1-500 | 501-919
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  3       |       underestimated.~ ~The number of children born to immigrants usually
  2    I,     2.  3       |        non-immigrants. However, their children, the second generation,
  3    I,     2.  4       |               poverty, 19 million are children. Ensuring equal opportunities
  4    I,     2.  4       |         Social Inclusion, 2008). When children are poor, it is because
  5    I,     2.  4       |               promoting well-being of children and young people. This involves
  6    I,     2.  4       |             of necessary services for children and their families. The
  7    I,     2.  4       |        helping families and targeting children in their own right. The
  8    I,     2.  4       |         target the most disadvantaged children within a broader universal
  9    I,     2.  4       |        Efforts to tackle poverty – of children and overall - will gain
 10    I,     3.  1       |                 The average number of children per woman was about two
 11    I,     3.  1       |   corresponding to the mean number of children per woman) was below 2.5
 12    I,     3.  1       |              replacement level of 2.2 children per woman everywhere in
 13    I,     3.  1       |                Postponement of having children1 triggers a decline in (
 14    I,     3.  1       |               career with a number of children below replacement. Women
 15    I,     3.  1       |            but the ultimate number of children born to women of that particular
 16    I,     3.  1       |             as the ultimate number of children per woman does not change.
 17    I,     3.  1       |             than women remain without children, due to lower ever-marriage-rates
 18    I,     3.  1       |          reason for remaining without children. Next to that, education
 19    I,     3.  1       |                2001).~ ~Increasingly, children are born outside marriage.
 20    I,     3.  1       |            and Sweden had over 10% of children born outside marriage. Currently
 21    I,     3.  1       |           below 10%. More than 40% of children are born outside marriage
 22    I,     3.  1.  0(3)|           birth rates may not include children born to married women whose
 23    I,     3.  3       |               of fertility (number of children per woman) and mortality (
 24    I,     3.  3       |              example if the number of children per woman rises or declines,
 25    I,     3.  3       |             following can be noted:~ ~Children (0-14 years). Bulgaria,
 26    I,     3.  3       |               the relative number of ‘children’ over time (Cyprus, Malta,
 27    I,     3.  3       |               was much lower than for Children. Sweden, Denmark, the United
 28    I,     3.  4       |                L (1995): The Place of Children in the History of Couples.
 29   II,     5.  1.  1   |               and peanuts, whereas in children three fourths of reactions
 30   II,     5.  1.  3   |          morbidity in both adults and children. The educational aspect
 31   II,     5.  3.  6   |          analyzed survival in 129,440 children diagnosed under the age
 32   II,     5.  4.  2   |              incidence of diabetes in children (0-14 year), with type 1
 33   II,     5.  4.  2   |              new cases of diabetes in children in one year per 100.000
 34   II,     5.  4.  2   |               in one year per 100.000 children.~Prevalence of diabetes,
 35   II,     5.  4.  3   |              incidence of diabetes in children (0-14 year). Standardised
 36   II,     5.  4.  3   |              were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.
 37   II,     5.  4.  3   |    Netherlands and France. Apart from children that have lower figures,
 38   II,     5.  4.  3   |             percentages were found in children and people above 65.~HDL
 39   II,     5.  4.  3   |              percentages are lower in children and people above 75.~An
 40   II,     5.  4.  6   |        presentation, in particular to children, of energy dense foods and
 41   II,     5.  5.Int   |           roles as primary carers for children and/or other dependants,
 42   II,     5.  5.Int   |               The estimated number of children and adolescents in Europe
 43   II,     5.  5.Int   |              combats violence against children, young people and women.
 44   II,     5.  5.  1   |           Mental health promotion for Children up to 6 years of age(1997-
 45   II,     5.  5.  1   |        promote mental health of young children.~o Supporting Children in
 46   II,     5.  5.  1   |          young children.~o Supporting Children in Substance Abuse Families (
 47   II,     5.  5.  1   |              to different age groups, children and adolescence, those at
 48   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Behaviour in School Aged Children) and is a cross-national
 49   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available
 50   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europewritten by Alexander
 51   II,     5.  5.  3   |         health examinations of school children and unpublished data from
 52   II,     5.  5.  3   |            attendance data (number of children for both diagnoses separately
 53   II,     5.  5.  3   |         health examinations of school children.~Sweden~ ~X~ ~Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~
 54   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available
 55   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe)~ ~A third European
 56   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Behaviour in School Aged Children) survey showed that 22%
 57   II,     5.  5.  3   |     social-cultural trend to be thin. Children, adolescents and early adults
 58   II,     5.  5.  3   |             is meaningless;~· involve children in designing and implementing
 59   II,     5.  5.  3   |              attitudes and beliefs of children;~ ~
 60   II,     5.  5.  3   |          particularly of families and children. Prevention can be named
 61   II,     5.  5.  3   |                health care providers, children and adolescents about: what
 62   II,     5.  5.  3   |             emphasize fitness; praise children for who they are; encourage
 63   II,     5.  5.  3   |       physical activity; talk to your children about the normal body changes
 64   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 1: The
 65   II,     5.  5.  3   |        Physical activity Behaviour of Children and Adolescents, in press.~
 66   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available
 67   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe, in press~Anorexia
 68   II,     5.  5.  3   |              2004): Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 4;
 69   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international
 70   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Behaviour in School Aged Children~HELENA~Healthy Lifestyle
