   II,     9            |           burden, over 20% of CHD, and 10% of stroke in developed
317   II,     9.  1.  1    |           acquired during 1990-1998 in 10 European countries, is 2.
318   II,     9.  1.  1    |              to perinatal mortality. A 10 years prospective regional
319   II,     9.  1.  1    |   fertilization. N Engl J Med 2002;346(10):725-30.~ ~Holt J, Vold
320   II,     9.  1.  1    |        mortality. J Reprod Med 2004;49(10):812-6.~Maher J, Macfarlane
321   II,     9.  1.  2    |               report a prevalence of 8-10 per 1 000. The reported
322   II,     9.  1.  2    |            pregnancy varies from under 10% to almost 25%.~ ~Figure
323   II,     9.  1.  2    |             prevalence less than 5 per 10 000 in the EU), depending
324   II,     9.  1.  2    |               Community Genetics 2007; 10:93-6.~De Wals P et al, (
325   II,     9.  2.  3    |            Asthma UK gives a figure of 10% for childhood asthma, whilst
326   II,     9.  2.  3    |                figures represent about 10% of all deaths and 15% of
327   II,     9.  2.  3    |            prevalence rose from around 10% in the early 1980s to around
328   II,     9.  2.  4    |                data) (see also Section 10.2).~ ~Cannabis use. Cannabis
329   II,     9.  2.  4    |                data) (see also Section 10.2).~ ~Sexual health and
330   II,     9.  2.  5    |                determinants in Chapter 10.~ ~Healthcare and services~ ~
331   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 Up to 80% of women and 10% of men affected by gonorrhea
