1-500 | 501-924
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |            Drafting Committee (Appendix 4).~ ~The Report covers most
  2    I,     2.  4        |                                       2.4. Socio-economic trends and
  3    I,     2.  4        |               life expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among men, 2
  4    I,     2.  4        |                 6 years among men, 2 to 4 years among women). In many
  5    I,     2.  5        |                 25-39) will decrease by 4% in the same period. This
  6    I,     2.  6        |                school leavers (Figure 2.4).~ ~Table 2.3. Total population
  7    I,     2.  6        |         educational systems.~ ~Figure 2.4. Early school leavers in
  8    I,     2.  6        |             qualifications in the EU25, 4 percentage points more than
  9    I,     2.  6        |                expected to decline by 2.4 percentage points. Declines
 10    I,     2.  8        |               below as shown in Table 2.4.~ ~ ~Table 2.4. Health impacts
 11    I,     2.  8        |               in Table 2.4.~ ~ ~Table 2.4. Health impacts of different
 12    I,     2.  9        |           projected global warming (1.84.0 °C).~ ~European glaciers
 13    I,     2. 10.  3(7) |                Review. Geneva, ILO; 134(4-5),587-603.~
 14    I,     2. 10.  4    |                                    2.10.4. Automatic identification
 15    I,     2. 10.  4    |       medication errors being first (37.4% of such events). 10~ ~Medication
 16    I,     2. 11        |               assessmentEEA Report No 4/2008. [On-line publication
 17    I,     2. 11        |            publications/eea_report_2008_4]~European Agency for Safety
 18    I,     2. 11        |                Review. Geneva, ILO; 134(4-5),587-603~International
 19    I,     3.  2        |                 and Spain. A decline of 4-10% is foreseen for Germany,
 20    I,     3.  2        |              sum, EU27 will decrease by 4 per cent. The baseline projection
 21    I,     3.  3        |          expectancy changes.~ ~Figure 3.4. Age composition in EU27
 22    I,     3.  3        |                of that period (Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5). Since population
 23    I,     3.  3        |              Germany (26.8), Sweden (26.4) and Belgium (26.1). In
 24    I,     3.  3        |                negative development (-0.4% per year) over the period
 25    I,     3.  3        |                from 1.2% to the current 4.2%. A figure of 6.6% is
 26    I,     3.  4        |                                       3.4. References~ ~Beets G, Dourleijn
 27    I,     3.  4        |            United States? Demography 21(4) pp. 591-611.~ ~Esveldt,
 28    I,     3.  4        |                 Selection, Vol. 21, No. 4: 303-316~ ~
 29   II,     4            |                                         4.~OVERALL HEALTH TRENDS~
 30   II,     4.  1        |                                         4.1. Life expectancy and healthy
 31   II,     4.  1        |            different countries.~ ~Table 4.1.1 shows estimates for
 32   II,     4.  1        |                the gender gaps.~ ~Table 4.1.1. Life expectancy (LE)
 33   II,     4.  1        |              women, respectively (Table 4.1.1). Although in 2005 the
 34   II,     4.  1        |             women live longer than men, 4.9 years on average, but
 35   II,     4.  1        |                 of likely trends. Table 4.1.2 gives estimates of life
 36   II,     4.  1        |                the ECHP survey.~ ~Table 4.1.2. Life expectancy and
 37   II,     4.  1        |              and Michel, 2004).~ ~Table 4.1.3 shows 10-year trends
 38   II,     4.  1        |              level within EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.3. Life expectancy at