 71   II,     5.  5.  3   |               officiallyrecognized. Children with CDD develop a condition
 72   II,     5.  5.  3   |        percent of U.S. eight-year-old children born in 1994 from 14 states.
 73   II,     5.  5.  3   |            states. A total of 407,578 children were involved and 2,685
 74   II,     5.  5.  3   |          rates ranged from one in 222 children to one in 101 eight-year
 75   II,     5.  5.  3   |             one in 101 eight-year old children in the six communities studied.
 76   II,     5.  5.  3   |               94 among eight-year old children. The average finding of
 77   II,     5.  5.  3   |              approximately one in 150 children in these communities. This
 78   II,     5.  5.  3   |           explained by the age of the children screened, the diagnostic
 79   II,     5.  5.  3   |          intensive education can help children with ASD to develop and
 80   II,     5.  5.  3   |             Earlier identification of children with ASD could increase
 81   II,     5.  5.  3   |              The findings reveal that children with autism cost £2.7 billion (
 82   II,     5.  5.  3   |            per 10,000 to 66 per 10000 children in the last 20 years have
 83   II,     5.  5.  3   |            detection and diagnosis of children with autism varies enormously
 84   II,     5.  5.  3   |              in different age groups (children, adults, elderly).~The socio-cultural
 85   II,     5.  5.  3   |            The incidence is higher in children and in the elderly (Table
 86   II,     5.  5.  3   |             of the disease, mostly in children. Although an improvement
 87   II,     5.  5.  3   |              incidence of epilepsy in children, the introduction of more
 88   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Joensen, 1986 (*)~Estonia ~Children ~Prospective~560 ~3.6 ~Beilmann
 89   II,     5.  5.  3   |              et al., 1989 (*)~Finland~Children ~Retrospective/MR review
 90   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Gallitto et al, 2005~Italy ~Children ~MR review~? ~4.5 + ~Cavazzuti,
 91   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Cavazzuti, 1986 (*)~Lithuania~Children ~MR review~378 ~4.3 ~Endziniene
 92   II,     5.  5.  3   |       Endziniene et al., 1997~Norway ~Children ~MR review and examination~
 93   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Zielinski, 1974 (*)~Spain ~Children ~Postal/domiciliary questionnaire~
 94   II,     5.  5.  3   |               Luaces, 1991 (*)~Spain ~Children >10 years and adults~Two-phase
 95   II,     5.  5.  3   |             Forsgren, 1992 (*)~Sweden~Children ~Questionnaire and GP and
 96   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Pond et al., 1960 (*)~U.K. ~Children 4-20 years ~MR review ~69 ~
 97   II,     5.  5.  3   |          generalized seizures both in children and adults. As shown by
 98   II,     5.  5.  3   |              corresponding numbers in children were respectively 36-66%,
 99   II,     5.  5.  3   |              of epilepsy syndromes in children and adults.~In contrast
100   II,     5.  5.  3   |         countries. In a study made on children in Estonia (Beilmann et
101   II,     5.  5.  3   |             ranges from 1.6 to 5.3 in children and adults (Jallon, 2004) (
102   II,     5.  5.  3   |              In neurologically normal children with idiopathic or cryptogenic
103   II,     5.  5.  3   |              The highest mortality in children may be thus explained by
104   II,     5.  5.  3   |         population, which is lower in children, and by the higher proportion
105   II,     5.  5.  3   |           period in a large cohort of children and adults and matched controls
106   II,     5.  5.  3   |            rate at 12-30 years of age children was 74-78% (Forsgren, 2004).
107   II,     5.  5.  3   |               ability~About 25-50% of children with epilepsy experience
108   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the Isle of Wight found children with epilepsy of average
109   II,     5.  5.  3   |         recent UK study showed 53% of children with epilepsy attending
110   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Finland showed that 27% of children with epilepsy did not complete
111   II,     5.  5.  3   |            poorly prepared for having children with epilepsy in their classes (
112   II,     5.  5.  3   |        temporal trends of epilepsy in children and in the elderly may be
113   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the educational issues, children with epilepsy should be
114   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Issues relating to educating children with epilepsy should be
115   II,     5.  5.  3   |             educational provision for children with epilepsy. Increased
116   II,     5.  5.  3   |               epilepsy amongst school children should be encouraged.~ ~
117   II,     5.  5.  3   |               intractable epilepsy in children: a prospective studyNeurology
118   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Incidence of epilepsy in children: a follow-up study three