332   II,     9.  3.  1    |                fractures approximately 10 years later in life than
333   II,     9.  3.  1    |          repeated level <300 ng/dl (or 10.4 nmol/L) of total testosterone
334   II,     9.  3.  1    |        incidence rate as high as 8. to 10.5%.~ ~
335   II,     9.  3.  1    |              young men (as compared to 10% in women). It has been
336   II,     9.  3.  1    |           burden, over 20% of CHD, and 10% of stroke in developed
337   II,     9.  3.  1    |                determinants in Chapter 10. For issues concerning health
338   II,     9.  3.  1    |           Transm. Inf. 80;255-263; doi:10.1136/sti.2004.009415~ ~Forsgren
339   II,     9.  3.  1    |       Population And Social Conditions 10/2006~ ~Plümper T, Neumayer
340   II,     9.  3.  2    |          estimates ranging from 1.0 to 10.1 per 1 000 deliveries,
341   II,     9.  3.  2    |              to perinatal mortality. A 10 years prospective regional
342   II,     9.  3.  2    |   fertilization. N Engl J Med 2002;346(10):725-30.~ ~Holt J, Vold
343   II,     9.  3.  2    |        mortality. J Reprod Med 2004;49(10):812-6.~ ~Maher J, Macfarlane
344   II,     9.  3.  2    |              Reprod Biol 2006;126(1):3-10.~ ~US Center for Disease
345   II,     9.  3.  3    |               and the lowest in Italy (10%) (Hubert et al, 1998).
346   II,     9.  3.  3    |               and 6% of women have had 10 or more partners. International
347   II,     9.  3.  3    |                but 32% of MSM have had 10 or more partners in their
348   II,     9.  3.  3    |             are not married and who is 10 or more years older);~·
349   II,     9.  4.  2    |              is dated (often more than 10 years old). The British
350   II,     9.  4.  2    |               Women Aged 50 or more in 10 European Countries~ ~There
351   II,     9.  4.  3    |               care settings. Less than 10% of falls result in fractures,
352   II,     9.  4.  3    |             Europe. Depression affects 10-15% of people over 65. Older
353   II,     9.  4.  3    |               diabetes affects between 10-20% of people, whilst in
354   II,     9.  4.  3    |             Diabetes affects less than 10% of under sixties and between
355   II,     9.  4.  3    |              under sixties and between 10 and 20% of the 60-79 age
356   II,     9.  4.  3    |           Urinary incontinence affects 10% of older Europeans. It
357   II,     9.  4.  5    |                determinants in Chapter 10.~ ~As far as control tools
358   II,     9.  4.  5    |          longer time. At present, some 10 per cent of older people
359   II,     9.  4.  7    |                the EU.~htt y/ Accessed 10.07.07~ ~Cattaneo, A. G. (
360   II,     9.  4.  7    |      Population and Social Conditions. 10/2006~ ~Gray A, Fenn P, (
361   II,     9.  4.  7    |          Available at: htt 48 Accessed 10.07.07~ ~Kwan, J (2001),
362   II,     9.  5.  3    |          violence by present partner10.6% w ed most seri nt to police~
363   II,     9.  5.  3    |             Europe, perhaps as high as 10.7% in Eastern Europe. Men
364   II,     9.  5.  3    |           behaviour. About nine out of 10 tobacco users start before
365   II,     9.  5.  3    |           burden, over 20% of CHD, and 10% of stroke in developed
366   II,     9.  5.  3    |                episodes of walking for 10 minutes or more, while 49%
367   II,     9.  5.  3    |               being unmet. On average, 10% of EU women report having
368   II,     9.  5.  3    |            year, with a total of about 10 days of stay. Older women
369   II,     9.  5.  4    |               and policies~ ~Table 9.5.10. European Parliament Reports
370   II,     9.  5.  4    |               Reference A6-0029/2005 : 10/08/2006~· The social situation
371   II,     9.  5.  4    |               Reference A6-0035/2005 : 10/08/2006Science and technology,
372   II,     9.  5.  4    |                Reference A6-0046/2005 :10/08/2006Social Policy
373   II,     9.  5.  6    |            against women in Europe. 16.10.2004. Available at:~htt 4 (
374   II,     9.  5.  6    |          Medicine, 2005 (Vol. 61) (No. 10) 2221-2232~Heinrich G A (
375   II,     9.  5.  6    |                physical activity for 7-10 boys and girls. Available
376  III,    10            |                                        10.~HEALTH DETERMINANTS~ ~ ~
377  III,    10.  1        |                                        10.1. Introduction~ ~The impact
378  III,    10.  1        |                    The model in Figure 10.1.1 illustrates the different
379  III,    10.  1        |             Whitehead, 1991).~ ~Figure 10.1.1. The model of health
380  III,    10.  1        |                also conveyed by Figure 10.1.2 and, together with Table
381  III,    10.  1        |               and, together with Table 10.1.1, by Figure 10.1.3.~ ~ ~ ~
382  III,    10.  1        |                Table 10.1.1, by Figure 10.1.3.~ ~ ~ ~Figure 10.1.3.
383  III,    10.  1        |            Figure 10.1.3.~ ~ ~ ~Figure 10.1.3. The interaction between
384  III,    10.  1        |             and human beings~ ~ ~Table 10.1.1. Health determinants:
385  III,    10.  1        |               in the society.~ ~Figure 10.1.2 shows another model
386  III,    10.  1        |               effect modifiers (Figure 10.1.2) (Rosner, 2000; Szklo,
387  III,    10.  1        |            case of cancer/EMF.~ ~Table 10.1.2. Major health impacts
388  III,    10.  1.  1    |                                        10.1.1. Interactions among
389  III,    10.  1.  1    |      behaviours and influences. Figure 10.1.3 is also applicable to
390  III,    10.  1.  1    |               rate increases.~ ~Figure 10.1.4 illustrates the described
391  III,    10.  1.  1    |         disease determinants.~ ~Figure 10.1.4. Integration of nutrition
392  III,    10.  1.  1    |              and Potvin, 2004) (Figure 10.1.2). Alcohol consumption
393  III,    10.  1.  1    |             Pohorecky, 1991).~ ~Figure 10.1.5. illustrates examples
394  III,    10.  1.  1    |       described associations.~ ~Figure 10.1.5. Examples of psychosocial
395  III,    10.  1.  2    |                                        10.1.2. Future developments~ ~
396  III,    10.  1.  3    |                                        10.1.3. References~Ambler C,
397  III,    10.  1.  3    |              and health. EEA Report No 10/2005~Ezzati M, Lopez AD,
398  III,    10.  1.  3    |               dependence. J Addict Dis 10(3):49-61.~Parsons TJ, Power
399  III,    10.  2        |                                        10.2. Individual characteristics~ ~
400  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1. Lifestyles~ ~
401  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1. Tobacco use~ ~
402  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.1. Introduction~ ~ ~
403  III,    10.  2.  1    |        cessation.~ ~As shown in Figure 10.2.1.1.1, tobacco use is
404  III,    10.  2.  1    |              been identified in Tables 10.2.1.1.1 and 10.2.1.2.~ ~
405  III,    10.  2.  1    |               in Tables 10.2.1.1.1 and 10.2.1.2.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.1.