 39   II,     4.  1        |             gender gap by 1 year (Table 4.1.3). Estimates shown in
 40   II,     4.  1        |                Estimates shown in Table 4.1.3 for LE only suggest
 41   II,     4.  1        |              the MS since 1995.~ ~Table 4.1.4. Minimum and maximum
 42   II,     4.  1        |                 since 1995.~ ~Table 4.1.4. Minimum and maximum values
 43   II,     4.  1        |                2005, per gender~ ~Table 4.1.4 underlines the significant
 44   II,     4.  1        |                  per gender~ ~Table 4.1.4 underlines the significant
 45   II,     4.  1        |             years gap) for women. Table 4.1.4 provides additional
 46   II,     4.  1        |               gap) for women. Table 4.1.4 provides additional information
 47   II,     4.  1        |                gap) for men and from 10.4 years to 24.1 years (13.
 48   II,     4.  1        |                respectively, in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure
 49   II,     4.  1        |     respectively, in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life
 50   II,     4.  1        |                1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy, broken
 51   II,     4.  1        |      Limitations, in 2005, Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy, broken
 52   II,     4.  1        |                men. They will also live 4 years more with activity
 53   II,     4.  1        |          countries, LE does. Thus Table 4.1.7 presents the values
 54   II,     4.  1        |              Welfare, 2006).5~ ~ ~Table 4.1.5. Life expectancy at
 55   II,     4.  1        |                2005, per gender~ ~Table 4.1.5 shows firstly that by
 56   II,     4.  2        |                                         4.2. Life expectancy and causes
 57   II,     4.  2        |              1990s (2.7 years).~ ~Table 4.2.1 shows the contribution
 58   II,     4.  2        |             even 40% for women.~ ~Table 4.2.1. Arriaga decomposition
 59   II,     4.  2        |               by causes of death. Table 4.2.2 shows the contribution
 60   II,     4.  2        |            among men decreased.~ ~Table 4.2.2. Arriaga decomposition
 61   II,     4.  2        |            death, EU15 average.~ ~Table 4.2.3 shows the Arriaga decomposition
 62   II,     4.  2        |                 European Union.~ ~Table 4.2.3. Arriaga decomposition
 63   II,     4.  2        |             death, cancer (causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3), had a
 64   II,     4.  2        |           gynaecological cancers (cause 4 in table 3) had a negative
 65   II,     4.  2        |           respiratory diseases.~ ~Table 4.2.4 shows by how many years
 66   II,     4.  2        |       respiratory diseases.~ ~Table 4.2.4 shows by how many years
 67   II,     4.  2        |                life expectancy.~ ~Table 4.2.4. Contribution of change
 68   II,     4.  2        |                 expectancy.~ ~Table 4.2.4. Contribution of change
 69   II,     4.  2        |              selected countries~ ~Table 4.2.5 shows that cancers caused
 70   II,     4.  2        |              than in the 1980s.~ ~Table 4.2.5. The effect of smoking
 71   II,     4.  2        |          decades were selected.~ ~Table 4.2.6. Average annual change
 72   II,     4.  2        |             selected countries.~ ~Table 4.2.6 shows that in 11 out
 73   II,     4.  2        |                 that for women.~ ~Table 4.2.7 shows the development
 74   II,     4.  2        |          between men and women.~ ~Table 4.2.7. Average annual change
 75   II,     4.  2        |        mortality at high ages.~ ~Figure 4.2.1. Standardized death
 76   II,     4.  2        |              the average increase (Fig. 4.2.2). This indicates that
 77   II,     4.  2        |      convergence is completed.~ ~Figure 4.2.2. Relationship between
 78   II,     4.  2        |        significant relationship (Figure 4.2.3). However, this is mainly
 79   II,     4.  2        |            European countries.~ ~Figure 4.2.3. Relationship between
 80   II,     4.  2        |             since 1970 for menl (Figure 4.2.4). The regression coefficient
 81   II,     4.  2        |               1970 for menl (Figure 4.2.4). The regression coefficient
 82   II,     4.  2        |                 some 40 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.4. Relationship between
 83   II,     4.  2        |             some 40 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.4. Relationship between the
 84   II,     4.  2        |          stronger (if we compare Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2).
 85   II,     4.  2        |                Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2). In that case the regression
 86   II,     4.  2        |                 take 30 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.5. Relationship between
 87   II,     4.  3        |                                         4.3. References~ ~Anderson
 88   II,     5.  1.  1    |                a large baby (over 9 lbs/4 kg); or~· has experienced
 89   II,     5.  1.  4    |                                     5.1.4. Participation of patients
 90   II,     5.  2.  1    |                 all deaths causing over 4,30 million deaths each year
 91   II,     5.  2.  3    |          Project, reported in Table 5.2.4; here we can see mean attack
 92   II,     5.  2.  3    |               Group, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.4. WHO-MONICA 13 EU population.
 93   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 As explained in chapter 4.2.2Data sources’, it was
 94   II,     5.  2.  3    |              found in women (Figure 5.2.4) for which mortality rates
 95   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 countries.~ ~Figure 5.2.4. Age-standardized (standard
 96   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                     5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~
 97   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                     5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary
 98   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  2008) (see Chapter 5.1.4). Recent evidence suggests
 99   II,     5.  2.  7    |                World Health Stat Q 41(3-4):155178.~Unal B, Critchley
100   II,     5.  3.  5    |                                     5.3.4 Mortality and incidence
101   II,     5.  3.  5    |               the contrary, Figures 5.3.4 show that mortality is decreasing
102   II,     5.  3.  7    |             further details see Chapter 4.14.~ ~
103   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                   5.3.6.4 Cancer Plans~ ~Definition
104   II,     5.  3.  9    |             control in Italy. Tumori 93(4): 329-336.~ ~Micheli A,
105   II,     5.  4        |                                       5.4. Diabetes~
106   II,     5.  4.  1    |                                       5.4.1 Introduction~Diabetes
107   II,     5.  4.  1    |          affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers are
108   II,     5.  4.  1    |                next 20 years. (Figure 5.4.1). The latest edition of
109   II,     5.  4.  1    |                with the lowest rate, at 4%. New Member States in general
110   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  Wild 2004).~ ~Figure 5.4.1. The Growing Diabetes
111   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2 Data sources~ ~ ~
112   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2 Data sources~ ~The different
113   II,     5.  4.  2    |                recommendations (Table 5.4.1). The Declaration acknowledged
114   II,     5.  4.  2    |          international level.~ ~Table 5.4.1. Recommendations St.Vincent
115   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.1. National and regional
116   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.2. IDF Diabetes Atlas~ ~
117   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.3. Quality of care monitoring~ ~
118   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 et al 2004, see Table 5.4.2), only three were available
119   II,     5.  4.  2    |           Outcomes Framework.~ ~Table 5.4.2. OECD indicators~ ~ ~Areas~ ~
120   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.4. Health Surveys~ ~Health
121   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                   5.4.2.4. Health Surveys~ ~Health
122   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.5. Sentinel Surveillance
123   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.6. Hospital discharge
124   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.7. Insurance/reimbursement
125   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.8. National drug sales~ ~
126   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.9. Conclusion~ ~Different
127   II,     5.  4.  2    |               are presented in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.
128   II,     5.  4.  2    |         presented in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP
129   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP core
130   II,     5.  4.  2    |                4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP core indicators
131   II,     5.  4.  2    |           annual incidence of blindness~4~HIS/HES/SPSN/RS Registries~
132   II,     5.  4.  2    |              secondary cause.~ ~Table 5.4.4. EUDIP secondary indicators
133   II,     5.  4.  2    |            secondary cause.~ ~Table 5.4.4. EUDIP secondary indicators
134   II,     5.  4.  3    |                                       5.4.3 Data description and analysis~ ~
135   II,     5.  4.  3    |            rates of increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children aged
136   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 5%) for children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for