119   II,     5.  5.  3   |              2001): Mortality risk in children with epilepsy: the Dutch
120   II,     5.  5.  3   |            and epileptic syndromes in children. Epilepsia 38:1275-1282.~
121   II,     5.  5.  3   |              of epileptic seizures in children. Acta Paediatr 82:60-65.~
122   II,     5.  5.  3   |        characteristics of epilepsy in children in Northern Sweden. Seizure
123   II,     5.  5.  3   |       Sillanpaa M (1992): Epilepsy in children: prevalence, disability
124   II,     5.  5.  3   |          development. In: Epilepsy in children and adolescents (Edited
125   II,     5.  5.  3   |               severity of epilepsy in children in Western Norway. Epilepsia
126   II,     5.  7.  1   |             in the pre-ESRD phases in children is scarce. Available data
127   II,     5.  7.  1   |             therapy (RRT) for ESRD in children are collected by the renal
128   II,     5.  7.  1   |        Although rare, CKD and ESRD in children pose unique challenges because
129   II,     5.  7.  1   |               and Patel, 2006) and in children (McKenna et al, 2006; Fadrowski
130   II,     5.  7.  1   |               7.2). Data about CKD in children are presented according
131   II,     5.  7.  2   |               prevalence of CKD among children, adolescents and adults
132   II,     5.  7.  3   |            and analysis~ ~Incidence~ ~Children and adolescents~ ~CKD in
133   II,     5.  7.  3   |            Swedish study (considering children and adolescents in the 6
134   II,     5.  7.  3   |               rate of RRT for ESRD in children aged 0-14 was 7.1 patients
135   II,     5.  7.  3   |             the CKD incidence rate in children/adolescents or adults.~In
136   II,     5.  7.  3   |      sub-optimal (Lin et al, 2003).~ ~Children and adolescents~ ~Information
137   II,     5.  7.  3   |               the pre-ESRD phases for children and adolescents is very
138   II,     5.  7.  3   |             of ESRD undergoing RRT in children (<20 years) in Europe is
139   II,     5.  7.  4   |              in adults and obesity in children (Wang et al, 2006). Since
140   II,     5.  7.  7   |              chronic renal failure in children: data from the ItalKid project.
141   II,     5.  7.  7   |              chronic renal failure in children: a report from Sweden 1986-
142   II,     5.  7.  7   |             2006): Quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease-patient
143   II,     5.  9. FB   |              one out of four European children under the age of ten is
144   II,     5.  9. FB   |                in UK. Secondly, among children, boys are more prone to
145   II,     5.  9. FB   |               1.3) and concluded that children with high body weight, either
146   II,     5.  9. FB   |     Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), performed on 2100
147   II,     5.  9. FB   |             performed on 2100 British children, reported a reduced incidence
148   II,     5.  9. FB   |       proteins early in life.~ ~Since children with a positive family history
149   II,     5.  9. FB   |               at least four months in children has some protective effect.
150   II,     5.  9. FB   |       development of asthma; In young children already sensitized to house
151   II,     5.  9. FB   |                 Asthma and obesity in children. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 19:
152   II,     5.  9.  2   |              1991. As many as 463 801 children were enrolled in 155 collaborating
153   II,     5.  9.  2   |              allergic determinants in children aged from 9 to 11 years.
154   II,     5.  9.  2   | schoolchildren were enrolled: 193 404 children aged 67 years from 66 centres
155   II,     5.  9.  2   |              37 countries and 304 679 children aged 1314 years from 106
156   II,     5.  9.  2   |               asthma prevalence among children and adults by Medline searches
157   II,     5.  9.  2   |           were among adults, 13 among children and two among both of them.~ ~ ~
158   II,     5.  9.  3   |              of remission are high in children and low in adults; nevertheless,
159   II,     5.  9.  3   |             most remarkable in German children (p <0,05)~ ~The survey by
160   II,     5.  9.  3   |       prevalence in adults and 35% in children - while the lowest was in
161   II,     5.  9.  3   |              a 12.9% of prevalence in children, 14.7% in adolescents, while
162   II,     5.  9.  3   |          general population: 11.2% in children of 6-7 years of age and
163   II,     5.  9.  3   |             years of age and 16.9% in children of 13.14 years of age),
164   II,     5.  9.  3   |                  Switzerland (9.1% in children and 6.8% in adults), Spain (
165   II,     5.  9.  3   |               2% in adults and 17% in children, Czech Rep. 12.5%, Croatia
166   II,     5.  9.  3   |        increased for decades. Data on children are more contradictory:
167   II,     5.  9.  4   |        Numerous surveys on school-age children have shown increasing asthma
168   II,     5.  9.  4   |            The diagnosis of asthma in children with wheeze was more commonly
169   II,     5.  9.  4   |             between older and younger children occurred, making secular
170   II,     5.  9.  4   |             based on a sample of 4470 children from 10 different areas;
171   II,     5.  9.  4   |              between age groups. Farm children living in a rural area suffer
172   II,     5.  9.  4   |          bronchial asthma (1.6%) than children (n = 966) with no direct
173   II,     5.  9.  4   |                CI 0.42-0.67) for farm children compared to their references.~ ~
174   II,     5.  9.  4   |              the specific allergen in children as well as in adults with
175   II,     5.  9.  4   |               of allergic diseases in children having daily contact with
176   II,     5.  9.  4   |             sensitized or symptomatic children or in families with a positive
177   II,     5.  9.  4   |      environmental factors among 1450 children aged 13- to 14- and living
178   II,     5.  9.  4   |  questionnaire, was used; ninety-nine children (10.2%) had a physician'
179   II,     5.  9.  4   |               genetically predisposed children only.~ ~In several studies
180   II,     5.  9.  4   |           been recently observed that children with a background of migration
181   II,     5.  9.  4   |               an atopic disease, than children from local families of low
182   II,     5.  9.  4   |            and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) (Sc ud
183   II,     5.  9.  4   |       significantly less common among children born abroad than among children
184   II,     5.  9.  4   |       children born abroad than among children born in Italy (lifetime
185   II,     5.  9.  4   |              0.47-1.10) were found in children who had lived in Italy <
186   II,     5.  9.  4   |                5 years, while migrant children who had lived in Italy for
187   II,     5.  9.  4   |               very similar to Italian children. Moreover, the prevalence
188   II,     5.  9.  4   |               dirt, animals and other children; early exposure to certain
189   II,     5.  9.  7   |               atopic sensitization in children related to farming and anthroposophic
190   II,     5.  9.  7   |              analysis of 753 European children with asthma. Rev Mal Respir.
191   II,     5.  9.  7   |              but not of asthma, among children in an industrialized area
192   II,     5.  9.  7   |         allergic rhinitis in Ligurian children with respiratory symptoms.
193   II,     5.  9.  7   |       respiratory symptoms in migrant children to Italy: the results of
194   II,     5.  9.  7   |            and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).
195   II,     5. 10.  1   |              3% in adults and 4-6% in children (EFSA, 2004).~ ~Health consequences
196   II,     5. 10.  1   |         restrictions, particularly in children (Mills et al, 2004).~ ~
197   II,     5. 10.  2   |             across Europe in infants, children and adults including, but
198   II,     5. 10.  3   |      self-reported FHS for adults and children was about 12% (Rona et al,
199   II,     5. 10.  3   |       estimated to be around 4-6 % in children and 1-3% in adults, the
200   II,     5. 10.  3   |               and peanuts, whereas in children three fourths of reactions
201   II,     5. 10.  4   |            certain age groups such as children and pregnant or lactating
202   II,     5. 11.Acr   |           Basal cell carcinoma~CEHAPE~Children’s Environment and Health
203   II,     5. 11.  3   |                et al~ ~Swedish school children (5-6 yrs)~Lifetime prevalence=
204   II,     5. 11.  3   |                et al~ ~Italian school children (9 yrs)~Lifetime prevalence=
205   II,     5. 11.  3   |              G, et al~ ~Danish school children (12-16 yrs)~Lifetime prevalence=
206   II,     5. 11.  3   |              T, et al~ ~Danish school children (12-16 yrs)~Prevalence=15%~
207   II,     5. 11.  3   |                et al~ ~Swedish school children (16-19 yrs)~Point prevalence=
208   II,     5. 11.  3   |              M, et al~ ~Danish school children aged 12-16 yrs~Point prevalence=
209   II,     5. 11.  3   |          persist into adulthood. Some children who have atopic eczema will
210   II,     5. 11.  3   |               the quality of life for children, as well as for their parents
211   II,     5. 11.  3   |           affecting around 10% of all children. The highest rates (around
212   II,     5. 11.  3   |        unclear.~Prevalence studies of children in temperate developed countries
213   II,     5. 11.  3   |              In a study of 695 school children in London, where 8.5% were
214   II,     5. 11.  3   |            London born Afro-Caribbean children when compared to their white
215   II,     5. 11.  3   |             However, studies of Asian children in Leicester showed that,
216   II,     5. 11.  3   |         specialist clinics than white children, no differences in prevalence
217   II,     5. 11.  3   |               to nickel. Among Danish children aged 018 , nickel allergy