406  III,    10.  2.  1    |               1 and 10.2.1.2.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.1.1. Tobacco as a risk
407  III,    10.  2.  1    |               causes of death.~ ~Table 10.2.1.1.1. Diseases caused
408  III,    10.  2.  1    |         asterisk, suggestive~ ~ ~Table 10.2.1.1.2. Diseases and adverse
409  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.2. Data sources~ ~
410  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.3. Data description
411  III,    10.  2.  1    |               similar rates.~ ~Figures 10.2.1.1.2. 10.2.1.1.3. illustrate
412  III,    10.  2.  1    |           rates.~ ~Figures 10.2.1.1.2. 10.2.1.1.3. illustrate the
413  III,    10.  2.  1    |               all EU countries (Figure 10.2.1.1.4.).~Figure 10.2.1.
414  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Figure 10.2.1.1.4.).~Figure 10.2.1.1.4. Percentage of all
415  III,    10.  2.  1    |          smoking is presented in Table 10.2.1.1.3., for the main categories
416  III,    10.  2.  1    |             for the year 2000.~ ~Table 10.2.1.1.3. Deaths from selected
417  III,    10.  2.  1    |              1980s, as shown in Figure 10.2.1.1.5. It is important
418  III,    10.  2.  1    |               European women.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.1.5. Trends in smoking
419  III,    10.  2.  1    |            three decades later (Figure 10.2.1.1.6).~ ~Figure 10.2.
420  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Figure 10.2.1.1.6).~ ~Figure 10.2.1.1.6. Features of the
421  III,    10.  2.  1    |             these patterns usually lag 10-20 years behind those of
422  III,    10.  2.  1    |           smoking at work decreased by 10.9% (Ja ~ ~Objective biomarkers
423  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.4. Tobacco harm reduction~ ~
424  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.5. Progress in tobacco
425  III,    10.  2.  1    |                the World Bank.~ ~Table 10.2.1.1.4. Selected EUGLOREH
426  III,    10.  2.  1    |      Luxembourg, recorded increases of 10 points or more over the
427  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.6. Future developments~ ~
428  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.1.7. References~ ~Action
429  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Lifting the smokescreen - 10 reasons for a smoke free
430  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2. Alcohol~ ~
431  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2.1. Introduction~ ~
432  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2.2. Data sources~ ~
433  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2.3. Data description
434  III,    10.  2.  1    |              it was previously (Figure 10.2.1.2.1). Across the 20
435  III,    10.  2.  1    |                1974 and 1978.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.1. Trends in recorded
436  III,    10.  2.  1    |               previous 12 months Table 10.2.1.2.1. The proportion
437  III,    10.  2.  1    |             least once a week.~ ~Table 10.2.1.2.1. Frequency of having
438  III,    10.  2.  1    |               same in 2006 as in 2003 (10%). However, given that 67%
439  III,    10.  2.  1    |               an occasion increased by 10% between 2003 and 2006.~ ~
440  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Nearly all (over 9 in 10) 15-16 year-old students
441  III,    10.  2.  1    |             much of Europe in the last 10 years, more so in the early
442  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  2,000 homicides (4 in 10 of all murders)~- 17,000
443  III,    10.  2.  1    |         traffic fatalities), including 10,000 deaths of people other
444  III,    10.  2.  1    |                000 accidental deaths~- 10,000 suicides (1 in 6 of
445  III,    10.  2.  1    |           affected by alcohol.~ ~Table 10.2.1.2.2. Change in death
446  III,    10.  2.  1    |                As can be seen in Table 10.2.1.2.2, there are significant
447  III,    10.  2.  1    |                liver cirrhosis (Figure 10.2.1.2.2).~ ~Figure 10.2.
448  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Figure 10.2.1.2.2).~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.2. Alcohol consumption
449  III,    10.  2.  1    |       conditions and accidents, Figure 10.2.1.2.3.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.