137   II,     5.  4.  3    |               aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.
138   II,     5.  4.  3    |                8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (
139   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 across 9 countries from 4 (Cyprus) to 149 (Scotland)
140   II,     5.  4.  3    |            countries ranging between 77.4% (Spain) and 98% (Finland).~
141   II,     5.  4.  3    |                from 45.1 (France) to 83.4% (UK).~Proliferative retinopathy
142   II,     5.  4.  3    |                Netherlands, Sweden) and 4% (Cyprus). The median is
143   II,     5.  4.  4    |                                       5.4.4. Data discussion~ ~Information
144   II,     5.  4.  4    |                                     5.4.4. Data discussion~ ~Information
145   II,     5.  4.  5    |                                       5.4.5. Risk factors~ ~The major
146   II,     5.  4.  5    |               high weight newborn (over 4 kg); or~- experience of
147   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6. Control tools and policies~
148   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.1. Surveillance~The development
149   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.2. Primary prevention~
150   II,     5.  4.  6    |            cholesterol, see Chapter 5.2.4. and for other risk factors
151   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.3. Secondary prevention~
152   II,     5.  4.  6    |        indicators reported in section 5.4.3, which indicate clearly
153   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.4. National guidelines
154   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                   5.4.6.4. National guidelines and
155   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.5. EU initiatives against
156   II,     5.  4.  6    |                2 June 2006 (see Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU Council
157   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU Council Recommendations~
158   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.6. International initiatives~ ~
159   II,     5.  4.  7    |                                       5.4.7. Future developments~It
160   II,     5.  4.  7    |               aspects listed in table 5.4.5, which are highly related
161   II,     5.  4.  8    |                                       5.4.8. References~Armesto SG,
162   II,     5.  4.  8    |            Clinical and Experimental 13(4), 245. 2001.~Boyle D, Cunningham
163   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 Laeger. 18;169(25):2432-4 [Article in Danish]~EUCID
164   II,     5.  4.  8    |              Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1270-6.~Greenfield S, Nicolucci
165   II,     5.  4.  8    |         infarction? Int J Clin Pract 61(4):680-3~Jönsson B (2002),
166   II,     5.  4.  8    |               Study Group Epidemiology.;4(5):421-7~Pruna S, Stanciu
167   II,     5.  4.  8    |      intermediate hyperglycemia ISBN 92 4 159493 4 (NLM classification:
168   II,     5.  4.  8    |          hyperglycemia ISBN 92 4 159493 4 (NLM classification: WK
169   II,     5.  4.  8    |     classification: WK 810) ISBN 978 92 4 159493 6 © World Health
170   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 to a reduction of 3% to 4% of the total GDP9.~ ~There
171   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 0.9 million (prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million
172   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 with age.~ ~Table 5.5.1.4. Psychological distress
173   II,     5.  5.  1    |          younger adults.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.4. Odds ratio (with 95% confidence
174   II,     5.  5.  1    |        estimated at -6.1%(P<0.0001), –5.4%(P<0.0001) and –5.0%(P<0.
175   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                   5.5.1.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
176   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Health Care System (2002-4).~· Promoting mental health
177   II,     5.  5.  1    |                the European Union (2002-4), included also statistics
178   II,     5.  5.  1    |         systematic review. Am J Med 118(4):330-41.~ ~Värnik A, Kölves
179   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                   5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A tremendous
180   II,     5.  5.  2(24)|                            Work package 4 of the EuroCoDe project,
181   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and vulnerable
182   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Journal of Eating Disorders 40:4 293-309.~De Henauw S , Gottrand
183   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Disorders, Vol. 18, No. 4, 351-357.~Harper K, Sperry
184   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Children and Adolescents, No. 4; Young people’s health in
185   II,     5.  5.  3    |             median point prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, period prevalence
186   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1000, lifetime prevalence 4.0 per 1000 and lifetime
187   II,     5.  5.  3    |      populations (male:female ratio = 1.4); moreover, not only migrants
188   II,     5.  5.  3    |              median point prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for period
189   II,     5.  5.  3    |                3 for period prevalence, 4.0 for lifetime prevalence
190   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Palmer et al quote “that 4.9% of schizophrenics will
191   II,     5.  5.  3    |            remains high.~Figure 5.5.3.2.4. Average length of stay -
192   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 be obese, i.e. a 1.5 to 4 times increased rate compared
193   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2003) – see table 5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European
194   II,     5.  5.  3    |                5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European practice guidelines
195   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.2.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 to 2004. Nervenarzt Apr 4; Epub ahead of print.~Bottlender
197   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Nordic J. of Psychiatry 61(4):252-259.~Fricke and Pirk (
198   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of Medical Genetics 74 (4):353-60.~Kahn RS, Fleischhacker
199   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disorders”. Die Psychiatrie 4:172-173.~Klosterkötter J,