218   II,     5. 11.  3   |          Fisher, Nickel dermatitis in children, Cutis, 1991;47(1):19-21.~
219   II,     5. 11.  3   |        Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents, Contact
220   II,     5. 11.  5   |            that at least one third of children born from parents with an
221   II,     5. 11.  5   |        environment-related disease on children. The children’s environment
222   II,     5. 11.  5   |              disease on children. The children’s environment and health
223   II,     5. 11.  5   |             puts a lot of emphasis on children.~ ~Better labeling of cosmetic
224   II,     5. 11.  7   |       guideline 57Atopic eczema in children, London: 2007.~ ~Nielsen
225   II,     5. 11.  7   |            London-born black Carriben children are at increased risk of
226   II,     5. 12.  7   |       hepatitis A and B infections in children in Naples, Italy. Public
227   II,     5. 13       |              are now being seen among children and with increasing frequency (
228   II,     5. 13       |              53, Member States) among children and adolescents. It is predicted
229   II,     5. 13       |               about 38% of school-age children will be overweight by 2010
230   II,     5. 13       |               than a quarter of these children will be obese.~ ~Apart from
231   II,     5. 13       |            risk groups among elderly, children, pregnant and lactating
232   II,     5. 14.  1   |                particularly molars in children aged 6 to 8 years. Retention
233   II,     5. 14.  1   |          research also indicates that children from low income households
234   II,     5. 14.  1   |         access to dental services for children and adults especially from
235   II,     5. 14.  2   |         prevalence of caries in young children, adolescents and adults (
236   II,     5. 14.  2   |              has been established for children whereas surveillance of
237   II,     5. 14.  2   |         conducted on random sample of children, adolescents, adults age
238   II,     5. 14.  2   |     Experience in Permanent Molars in Children~Mean number of decayed,
239   II,     5. 14.  2   |          permanent molars present per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~
240   II,     5. 14.  2   |          permanent molars present per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~
241   II,     5. 14.  2   |          Denominator: Total number of children at 6 and 12 years of age
242   II,     5. 14.  2   |        actions mainly targeted school children. Collected data favoured
243   II,     5. 14.  3   |            and 2000 improvement among children rose from 50 to 80%. Similarly,
244   II,     5. 14.  3   |           dental caries in Portuguese children seems to be relatively low
245   II,     5. 14.  3   |            health care programmes for children. For 12-year-olds the United
246   II,     5. 14.  3   |          Dental Health in 12 year-old children in selected EUGLOREH countries~ ~
247   II,     5. 14.  3   |           dental caries experience in children is shown also for certain
248   II,     5. 14.  3   |              rate of dental caries in children has remained high in most
249   II,     5. 14.  3   |             the index is also high in children. This shows that significant
250   II,     5. 14.  3   |            significant proportions of children are in need of dental care.
251   II,     5. 14.  3   |           disparities remain and many children and adults still develop
252   II,     5. 14.  3   |         caries experience; most other children fall in the range of 1 to
253   II,     5. 14.  3   |             In contrast, 10.8% of all children have a dental caries experience
254   II,     5. 14.  3   |           good demography, 30% of the children have about 80% of decayed
255   II,     5. 14.  3   |         decayed teeth, and 25% of the children have about 65% of DMF teeth,
256   II,     5. 14.  3   |              of DMF teeth, 10% of the children have about 40% of DMF teeth.
257   II,     5. 14.  3   |              researches indicate that children from low income households
258   II,     5. 14.  3   |             new caries formation than children. Studies show that nursing
259   II,     5. 14.  3   |            sample of 1379 12-year old children in Leicestershire and Rutland (
260   II,     5. 14.  3   |            1989, oral health care for children was provided by public health
261   II,     5. 14.  3   |             dental visit frequency of children across Europe. In Portugal,
262   II,     5. 14.  3   |             of 12-year-olds; 17.8% of children aged 6 had seen a dentist
263   II,     5. 14.  3   |            age of12.~ ~Figure 5.14.3. Children aged 12 with a dental contact
264   II,     5. 14.  3   |               In Eastern Europe, many children attend the dentist with
265   II,     5. 14.  3   |              income populations. Poor children are more than twice as likely
266   II,     5. 14.  4   |              and periodontal disease. Children and adolescents can benefit
267   II,     5. 14.  5   |              the oral health of their children. Schools provide an ideal
268   II,     5. 14.  5   |            and socially disadvantaged children, who are at risk, can access
269   II,     5. 14.  5   |           specific life-stylesi.e. children or elderly people; goals
270   II,     5. 14.  5   |         access to dental services for children and adults especially from
271   II,     5. 14.  6   |             to be taken into account. Children are part of the most vulnerable
272   II,     5. 15.  3   |                of these 200 RD affect children. In terms of incapacities,
273   II,     5. 15.  3   |            healthy. Only 25% of their children carry the double mutation
274   II,     6.  3.  2   |               cause of death in young children, the picture is more mixed,
275   II,     6.  3.  2   |             that vaccination of young children would represent an effective
276   II,     6.  3.  3   |        symptoms, and HBV infection in children usually goes with few or
277   II,     6.  3.  4   |              generally observed among children aged 014 years. In all,
278   II,     6.  3.  4   |              the cases overall, while children under 14 represented 4%.
279   II,     6.  3.  4   |            general BCG vaccination of children could consider switching
280   II,     6.  3.  5   |              the nasopharynx of young children. Invasive infections carry
281   II,     6.  3.  5   |      infection-related death in young children. Unlike the older ‘polysaccharide’
282   II,     6.  3.  5   |            disease even in very young children. As these vaccines also
283   II,     6.  3.  5   |               others recommend it for children at-risk. As the vaccine
284   II,     6.  3.  5   |               is most common in young children, with a secondary peak among