450  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Figure 10.2.1.2.3.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.3. Alcohol-attributable
451  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the EU each year, Figure 10.2.1.2.4. This represents
452  III,    10.  2.  1    |                later in life.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.4. The share of deaths
453  III,    10.  2.  1    |                countries of as much as 10 years. Against this background,
454  III,    10.  2.  1    |       alcohol-related problems (Figure 10.2.2.5) accounts for €66bn,
455  III,    10.  2.  1    |                further €59bn.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.5. The tangible cost
456  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2.4. Control tools and
457  III,    10.  2.  1    |             capita consumption (Figure 10.2.1.2.6). The best predictors
458  III,    10.  2.  1    |                alcohol taxes.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.6. Alcohol consumption
459  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.2.5. References~ ~Anderson
460  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Art. No.: CD004148. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004148.pub3.~ ~
461  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3. Drugs and substance
462  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.1. Introduction~ ~
463  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.2. Data sources~ ~
464  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.3. Data description
465  III,    10.  2.  1    |                been presented in Table 10.2.3.1.~ ~Table 10.2.1.3.
466  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Table 10.2.3.1.~ ~Table 10.2.1.3.1. Conservative estimates
467  III,    10.  2.  1    |             drugs shows that more than 10% of Europeans have recently
468  III,    10.  2.  1    |            European countries to below 10% in others, with an average
469  III,    10.  2.  1    |               prevalence between 0 and 10%).~ ~Overall prevalence
470  III,    10.  2.  1    |          between 1995 and 1999 (Figure 10.2.3.1). An increase in the
471  III,    10.  2.  1    |                also occurred.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.1. Lifetime prevalence
472  III,    10.  2.  1    |               in the last year (Figure 10.2.3.2) and over 7% (1.5–
473  III,    10.  2.  1    |            from 0.3% to 7.6%.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.2. Overview of last
474  III,    10.  2.  1    |          prevalence levels. See Figure 10.2.1.3.3 for trends in countries
475  III,    10.  2.  1    |                increasing7.~ ~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.3. Trends in last
476  III,    10.  2.  1    |                the use of drugs (Table 10.2.1.3.2).~ ~Table 10.2.1.
477  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Table 10.2.1.3.2).~ ~Table 10.2.1.3.2Problem Drug Use
478  III,    10.  2.  1    |            variation in the EU (Figure 10.2.3.4), the reasons of which
479  III,    10.  2.  1    |               in their lives.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.4. HIV prevalence
480  III,    10.  2.  1    |            based on AIDS cases (Figure 10.2.1.3.5).~ ~Figure 10.2.
481  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Figure 10.2.1.3.5).~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.5. AIDS incidence
482  III,    10.  2.  1    |           highly prevalent. See Figure 10.2.1.3.6 for national and
483  III,    10.  2.  1    |               in their lives.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.6. Estimated HCV antibody
484  III,    10.  2.  1    |             times higher for males and 10-50 times higher for females,
485  III,    10.  2.  1    |                the six studied places, 10-23% of the overall mortality
486  III,    10.  2.  1    |                very high level. Figure 10.2.3.7 shows the trend in
487  III,    10.  2.  1    |           deaths in the EU15.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.7. Indexed long term
488  III,    10.  2.  1    |              in many countries (Figure 10.2.3.8). From 1999 to 2005
489  III,    10.  2.  1    |          treatment in the EU.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.8. Trend in the distribution
490  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.4. Control tools and
491  III,    10.  2.  1    |               rates varying from under 10% to about 50% of opiate
492  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.5. Future developments~ ~
493  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.3.6. References~ ~Bargagli
494  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.4. Risky sexual behaviour~ ~
495  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.5. Inadequate oral hygiene~ ~
496  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.5.1. Introduction~ ~ ~
497  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.5.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
498  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                        10.2.1.5.3. Data description
499  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Gherunpong et al, 2006)~ ~Table 10.2.1.5.1 illustrates the
500  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Rimpelä, 2007).~ ~Table 10.2.1.5.1. Children Daily