200   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Europe. World Psychiatry 4(3):161-7.~Knapp M, McDaid
201   II,     5.  5.  3    |             condition occurring in 3 to 4 year olds characterized
202   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.3.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
203   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from 4 per 10,000 to 66 per 10000
204   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4. Epilepsy~ ~
205   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.1. Introduction~ ~ ~Epilepsy
206   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.2. Data sources~ ~The patients
207   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.3. Data description and
208   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the continent (Table 5.5.3.4.1). The annual incidence
209   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the elderly (Table 5.5.3.4.2), even with significant
210   II,     5.  5.  3    |             study design.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.1. Incidence of epilepsy
211   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in Europe~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.2. Incidence (per 100,000)
212   II,     5.  5.  3    | localization-related epilepsy in 15% (8.4 per 100,000 per year), and
213   II,     5.  5.  3    |           generalized epilepsy in 6% (3.4 per 100,000 per year). In
214   II,     5.  5.  3    |                8 per 1,000 (Table 5.5.3.4.3). The prevalence is lower
215   II,     5.  5.  3    |               see above).~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.3. Prevalence of active
216   II,     5.  5.  3    |                All ages ~MR review~428 ~4.8 ~Olafsson and Hauser,
217   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Children ~MR review~? ~4.5 + ~Cavazzuti, 1986 (*)~
218   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Children ~MR review~378 ~4.3 ~Endziniene et al., 1997~
219   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Two-phase across sectional ~405 ~4.1 ~Luengo et al., 2001 (*)~
220   II,     5.  5.  3    |            inquiry/MR review? ~155/195 ~4.2/3.5~Sidenvall et al.,
221   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1960 (*)~U.K. ~Children 4-20 years ~MR review ~69 ~
222   II,     5.  5.  3    |                20 years ~MR review ~69 ~4.3 ~Tidman et al., 2003 (*)~+ =
223   II,     5.  5.  3    |      respectively 36-66%, 30-62%, and 2-4%. The differing proportions
224   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Jallon, 2004) (Table 5.5.3.4.4). These data are confirmed
225   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Jallon, 2004) (Table 5.5.3.4.4). These data are confirmed
226   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 seizures.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.4. Community-based studies
227   II,     5.  5.  3    |               seizures.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.4. Community-based studies
228   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Prevalent cohorts~32~12.4~2.6~Preston and Clarke,
229   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Prevalent cohort~160~67.8~2.4~Alstrom, 1950 (*)~ ~Insurance
230   II,     5.  5.  3    |              with SMR ranging between 2.4 and 5.6 (Gaitatzis and Sander,
231   II,     5.  5.  3    |            intake was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk
232   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 was found to range from 4.5 to 32 (Jallon, 2004).
233   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the SMR (all causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.
234   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.4) in non-surgical patients,
235   II,     5.  5.  3    |           partial seizures)(Table 5.5.3.4.5). The issue of epilepsy
236   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 serious accidents (RR 1.4)(Taylor et al, 1996) may
237   II,     5.  5.  3    |             relationship.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.5. National legislations
238   II,     5.  5.  3    |              years~ if seizure freedom >4 years)~ First unprovoked
239   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
240   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.4.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
241   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.5. Future developments~ ~
242   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.6. References~ ~Anonymous (
243   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 time. Neuroepidemiology 4:65-70.~Morgan CL, Ahmed
244   II,     5.  5.  3    |        prospective study. Lancet Neurol 4:627-634.~Osservatorio Regionale
245   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.4.7. Acronyms~ ~AED~Antiepileptic
246   II,     5.  5.  3    |              EDSS) 0 to 3.5), moderate (4.0 to 6.5) and severe (7.
247   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Tables 5.5.3.5.1-5.5.3.5.4 provide further details
248   II,     5.  5.  3    |              estimates)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.4. Incidence (per 100 000/
249   II,     5.  5.  3    |                annual incidence rate of 4.2 (Lauer, personal data).
250   II,     5.  5.  3    |           annual incidence rates from 24 in the 1990s. Prevalence
251   II,     5.  5.  3    |             over the past 30 years. The 4-fold increase in Malta’s
252   II,     5.  5.  3    |              mean annual incidence of 2.4 in Greece. Methodological
253   II,     5.  5.  3    |                ratios between 1.1 and 3.4. Mean total prevalence estimates
254   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe is estimated to be 4 per 100 000, with peaks
255   II,     5.  5.  3    |             RP-MS and SP-MS ranged from 4% (Sweden) to 50% (Bulgaria),
256   II,     5.  5.  3    |               whereas PP-MS ranged from 4% (Austria) to 35% (The Netherlands).~ ~
257   II,     5.  5.  3    |               UK) for moderate MS (EDSS 4-6.5) and between 5% (Austria)
258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.5.4. Risk factors~ ~MS is a
259   II,     5.  5.  3    |            least one functional system, 4.0-6.5 refers to fully ambulatory,
260   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Mult Scler. 2008 May;14(4):574.~Sumelahti ML, Tienari
261   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 prevalence (MSA:1.86 to 4.9/100.000, PSP: 2.5 to 7.
262   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2.5 to 7.5/100.000; CGD: 4.0/100.000, respectively (
263   II,     5.  5.  3    |             diminished over a period of 4 years on levodopa, but continued
264   II,     5.  5.  3    |            significantly reduced. After 4 years, increasing survival
265   II,     5.  5.  3    |            healthcare cost totalled to €4.6 billion. Hospitalization
266   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.6.4. Risk factors~ ~The cause
267   II,     5.  5.  3    |             over 50 with PD was between 4.1 and 4.6 million and the
268   II,     5.  5.  3    |             with PD was between 4.1 and 4.6 million and the number
269   II,     5.  5.  3    |                s disease. Mov Disord 13(4):626-632.~Anderson C, Checkoway
270   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Spain. Neuroepidemiology 20(4):225-231.~Brewis M, Poskanzer
271   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Krankenversicherung e 46(4):122-128.~Elbaz A, Tranchant
272   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Aragon, Spain. Mov Disord 14(4):596-604.~EuroPa Consortium (
273   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie 27(4):270-275.~Fall PA, Fredrikson
274   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Neurol Neurosurg Psych 76(4):498-502.~Nicoletti A, Sofia
275   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Sardinia). Acta neurologica 1(4):303-308.~Rosati G, Granieri
276   II,     5.  5.  3    |               disease. J Chronic Dis 26(4):243-254.~Späte HF, Gemende
277   II,     5.  5.  3    |             neurologica Scandinavica 72(4):363-379.~Tanner CM, Aston
278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 opinion in neurology 13(4):427-430.~Tanner CM (2003):
279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Neuropsychopharmacol 15(4):473-490.~Whetten-Goldstein
280   II,     5.  6.  1    |          disorders e.g. low back pain; (4) regional and widespread
281   II,     5.  6.  3    |         repeatedly been estimated to be 4-5% of the adult population (
282   II,     5.  6.  3    |      circulatory diseases accounted for 4.8%. This study only considered
283   II,     5.  6.  3    |            physical activity (Table 5.6.4). The pain and disability
284   II,     5.  6.  3    |       reversible (Figures 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 and Tables 5.6.1-5.6.3)
285   II,     5.  6.  3    |          EUGLOREH Countries~ ~Table 5.6.4. Osteoarthritis Prevalence (
286   II,     5.  6.  3    |              radiographic OA (Table 5.6.4). Almost everyone who reaches
287   II,     5.  6.  3    |          greatest relative risk for OA: 4.5 for farming 1-9 years
288   II,     5.  6.  3    |                estimated to incur SEK 7.4 billion (Euro 690 million)
289   II,     5.  6.  3    |                inpatient care and SEK 6.4 billion (Euro 630.4 million)
290   II,     5.  6.  3    |               SEK 6.4 billion (Euro 630.4 million) for productivity
291   II,     5.  6.  3    |              for knee replacement is 27.4 joints per 1000 people aged
292   II,     5.  6.  3    |              incidence of RA range from 413 per 100,000 for adult
293   II,     5.  6.  3    |                ratio varied from 1.7 to 4.0) .~ ~The incidence of
294   II,     5.  6.  3    |             older, with rates in men of 4 and 1909 respectively (Cooper
295   II,     5.  6.  3    |              female to male ratio being 4:1), and around 50% occur
296   II,     5.  6.  3    |                                   5.6.3.4.4 Prevalence~ ~Prevalence
297   II,     5.  6.  3    |                                 5.6.3.4.4 Prevalence~ ~Prevalence
298   II,     5.  6.  3    |                comparable figures are 2.4% and 20%, respectively (
299   II,     5.  6.  3    |               point in time) is between 4% and 33% (Woolf and Pfleger,
300   II,     5.  6.  4    |                                     5.6.4. Societal impact~ ~Musculoskeletal
301   II,     5.  6.  4    |            persons with sick leave over 4 days had low back pain,
302   II,     5.  6.  4    |         musculoskeletal disorders are 2-4 times more frequent than
303   II,     5.  6.  6    |                Health, ISBN 91-975284-0-4. Bone and Joint Decade Lund,
304   II,     5.  6.  6    |           Technol Assess Health Care 16(4):1193-200~Juni P, Dieppe
305   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 Rheumatology(Oxford) 42(4):516-21~Kallman DA, Wigley
306   II,     5.  6.  6    |          healthcare. Physiother Res Int 4:161-169~Lopez AD, Mathers
307   II,     5.  7.  1    |            factors, patients with stage 4-5 CKD have a death risk
308   II,     5.  7.  1    |                complications which is 2-4 times higher than that of
309   II,     5.  7.  1    |          decrease in GFR*~3059~585.3~ ~4~Severe decrease in GFR*~
310   II,     5.  7.  1    |              decrease in GFR*~1529~585.4~ ~5~Kidney failure~<15~(
311   II,     5.  7.  3    |        progression from CKD stages 3 or 4 to ESRD in US white patients
312   II,     5.  7.  3    |              pmp in Portugal (Table 5.7.4 and Table 5.7.5). Just like
313   II,     5.  7.  3    |              renal failure.~ ~Table 5.7.4. Incidence of RRT over the
314   II,     5.  7.  3    |          increased with age (Figure 5.7.4).~ ~Figure 5.7.3. Prevalence
315   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 countries.~ ~Figure 5.7.4. Sex and age specific prevalence
316   II,     5.  7.  4    |                                     5.7.4. Risk factors~ ~Hypertension
317   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Pediatrics 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):e382-e387.~Atthobari
318   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  Kidney Int 2006 Aug;70(4):800-6.~Coresh J, Byrd-Holt
319   II,     5.  7.  7    |             Pediatr Nephrol 1997 Aug;11(4):438-42.~Fadrowski J, Cole
320   II,     5.  8.  3    |         incidence rate according to a 9-4% GOLD criteria27 in persistent
321   II,     5.  8.  3    |                function was observed in 4% for male never smokers (
322   II,     5.  8.  3    |                in 40-69 year olds to 14.4% (6.3% COPD) (Murtagh et
323   II,     5.  8.  3    |               values ranging from about 4% in Forlì (Italy) and Bratislava (
324   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 12.3 and 7.3%, moderate 4.5 and 2.2%, severe-very
325   II,     5.  8.  3    |                2%, severe-very severe 0.4 and 0.3% (Zielinski et al,
326   II,     5.  8.  3    |             males and 3..9, 8.1, 2.3, 0.4, respectively, in females.~ ~
327   II,     5.  8.  3    |             that COPD was present in 10.4% of the 2497 subjects with
328   II,     5.  8.  3    |               more than 2/3 of them (69.4%) reported one or more co-morbidity.~ ~
329   II,     5.  8.  3    |                7 billion Euro, of which 4.7 were for ambulatory care,
330   II,     5.  8.  3    |               for inpatient care and 28.4 for lost work days (European
331   II,     5.  8.  3    |                patient was estimated at 4,366 euro per year: 41% was
332   II,     5.  8.  4    |                                     5.8.4. Risk factors~ ~Active and
333   II,     5.  8.  4    |               lung function ranged from 4% for male never smokers (
334   II,     5.  8.  6    |             selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors are in the late
335   II,     5.  8.  6    |                 p<0.001) or at home (37.4% vs 2.8%, p<0.05) than people
336   II,     5.  9. FB    |                                    5.FB.4. Epidemiology of allergic
337   II,     5.  9. FB    |             dietary intervention beyond 4 to 6 months of age for the
338   II,     5.  9. FB    |             Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 19:640-4~ ~ ~ ~
339   II,     5.  9.  1    |                 to affect approximately 411% of the general population
340   II,     5.  9.  3    |                aged less than 10 years (4.38/1000 people per year)
341   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 by country~ ~Figure 5.9.4. Hay fever in ECHRS and
342   II,     5.  9.  3    |            while in 1992 an estimate of 4.4% among adults was recorded),
343   II,     5.  9.  3    |                in 1992 an estimate of 4.4% among adults was recorded),
344   II,     5.  9.  3    |                Greece (5.6%), Poland (5.4%), Germany (2.5%), Hungary (
345   II,     5.  9.  3    |                Germany (2.5%), Hungary (4%), Macedonia (3.3%) and
346   II,     5.  9.  3    |           rhinitis in Italy amounted to 4.5% since the end of 1990s,
347   II,     5.  9.  4    |                                     5.9.4. Risk factors~ ~Data show
348   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 1989 (n=3,390), 1994 (n=4,047), 1999 (n=3,540) and
349   II,     5.  9.  4    |           indoor and outdoor pollution;~4. changes in dietary habits.~ ~
350   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, P=0.008). Among
351   II,     5.  9.  4    |          addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, P=0.008). Among common
352   II,     5.  9.  4    |              seen for nursing (2.2, 1.3-4.0, P=0.007). Asthma risk
353   II,     5.  9.  4    |           frequently from pollinosis (2.4%) and bronchial asthma (
354   II,     5.  9.  4    |             were identified (Tables 5.9.4 to 5.9.6). The lowest sensitization
355   II,     5.  9.  4    |              pollen counts.~ ~Table 5.9.4. Highest, median and lowest
356   II,     5.  9.  4    |                fever, 6.8% from asthma, 4.5% from atopic asthma. The
357   II,     5.  9.  4    |                diagnosis of asthma - 12.4% of the males and 8.0% of
358   II,     5.  9.  4    |              attending day care (OR = 0.4) and infant school (OR =
359   II,     5.  9.  4    |               and infant school (OR = 0.4); a positive association
360   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Italy (lifetime asthma: 5.4% and 9.7% respectively,
361   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 zinc (Zn), ammonium (NH(4)), and sulfate (SO(4)) were
362   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 NH(4)), and sulfate (SO(4)) were present in the fine
363   II,     5.  9.  4    |          observed between V, Ni, and SO(4) and the allergen specific
364   II,     5.  9.  7    |             study. Allergy. 2006 Apr;61(4):414-21.~ ~Anderson HR,
365   II,     5.  9.  7    |                Eur Respir J. 2006 Apr;9(4):636-42~ ~Bj P (2007): Worldwide
366   II,     5.  9.  7    |                 Rev Mal Respir.Sep; 23 (4 Pt 2):10S73-10S75~ ~Bousquet
367   II,     5. 10.  1    |               around 1-3% in adults and 4-6% in children (EFSA, 2004).~ ~
368   II,     5. 10.  2    |                Angioneurotic oedema~T78.4~Allergy, unspecified~Source:
369   II,     5. 10.  3    |         self-reported FHS, ranging from 4.6% in Spain to 19.1% in
370   II,     5. 10.  3    |               items, include chocolate (4.8%), followed by apple and
371   II,     5. 10.  3    |         followed by apple and hazelnut (4.7%), strawberries (4.6%),
372   II,     5. 10.  3    |          hazelnut (4.7%), strawberries (4.6%), cow’s milk (4.3%),
373   II,     5. 10.  3    |        strawberries (4.6%), cow’s milk (4.3%), oranges and tomatoes (
374   II,     5. 10.  3    |              with food challenge (0.8-2.4%) (EU SCOOP, 1998).~ ~The
375   II,     5. 10.  3    |          roughly estimated to be around 4-6 % in children and 1-3%
376   II,     5. 10.  4    |                                    5.10.4. Data discussion~ ~An accurate
377   II,     5. 10.  7    |                Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55(4):298-304.~ ~Woods RK, Stoney
378   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 and others (See Chapter 4.3).~Some skin diseases may
379   II,     5. 11.  3    |                19 yrs)~Point prevalence=4%,1-year prevalence=10%~Yngveson
380   II,     5. 11.  3    |             group (956), a total of 44 (4.6%) had contact allergy
381   II,     5. 11.  3    |             Contact Dermatitis, 2001;44(4):218-23.~CG Mortz, KE Andersen,
382   II,     5. 11.  3    |               medical care with 7.3%, 3.4% 8.9% and 3.8% in the following
383   II,     5. 11.  3    |        prevalences ranging from 0.2% to 4.8%. The highest prevalence,
384   II,     5. 11.  3    |            rates of BCC increased by 70.4% in men and 65% in women,
385   II,     5. 11.  4    |                                    5.11.4. Societal impact~ ~Disability
386   II,     5. 12.  3    |                3.6/100,000), Ireland (3.4), Norway and the Netherlands (
387   II,     5. 12.  3    |               2000-2002, Finland from 7.4 to 13.6, Ireland from 3.
388   II,     5. 12.  3    |                 to 13.6, Ireland from 3.4 to 4.8, England and Wales
389   II,     5. 12.  3    |               13.6, Ireland from 3.4 to 4.8, England and Wales from
390   II,     5. 12.  3    |                Bulgaria from 12.5 to 19.4, Poland from 13.0 to 15.
391   II,     5. 12.  3    |               for men and in Table 5.12.4 for women. Given the substantial
392   II,     5. 12.  3    |               men, with an APC between -4 and -3%. In the UK and other
393   II,     5. 12.  3    |              and around +9% in men and +4% in women from Ireland.~ ~
394   II,     5. 12.  3    |                  1970-2002~ ~Table 5.12.4. Joinpoint regression analysis
395   II,     5. 12.  4    |                                    5.12.4. Risk factors~ ~The patterns
396   II,     5. 12.  7    |             1955 to 1990. Ann Epidemiol 4:480-486.~ ~La Vecchia C (
397   II,     5. 14.  3    |               fall in the range of 1 to 4 DMFT teeth. In contrast,
398   II,     5. 14.  3    |                 experience greater than 4 teeth. In the trend observed
399   II,     5. 14.  3    |               58% in United Kingdom, 65.4% in Netherlands). These
400   II,     5. 14.  3    |                slight, 18% moderate and 4% severe.~ ~Figure 5.14.2.
401   II,     5. 14.  3    |                Europe, which represents 4-8% of the total health expenses,
402   II,     5. 14.  3    |                 dental care. Finland (0.4%) and the Netherlands (0.
403   II,     5. 14.  4    |                                    5.14.4. Risk factors~ ~The caries
404   II,     5. 14.  5    |         diabetes mellitus see Chapter 5.4.~It is possible to develop
405   II,     5. 15.  3    |            these 200 RD contribute to 1.4% of total deaths, and in
406   II,     5. 15.  4    |                                    5.15.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
407   II,     6.  3.  3    |             from 2 615 cases in 2001 to 4 151 in 2004. The number
408   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 while the incidence was 4.5 times higher in men than
409   II,     6.  3.  3    |            women (male to female ratio, 4.4:1).~ ~Neonatal syphilis
410   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 male to female ratio, 4.4:1).~ ~Neonatal syphilis
411   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                   6.3.3.4. Blood-borne viral infections~
412   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                     6.3.4. Respiratory tract infections~ ~
413   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                     6.3.4.1. Influenza~ ~Seasonal
414   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                     6.3.4.2. Tuberculosis~ ~TB is
415   II,     6.  3.  4    |                2005~ ~ ~ ~ ~Figure 6.A1.4 New culture positive cases (
416   II,     6.  3.  4    |           children under 14 represented 4%. Mean age is lower in western
417   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 the UK in 200003 (from 4.2% to 8.3%) associated with
418   II,     6.  3.  4    |          Estonia and Latvia, reaching 6.4% and 3.5%, respectively
419   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                     6.3.4.3. Legionnairesdisease (
420   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 among elderly (figure 6.4) and immuno-compromised
421   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 antibiotics.~ ~Figure 6.4. Trends of legionellosis
422   II,     6.  3.  4    |               year. In 2005, a total of 4 189 human legionellosis
423   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                     6.3.4.4. Severe acute respiratory
424   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                   6.3.4.4. Severe acute respiratory
425   II,     6.  3.  5    |                countries. Ireland (with 4.94 per 100 000) and Malta (
426   II,     6.  3.  5    |            incidence rate in the EU was 4.10 per 100 000 per year.
427   II,     6.  3.  6    |             reported in the age group 04 years (27% of cases), decreasing
428   II,     6.  3.  6    |               age group appears to be 04 year one. In 2005, a total
429   II,     6.  3.  6    |                000) followed by Sweden (4.27 per 100 000) reported
430   II,     6.  3.  6    |               the highest incidence (30.4 per 100 000 per year).~ ~
431   II,     6.  3.  6    |         decreased from 1999 (just under 4 000 cases (0.87 per 100
432   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   followed by Slovakia (4.85 per 100 000) reporting
433   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                   6.3.6.4. Prion diseases~ ~Variant
434   II,     6.  3.  7    |          undercooked infected meat; and 4) inhalation of infective
435   II,     6.  3.  7    |             trends in Europe~ ~In 2005, 4 306 malaria cases were reported
436   II,     6.  4        |                                       6.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
437   II,     6.  4.  1    |                                       6.4.1. Surveillance~ ~Commission
438   II,     6.  4.  2    |                                       6.4.2. Early warning~ ~The second
439   II,     6.  4.  3    |                                       6.4.3. Pandemic preparedness~ ~
440   II,     6.  4.  4    |                                       6.4.4. EU-wide coordination –
441   II,     6.  4.  4    |                                     6.4.4. EU-wide coordination –
442   II,     6.  4.  5    |                                       6.4.5. Antimicrobial resistance.~ ~
443   II,     7.  2.  4    |                                     7.2.4. ESAW (European Statistics
444   II,     7.  3.  2    |              injury mortality (Figure 7.4).~ ~Figure 7.4. Selected
445   II,     7.  3.  2    |                 Figure 7.4).~ ~Figure 7.4. Selected causes of fatal
446   II,     7.  3.  4    |                                     7.3.4. Unintentional injuries -
447   II,     7.  3.  4    |             place accidents account for 4% of unintentional fatalities,
448   II,     7.  3.  4    |       fatalities in the EU27 range from 4 per 100 000 inhabitants
449   II,     7.  3.  5    |                 injuries but only for 7.4% of all medically treated
450   II,     7.  3.  5    |              particular for 5% in the 1-4 age group. Again, differences
451   II,     7.  4        |                                       7.4. Data discussion~ ~The survey
452   II,     7.  4.  1    |                                       7.4.1. Safety of children and
453   II,     7.  4.  1    |           injuries by cause of death, 1-4 years of age~ ~According
454   II,     7.  4.  2    |                                       7.4.2. Safety of elderly citizens~ ~
455   II,     7.  4.  3    |                                       7.4.3. Safety of vulnerable
456   II,     7.  4.  4    |                                       7.4.4. Prevention of sports
457   II,     7.  4.  4    |                                     7.4.4. Prevention of sports injuries~ ~
458   II,     7.  4.  5    |                                       7.4.5. Prevention of injuries
459   II,     7.  4.  6    |                                       7.4.6. Prevention of self-harm~ ~
460   II,     7.  4.  7    |                                       7.4.7. Prevention of interpersonal
461   II,     7.  7        |               ec.europa.eu/ accessed on 4 April 2008].~ ~EuroStat (
462   II,     7.  7        |               ec.europa.eu/ accessed on 4 April 2008].~ ~EuroStat (
463   II,     7.  7        |           Document/E83583.pdf, accessed 4 April 2008]).~ ~Holder Y,
464   II,     8.  1.  3    |                prevalence was less than 4% in the age group 16-24,
465   II,     8.  1.  3    |            heart, and stomach problems, 4% reported sight, hearing,
466   II,     8.  1.  4    |                                     8.1.4. Future developments~ ~EUROSTAT
467   II,     8.  2.  1    |                is in the range of 0.3-0.4% for severe mental retardation (
468   II,     8.  2.  1    |               equal to 0.6%, 0.6% and 1.4%, respectively. Down syndrome
469   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                   8.2.1.4. Risk factors~ ~Causes of
470   II,     8.  2.  1    |                Disability Research, 42 (4), 264-272.~Rimmer,J.H. (
471   II,     8.  2.  1    |           children. Pediatric Dentistry 4, 321-325.~Scheepers M, Kerr
472   II,     8.  2.  1    |           Intellectual Disabilities 2(3/4), 249-55.~Straetmans, J.
473   II,     8.  2.  1    |         Intellectual Disabilities, 2, 3-4, 260-263.~World Health Organisation (
474   II,     8.  2.  2    |                impairment categories 3, 4 and 5).~ ~The definition
475   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                   8.2.2.4. Future developments~ ~Periodic
476   II,     8.  2.  2    |            Europe. IAPB Newsletter 41:3-4 (on-line document available
477   II,     8.  2.  2    |              visual functioning. Geneva 4-5 September 2003. Document
478   II,     8.  2.  3    |             frequencies: 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz (WHO, 1997). The different
479   II,     8.  2.  3    |                are presented in Table 8.4. Available data have been
480   II,     8.  2.  3    |                   WHO, 2002).~ ~Table 8.4. WHO grades of hearing impairment~ ~ ~ ~
481   II,     8.  2.  3    |        estimated to amount, in 2001, to 4.6 YLD/1000 (males) and 4.
482   II,     8.  2.  3    |                4.6 YLD/1000 (males) and 4.3 YLD/1000 (females) in
483   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                   8.2.3.4. References~ ~Davis AC (
484   II,     9            |                 heart disease (Fig.9.T1.4).~ ~ ~Figure 9.T1.4. Relationship
485   II,     9            |                9.T1.4).~ ~ ~Figure 9.T1.4. Relationship between per
486   II,     9            |                 are listed in Chapter 9.4~ ~ ~ ~
487   II,     9.  1.  1    |           mortality rates ranged from 6.4 to 22.1 per 1 000 total
488   II,     9.  1.  1    |            median rate was much higher (4.4/1 000) among countries
489   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 rate was much higher (4.4/1 000) among countries that
490   II,     9.  1.  1    |         birth weight in the EU. Between 4 and 9% of all live births
491   II,     9.  1.  1    |               1990-1998, ascertained at 4-5 years of age using a common
492   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 As shown in Table 9.1.1.4, this rate varies between
493   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Kingdom).~ ~Table 9.1.1.4. Cerebral palsy rates per
494   II,     9.  1.  1    |                                   9.1.1.4. References~ ~Ananth CV,
495   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Reprod Biol 2002;103(1):4-13.~Apgar V (1953): A t.
496   II,     9.  1.  1    |         Obstetrics & Gynecology 1995;86(4 Pt 2):700-5.~ ~Bai J, Wong
497   II,     9.  1.  1    |                1982-1994. Bjog 2000;107(4):452-60.~ ~Gould JB, Davey
498   II,     9.  1.  1    |          section. N Engl J Med 1989;321(4):233-9.~ ~Hansen M, Kurinczuk
499   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Obstet Gynecol 2003;102(4):685-92.~Kaminski M, Blondel
500   II,     9.  1.  1    |             Biol Reprod (Paris) 1997;26(4):358-66.~ ~Langhoff-Roos