285   II,     6.  3.  5   |          systemic infections in young children. Effective vaccines are
286   II,     6.  3.  5   |             affecting both adults and children. The most serious consequence
287   II,     6.  3.  6   |            most affected age group is children under the age of five years.
288   II,     6.  3.  6   |              the highest incidence in children less than five year-old (
289   II,     6.  3.  6   |             of acute renal failure in children, and 35% of patients die.
290   II,     6.  3.  6   |            per 100 000 per year, with children under five years old having
291   II,     6.  3.  6   |             90% of HAV-infected young children do not have any symptoms.
292   II,     6.  3.  6   |         highest incidence was seen in children under the age of 15.~ ~
293   II,     6.  3.  6   |        chronic diarrhoea. Infants and children are at particular risk.
294   II,     6.  3.  6   |               affected age groups are children 514 years of age and adults
295   II,     6.  3.  7   |        morbidity and death, mainly in children. Imported cases of Dengue
296   II,     7.  1       |              accident or violence. In children, adolescents and young adults
297   II,     7.  3.  2   |              year. Injuries kill more children, adolescents and young adults (
298   II,     7.  4       |             leading cause of death in children, adolescents and young adults.
299   II,     7.  4       |               on in this chapter:~ ~· Children and adolescents;~· Elderly
300   II,     7.  4.  1   |                      7.4.1. Safety of children and adolescents~ ~Children
301   II,     7.  4.  1   |            children and adolescents~ ~Children and adolescents have been
302   II,     7.  4.  1   |            leading cause of death for children, adolescents and young adults
303   II,     7.  4.  1   |              due to injury another 50 children and youths are admitted
304   II,     7.  4.  1   |             that estimated 21 million children and youths are being treated
305   II,     7.  4.  1   |               group, EU27~ ~Deaths of children and teenagers are in particular
306   II,     7.  4.  1   |            causes of injury deaths in children (Figure 7.19.A).~ ~Figure
307   II,     7.  4.  1   |          injury hazards for preschool children at home (falls, scalds,
308   II,     7.  4.  1   |         bicycle helmets amongst older children.~ ~The “European Child Safety
309   II,     7.  4.  4   |              linked to the “safety of children and adolescentspriority
310   II,     7.  4.  4   |              exercises for pre-school children, physical education at school,
311   II,     7.  5       |             to the “seven prioritieschildren & adolescents; elderly citizens &
312   II,     7.  5       |             the seven priority areas (children & youth, elderly people,
313   II,     8.  2.  1   |      intellectual disability or young children who have not entered school.~
314   II,     8.  2.  1   |               study of two cohorts of children (altogether 21397 individuals)
315   II,     8.  2.  1   |              out in a cohort of 12058 children followed up to the age of
316   II,     8.  2.  1   |    epidemiological census study among children under 15 years, showed an
317   II,     8.  2.  1   |          experienced by, for example, children and adolescents with intellectual
318   II,     8.  2.  1   |            during childhood. For many children, the cause of their intellectual
319   II,     8.  2.  1   |            sample of n=10,438 British children, finding that intellectual
320   II,     8.  2.  1   |           health and mental health of children and adolescents with intellectual
321   II,     8.  2.  1   |             with proper medical care. Children diagnosed with an intellectual
322   II,     8.  2.  1   |            congenital hypothyroidism. Children that do have these conditions
323   II,     8.  2.  1   |               inequalities of British children and adolescents with intellectual
324   II,     8.  2.  1   |             capital and the health of children and adolescents with intellectual
325   II,     8.  2.  1   |              developmentally disabled children. Pediatric Dentistry 4,
326   II,     8.  2.  2   |                 Although blindness in children remain a significant problem,
327   II,     8.  2.  2   |        problem, affecting about 21000 children in EUR-A and EUR-C epidemiological
328   II,     8.  2.  2   |                 Although blindness in children remain a significant problem,
329   II,     8.  2.  2   |        problem, affecting about 21000 children in EUR-A and EUR-C epidemiological
330   II,     8.  2.  2   |           important that screening of children for refractive errors are
331   II,     8.  2.  2   |               of visual impairment in children: a review of available data.
332   II,     8.  2.  2   |               Preventing blindness in children. Report of a WHO/IAPB scientific
333   II,     8.  2.  3   |     population sample ob about 553000 children aged 0-9 years (Fortnum
334   II,     9           |        mothers at delivery, newborns, children, adults and elderly). The
335   II,     9           |        Although many fewer women bear children late in life in the new
336   II,     9           |               outcome for mothers and children and is an indicator of effective
337   II,     9           |             1b. Main risk factors for children and adolescents~Domestic
338   II,     9           |     adolescents~Domestic Environment. Children and their health are initially
339   II,     9           |           still have major pockets of children living in poverty (UNICEF,
340   II,     9           |                It has been shown that children of mothers educated only
341   II,     9           |               of health problems that children of more educated mothers (
342   II,     9           |             cases it is reported that children who smoke frequently have
343   II,     9           |             of physical disability in children, or of mental disability,
344   II,     9.  1.  1   |           Data presented here concern children with CP born 1990-1998,
345   II,     9.  1.  1   |             cohorts 1990-1998~ ~Among children with CP, some have a severe
346   II,     9.  1.  1   |        intellectual impairment. Other children have a mild clinical CP
347   II,     9.  1.  1   |                The CP rate among VLBW children born in the covered area
348   II,     9.  1.  1   |              neonatal mortality among children born VLBW, which varies
349   II,     9.  1.  1   |            and mainly in the group of children born 1000-1499g (Platt et
350   II,     9.  1.  1   |          Outcome at 5 years of age of children 23 to 27 weeks' gestation:
351   II,     9.  1.  2   |           quality of life of affected children and adults and their families~·
352   II,     9.  1.  2   |              the health of adults and children is not necessarily enough
353   II,     9.  1.  2   |           across Europe are live born children who survive infancy, but
354   II,     9.  1.  2   |        Although many fewer women bear children late in life in the new
355   II,     9.  1.  2   |               outcome for mothers and children and is an indicator of effective
356   II,     9.  1.  2   |    retrospective follow-up studies of children with congenital anomalies
357   II,     9.  1.  2   |               the outcome of affected children and their families in terms
358   II,     9.  2       |                                  9.2. Children and adolescents (age 1-18)~ ~ ~
359   II,     9.  2.  1   |                 9.2.1. Introduction~ ~Children are citizens in their own
360   II,     9.  2.  1   |             that in their early years children are totally dependant upon
361   II,     9.  2.  1   |      facilities such as recreation.~ ~Children are also a particularly
362   II,     9.  2.  1   |             considerable targeting of children directly or subliminally
363   II,     9.  2.  1   |            spans the complete care of children’s and adolescentsphysical,
364   II,     9.  2.  1   |      lifestyle pattern for adulthood. Children who do not follow a balanced
365   II,     9.  2.  1   |                diabetes and asthma in children play out over the lifespan,
366   II,     9.  2.  1   |            the lifespan, as unhealthy children typically grow up to be
367   II,     9.  2.  1   |             initiative is that of the Children’s Environment and Health
368   II,     9.  2.  2   |           Health Action for Healthier Children and Populations” (WHO Regional
369   II,     9.  2.  2   |              For All data relating to children. Thus 24 indicators are
370   II,     9.  2.  2   |             cannot give the number of children in Europe, being restricted
371   II,     9.  2.  2   |          available data.~ ~Data about children are available from a range
372   II,     9.  2.  2   |               a good understanding of children’s health and related pressures
373   II,     9.  2.  2   |           across Europe, but specific children’s issues do not feature
374   II,     9.  2.  2   |            after the perinatal period children do not feature highly other
375   II,     9.  2.  2   |         Commission has an interest in children in several Directorates-General,
376   II,     9.  2.  2   |             Security (responsible for children’s rights), have major interests
377   II,     9.  2.  2   |       interests in issues relating to children and which may have health
378   II,     9.  2.  2   |              the effects of issues on children’s health. (Web link - ec.
379   II,     9.  2.  2   |            UNICEF: The United Nations Children’s Fund, UNICEF, is the United
380   II,     9.  2.  2   |              promote the interests of children worldwide. Naturally, given
381   II,     9.  2.  2   |           studies on issues affecting children, or parenting and families
382   II,     9.  2.  2   |           parenting and families with children, such as the OECD Family
383   II,     9.  2.  2   |              architectural design and children, and early education. More
384   II,     9.  2.  2   |              country-specific data on children. (Web link – ww ~ ~European
385   II,     9.  2.  2   |              Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC): This collaborative
386   II,     9.  2.  2   |            obtains a robust sample of children in each country, though
387   II,     9.  2.  2   |               inevitable exclusion of children not attending school means
388   II,     9.  2.  2   |         though households may contain children, seldom are the data analysed
389   II,     9.  2.  2   |            analysed to focus on those children. Much more information could
390   II,     9.  2.  2   |         related to data collection on children~ ~Defining and counting
391   II,     9.  2.  2   |                 Defining and counting children: Children are defined by
392   II,     9.  2.  2   |       Defining and counting children: Children are defined by the United
393   II,     9.  2.  2   |          Assembly, 1989). So how many children are there in Europe, and
394   II,     9.  2.  2   |            aged 0-19 years inclusive. Children in their totality, namely
395   II,     9.  2.  2   |           value placed on considering children as a group in their own
396   II,     9.  2.  2   |            identifying and caring for children as a group. Using a cut-off
397   II,     9.  2.  2   |            same category as preschool children: physiologically, socially,
398   II,     9.  2.  2   |          forcing the consideration of children as generally being those
399   II,     9.  2.  2   |           know about the wellbeing of children. Nor is enough known about
400   II,     9.  2.  2   |             and thereby the effect on children of the union) is not measured
401   II,     9.  2.  2   |         marriage and divorce rates.~ ~Children are not miniature adults,
402   II,     9.  2.  3   |          Cancer: Tumors recognized in children include mainly Hodgkin’s
403   II,     9.  2.  3   |               successfully treated in children.~ ~Figure 9.2.1a. Age-standardised
404   II,     9.  2.  3   |          mortality rates by cancer in children aged 0-14 in selected EUGLOREH
405   II,     9.  2.  3   |          mortality rates by cancer in children aged 0-14 in selected EUGLOREH
406   II,     9.  2.  3   |    self-reported asthma symptoms” for children aged 13-14 for those countries
407   II,     9.  2.  3   |             common chronic disease in children, with a prevalence between
408   II,     9.  2.  3   |         asthma2 in 13- to 14-year-old children as high as 18.4% for Scotland,
409   II,     9.  2.  3   |         cannot identify the number of children with impairment or disability,
410   II,     9.  2.  3   |           vision of happy and healthy children, balanced with concern about
411   II,     9.  2.  3   |              disabled or hospitalised children, but no public health data
412   II,     9.  2.  3   |              and has also developed a children’s version of it, there is
413   II,     9.  2.  3   |            reporting of the number of children in society with various
414   II,     9.  2.  3   |            the main cause of death in children aged 1-14 in Europe. Over
415   II,     9.  2.  3   |                Every year, some 9.000 children and young people under 19
416   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|          period in 13- to 14-year-old children) was used as the prevalence
417   II,     9.  2.  3   |         levels of bullying. Levels of children perceiving that they were
418   II,     9.  2.  3   |              only unaware of how many children are being abused and neglected
419   II,     9.  2.  3   |               a significant number of children in transition countries (
420   II,     9.  2.  3   |              avoid infection and many children are unclear about the ways
421   II,     9.  2.  3   |     tuberculosis and poliomyelitis in children, there is a greater risk
422   II,     9.  2.  3   |              particularly worrying in children, as not only does obesity
423   II,     9.  2.  3   |             WHO 2005b). Overweight in children leads to low self-esteem,
424   II,     9.  2.  3   |              the number of overweight children is rising each year by 400
425   II,     9.  2.  3   |        indicate that more than 27 000 children in the EU have type 2 diabetes,
426   II,     9.  2.  3   |         available, particularly about children. This in turn means that
427   II,     9.  2.  3   |        childhood nutrition through to children’s patterns of physical exercise –
428   II,     9.  2.  3   |               burden of disability on children. Mood disorders such as
429   II,     9.  2.  3   |              health policy concerning children and adolescents needs to
430   II,     9.  2.  3   |               only limited mention of children, though those references
431   II,     9.  2.  3   |               is a right for European children. A short summary of the
432   II,     9.  2.  3   |             mental health of European children. This again is a truly worrying
433   II,     9.  2.  3   |              anxious, in older school children, but leaves many other aspects
434   II,     9.  2.  3   |          leaves many other aspects of children’s mental health uncovered.
435   II,     9.  2.  3   |          difficult is access by older children to mental health and counselling
436   II,     9.  2.  3   |               times per year European children are being denied this right
437   II,     9.  2.  3   |            contains some reference to children’s mental health needs and
438   II,     9.  2.  3   |            Behaviour in a School-aged Children (HBSC) study, covering the
439   II,     9.  2.  3   |            shows that by no means all children feel a sense of wellbeing.
440   II,     9.  2.  3   |              a worrying proportion of children do not feel able to obtain
441   II,     9.  2.  4   |              have been identified for children health (see Table 9.1b.).
442   II,     9.  2.  4   |             1b. Main risk factors for children and adolescents~ ~Domestic
443   II,     9.  2.  4   |                 Domestic Environment. Children and their health are initially
444   II,     9.  2.  4   |           still have major pockets of children living in poverty (UNICEF,
445   II,     9.  2.  4   |                It has been shown that children of mothers educated only
446   II,     9.  2.  4   |               of health problems that children of more educated mothers (
447   II,     9.  2.  4   |             cases it is reported that children who smoke frequently have
448   II,     9.  2.  4   |             of physical disability in children, or of mental disability,
449   II,     9.  2.  5   |            neither infants, nor young children can be appropriately accommodated
450   II,     9.  2.  5   |            requires other support for children including play areas, and
451   II,     9.  2.  5   |                 and for the rights of children to appropriate hospitals
452   II,     9.  2.  5   |        primary and community care for children. In some countries there
453   II,     9.  2.  5   |              doctors specifically for children, whereas in other countries
454   II,     9.  2.  5   |       necessary for the healthcare of children, and the minimum standards
455   II,     9.  2.  5   |              medicines prescribed for children have not yet been tested
456   II,     9.  2.  5   |             and authorised for use by children. The European Commission
457   II,     9.  2.  5   |               of medicines for use in children.~ ~Policies~ ~EU policy
458   II,     9.  2.  5   |              Policies~ ~EU policy for children and young people’s health
459   II,     9.  2.  5   |              its actions in favour of children and young people, the European
460   II,     9.  2.  5   |          strengthen the protection of children, both within and outside
461   II,     9.  2.  5   |           with stakeholders~- To help children to enforce their rights~ ~
462   II,     9.  2.  5   |              EC policy areas and with children as principal target, notably
463   II,     9.  2.  5   |          beings, sexual exploitation, children in armed conflict, safety
464   II,     9.  2.  5   |              for actions in favour of children and young people, notably
465   II,     9.  2.  5   |          democracy and access of Roma children to education.~ ~In 2000,
466   II,     9.  2.  5   |              to issues that influence children and young people. These
467   II,     9.  2.  5   |      prevention of cigarette sales to children and adolescents; information
468   II,     9.  2.  5   |              protect the interests of children and young people and promote
469   II,     9.  2.  5   |             entitled “A World Fit for Children”. The resolution encompassed
470   II,     9.  2.  5   |        physical activity behaviour of children, commissioned by the EU,
471   II,     9.  2.  5   |              to promote the health of children, adolescents and young people
472   II,     9.  2.  5   |           Committee in autumn 2008.~ ~Children's Environment and Health
473   II,     9.  2.  5   |         affect the health of European children (WHO, 2004). It was developed
474   II,     9.  2.  5   |                on "The future for our children". This action plan highlights
475   II,     9.  2.  5   |               the main commitments on children's health and environment
476   II,     9.  2.  5   |        devoted to protect and promote children’s health is the EUEnvironment
477   II,     9.  2.  6   |            influence on the health of children and young people is at first
478   II,     9.  2.  6   |     collection of comparative data on children, including gender segregated
479   II,     9.  2.  6   |           which may have an impact on children’s health. Hence, the recent
480   II,     9.  2.  6   |             and specifically includes children’s health.~ ~Top priorities /
481   II,     9.  2.  6   |           well being and morbidity of children.~It is a priority to study
482   II,     9.  2.  6   |              the pattern of health of children, their physical and mental
483   II,     9.  2.  6   |              health and well being of children, the positives, as well
484   II,     9.  2.  6   |             measured specifically for children of different ages;~ ~· Child
485   II,     9.  2.  6   |          impairment and disability in children differ significantly compared
486   II,     9.  2.  6   |               impact of disability on children’s lives at different stages
487   II,     9.  2.  6   |        development of a variation for children of a measurement tool based
488   II,     9.  2.  6   |        Intentional harm and injury to children~The improvement of information
489   II,     9.  2.  6   |             health and development of children and of their enduring health-related
490   II,     9.  2.  6   |       lifestyles and environments for children needs to move higher up
491   II,     9.  2.  7   |            Determinants of Obesity in Children in Europe, Health and Consumer
492   II,     9.  2.  7   |                 Andersson G.I (2002); Children’s experience of family disruption
493   II,     9.  2.  7   |              European Association for Children in Hospital (EACH) (1988):
494   II,     9.  2.  7   |         Available at:~www ~ ~European Children’s Network-UN Meeting Florence (
495   II,     9.  2.  7   |              Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international
496   II,     9.  2.  7   |        October 2002 - A world fit for children (A/RES/S-27/2). Available
497   II,     9.  2.  7   |              Behaviour in School-aged Children. HBSC study: 2001/2002.
498   II,     9.  2.  7   |            WHO, Geneva.~ ~WHO (2004): Children's Environment and Health
499   II,     9.  2.  7   |           health action for healthier children and populations. WHO, Copenhagen,
500   II,     9.  2.  7   |             EURO/06/05: The health of children and adolescents in Europe: