1-500 | 501-920
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |               well as by low and late mortality. Most EU citizens still
  2    I,     2.  4        |              data, rates of premature mortality are higher among those with
  3    I,     2.  4        |             income;~· inequalities in mortality exist from the youngest
  4    I,     2.  4        |            men; and~· inequalities in mortality can also be found for many
  5    I,     2.  4        |                 These inequalities in mortality lead to substantial inequalities
  6    I,     2.  4        |           Western European countries, mortality differences between socio-economic
  7    I,     2.  4        | socio-economic groups in the speed of mortality decline. While mortality
  8    I,     2.  4        |              mortality decline. While mortality declined in all socio-economic
  9    I,     2.  4        |              in the lower. The faster mortality declines in higher socio-economic
 10    I,     2.  4        |             turn mostly due to faster mortality declines for cardiovascular
 11    I,     2.  4        |             in cardiovascular disease mortality. This was due to improvements
 12    I,     2.  4        |           late 1980s, inequalities in mortality were in Eastern Europe at
 13    I,     2.  4        |             looking at differences in mortality by level of education in
 14    I,     2.  4        |           substantial inequalities in mortality in all countries, both among
 15    I,     2.  4        |          women. Among men, the excess mortality ranged between 50 and 78
 16    I,     2.  4        |              relative inequalities in mortality were of similar magnitude
 17    I,     2.  4        |             the political transition, mortality rates have changed dramatically
 18    I,     2.  4        |            risk factors for premature mortality. The available evidence
 19    I,     2.  4        |           shows that these changes in mortality have not been equally shared
 20    I,     2.  4        |        countries with available data, mortality rates have generally improved
 21    I,     2.  4        |               rise of inequalities in mortality has occurred. Evidence from
 22    I,     2.  4        |     inevitable.~ ~As in the case with mortality, rates of morbidity are
 23    I,     2.  4        |         together with inequalities in mortality, inequalities in morbidity
 24    I,     2.  5        |              increases cardiovascular mortality (Finnish Heart Association,
 25    I,     2.  5        |              increases cardiovascular mortality. In industrialised countries,
 26    I,     2.  7        |           influence health status and mortality of the population, such
 27    I,     2.  9        |             continues to change, with mortality risk increases by between
 28    I,     2.  9        |             some evidence that winter mortality in Europe has decreased,
 29    I,     3.  3        |           fertility and low levels of mortality which make them grow (significant
 30    I,     3.  3        |               children per woman) and mortality (life expectancy) in combination
 31    I,     3.  3        |           from changing fertility and mortality levels, for example if the
 32    I,     3.  3        |            population, the fertility, mortality and migration rates in a
 33    I,     3.  3        |              fertility than to higher mortality. The pyramid for the New
 34   II,     4.  2        |       different patterns of change in mortality rates. The decline in mortality
 35   II,     4.  2        |       mortality rates. The decline in mortality rates has not been the same
 36   II,     4.  2        |           recent years the decline in mortality rates at old ages has become
 37   II,     4.  2        |        question comes down to whether mortality at old ages has been slowing
 38   II,     4.  2        |            contribution of changes in mortality rates at different ages
 39   II,     4.  2        |           other ages. The analysis of mortality trends is limited to some
 40   II,     4.  2        |              the 1970s the decline in mortality at very young age contributed
 41   II,     4.  2        |             fourth. During the 1980s, mortality at young age still was an
 42   II,     4.  2        |              increasingly declines in mortality for the elderly contributed
 43   II,     4.  2        |              caused by the decline in mortality for age groups 80 and over,
 44   II,     4.  2        |                 These age patterns in mortality decline were visible in
 45   II,     4.  2        |             countries, the decline in mortality at the youngest ages contributed
 46   II,     4.  2        |               variation in changes in mortality across age groups, even
 47   II,     4.  2        |              countries the decline of mortality for elderly people became
 48   II,     4.  2        |        expectancy. In most countries, mortality decline was larger for men
 49   II,     4.  2        |              and Italy the decline in mortality at the youngest ages continued
 50   II,     4.  2        |               in Spain the decline in mortality at higher ages had a larger
 51   II,     4.  2        |              countries. In the 1990s, mortality at the youngest ages continued
 52   II,     4.  2        |         mainly caused by a decline in mortality at elderly ages, at slightly
 53   II,     4.  2        |      deviating pattern. In the 1990s, mortality of women aged between 65
 54   II,     4.  2        |              deviation, as since 2000 mortality of women aged 65-74 has
 55   II,     4.  2        |             several Eastern countries mortality of men in their fifties
 56   II,     4.  2        |          1970s for men the decline in mortality by respiratory disease was
 57   II,     4.  2        |              addition, the decline in mortality in heart disease and cerebrovascular
 58   II,     4.  2        |        contribution of the decline in mortality by heart and cerebrovascular
 59   II,     4.  2        |               for men the decrease in mortality by ischemic heart disease
 60   II,     4.  2        |             for women the decrease of mortality by cerebrovascular disease
 61   II,     4.  2        |            the 1990s, the decrease in mortality by ischemic heart disease
 62   II,     4.  2        |          1990s for men the decline in mortality by various types of cancer
 63   II,     4.  2        |              smoking since the 1970s, mortality by cancer declined in the
 64   II,     4.  2        |             For women the decrease in mortality by heart and cerebrovascular
 65   II,     4.  2        |                there was a decline in mortality by cancer. However, mortality
 66   II,     4.  2        |         mortality by cancer. However, mortality by smoking related cancer
 67   II,     4.  2        |       different patterns of change in mortality across the countries of
 68   II,     4.  2        |             countries, the decline in mortality by circulatory diseases (
 69   II,     4.  2        |               and strokes. Changes in mortality by the other main cause
 70   II,     4.  2        |       diseases. One important part of mortality by cancer is caused by smoking.
 71   II,     4.  2        |          cancer is caused by smoking. Mortality by gynaecological cancers (
 72   II,     4.  2        |              the 1990s the decline in mortality by these cancers had a positive
 73   II,     4.  2        |              had a negative effect on mortality at young and old ages, but
 74   II,     4.  2        |              had a negative effect on mortality of men in their thirties
 75   II,     4.  2        |           their thirties and forties. Mortality by respiratory diseases (
 76   II,     4.  2        |       decrease in smoking prevalence. Mortality by external causes (causes
 77   II,     4.  2        |             that in Eastern countries mortality by traffic accidents increased
 78   II,     4.  2        |               the 1980s. In the 1990s mortality by traffic accidents decreased
 79   II,     4.  2        |            transport accidents on the mortality of men is larger than that
 80   II,     4.  2        |             on women. Alcohol related mortality (cause 13 in table 3) had
 81   II,     4.  2        |              has been the decrease in mortality of circulatory diseases.
 82   II,     4.  2        |              had a negative impact on mortality due to cancer, for men more
 83   II,     4.  2        |              the effect of smoking on mortality is larger than mortality
 84   II,     4.  2        |              mortality is larger than mortality by lung cancer and other
 85   II,     4.  2        |               as smoking also affects mortality by circulatory and respiratory
 86   II,     4.  2        |              2000 due to a decline in mortality by circulatory diseases
 87   II,     4.  2        |              countries the decline in mortality by circulatory diseases
 88   II,     4.  2        |              effect of the decline in mortality by circulatory disease was
 89   II,     4.  2        |             Contribution of change in mortality by circulatory diseases
 90   II,     4.  2        |           countries.~ ~The decline in mortality rates for the elderly has
 91   II,     4.  2        |         important question is whether mortality at old ages will continue
 92   II,     4.  2        |          stagnation of the decline in mortality at the oldest ages. In order
 93   II,     4.  2        |               analyse developments in mortality for the elderly (65+) in
 94   II,     4.  2        |          stagnation in the decline of mortality for the elderly.~ ~For women
 95   II,     4.  2        |              the sexes: the levels of mortality rates at older ages for
 96   II,     4.  2        |              shows the development of mortality for the oldest old (80+).
 97   II,     4.  2        |               that the development of mortality at the oldest ages in the
 98   II,     4.  2        |               sign of a stagnation in mortality at high ages.~ ~Figure 4.
 99   II,     4.  2        |               negative development in mortality for men in Eastern European
100   II,     4.  3        |                1997): Report of Final Mortality Statistics. Monthly Vital
101   II,     4.  3        |              1971): A single index of mortality and morbidity. Health Services
102   II,     5.  1.  1    |               high impact in terms of mortality and morbidity include cardiovascular
103   II,     5.  1.  1    |           contribute significantly to mortality in the EU. Main non lethal
104   II,     5.  1.  1    |      represent the greatest burden of mortality and morbidity within the
105   II,     5.  1.  1    |             lung cancer incidence and mortality are influenced by past exposure
106   II,     5.  1.  1    |             Cirrhosis~The patterns in mortality from cirrhosis are largely
107   II,     5.  2.  1    |       experiencing declining rates of mortality from CVD, there is an increasing
108   II,     5.  2.  1    |               women (54% of all-cause mortality) than men (43% of all-cause
109   II,     5.  2.  1    |            than men (43% of all-cause mortality) (2733 Employment, Social
110   II,     5.  2.  1    |             et al, 2008) and a higher mortality in the lower socio-economic
111   II,     5.  2.  1    |               is the leading cause of mortality in EU, accounting for over
112   II,     5.  2.  1    |           most European countries CVD mortality has declined since the mid
113   II,     5.  2.  1    |            70s, but in Eastern Europe mortality has remained stable or has
114   II,     5.  2.  1    |                Despite the decline in mortality, the annual number of CVD
115   II,     5.  2.  2    |               available on CVD beyond mortality, other than rigorous but
116   II,     5.  2.  2    |   geographical areas.~In this effort, mortality and morbidity data were
117   II,     5.  2.  2    |            EUROSTAT (htt u, 2007) for mortality data; WHO-HFA database (htt b,
118   II,     5.  2.  2    |    individuals aged over 75 years CVD mortality becomes increasingly salient
119   II,     5.  2.  2    |           strategies.~Dynamics of CVD mortality in Western and Eastern Europe
120   II,     5.  2.  2    |          cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were interpreted in the
121   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Ischemic heart disease~ ~Mortality~EUROSTAT data were analyzed
122   II,     5.  2.  2    |               were analyzed to obtain mortality rates (htt u, 2007).~IHD
123   II,     5.  2.  2    |              rates (htt u, 2007).~IHD mortality was defined as underlying
124   II,     5.  2.  2    |              414). Age-specific total mortality rates for the average of
125   II,     5.  2.  2    |          proportion of cause-specific mortality in the different age groups
126   II,     5.  2.  2    |        Age-standardized (35-74 years) mortality rates were calculated for
127   II,     5.  2.  2    |        age-standardized (35-74 years) mortality rate are presented as average
128   II,     5.  2.  2    |          those of Northern Europe and mortality rates are higher compared
129   II,     5.  2.  2    |               country with the lowest mortality rate and the one with the
130   II,     5.  2.  2    |            care to the decline in CVD mortality. Data from the WHO MONICA
131   II,     5.  2.  2    |                     5.2.2.2. Stroke~ ~Mortality~Following the recommendations
132   II,     5.  2.  2    |               were analyzed to obtain mortality rates (htt u, 2007). Stroke
133   II,     5.  2.  2    |           rates (htt u, 2007). Stroke mortality was defined as underlying
134   II,     5.  2.  2    |            430-438). Age-standardized mortality rates for the age groups
135   II,     5.  2.  2    |             were selected to estimate mortality trends. To make trends more
136   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Europe countries because mortality rates are higher compared
137   II,     5.  2.  2    |               country with the lowest mortality and the one with the highest
138   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Ischemic heart disease~ ~Mortality~ ~CVD is the main cause
139   II,     5.  2.  3    |              the age of 75 years, IHD mortality is higher in men than in
140   II,     5.  2.  3    |        decided to report standardized mortality rates only for 35-74 age
141   II,     5.  2.  3    |            EUROCISS project. However, mortality rates for the different
142   II,     5.  2.  3    |             accounts for 34% of total mortality and IHD for 15%. Mortality
143   II,     5.  2.  3    |            mortality and IHD for 15%. Mortality rates are higher in men
144   II,     5.  2.  3    |             gradient with the highest mortality rates in Baltic1, Central
145   II,     5.  2.  3    |         standard European population) mortality rates per 100.000.~ ~Mortality
146   II,     5.  2.  3    |        mortality rates per 100.000.~ ~Mortality trends for IHD in men are
147   II,     5.  2.  3    |           countries from 1994 to 2003 mortality rates in the 35-74 age range
148   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Figure 5.2.2) for whom mortality rates fell by 40% in Central
149   II,     5.  2.  3    |               5.2.1. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100.000. Trends
150   II,     5.  2.  3    |               5.2.2. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100.000. Trends
151   II,     5.  2.  3    |            Since then, cardiovascular mortality started to decrease also
152   II,     5.  2.  3    |        countries). The decline in IHD mortality rates has been greater for
153   II,     5.  2.  3    |            countries with the highest mortality rates. Not surprisingly,
154   II,     5.  2.  3    |              rates. Not surprisingly, mortality rates are much higher for
155   II,     5.  2.  3    |               for men than for women; mortality rates have been falling
156   II,     5.  2.  3    |               women. Faster declining mortality rates for men have narrowed
157   II,     5.  2.  3    |             treatment.~The decline in mortality in the different populations
158   II,     5.  2.  3    |          Stroke~Data on morbidity and mortality are available only for the
159   II,     5.  2.  3    |              fatality after stroke.~ ~Mortality~Stroke alone is the second
160   II,     5.  2.  3    |         Allender et al, 2008). Stroke mortality is higher in men than in
161   II,     5.  2.  3    |        decided to report standardized mortality rates only for the 35-84
162   II,     5.  2.  3    |         accounts for 10% of all-cause mortality. Analyses of mortality highlighted
163   II,     5.  2.  3    |      all-cause mortality. Analyses of mortality highlighted substantial
164   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Population) cerebrovascular mortality rates per 100.000 men and
165   II,     5.  2.  3    |               years average~ ~In men, mortality rate varies from 60 deaths
166   II,     5.  2.  3    |           mainly affects the elderly.~Mortality trends for stroke in men
167   II,     5.  2.  3    |              5.2.3; from 1994 to 2003 mortality rates in the age range 35-
168   II,     5.  2.  3    |              298 to 279 per 100.000). Mortality increased by 10% in Eastern
169   II,     5.  2.  3    |            357 per 100.000). In 2003, mortality rates in Central Europe
170   II,     5.  2.  3    |           from 1993 to 2002 in stroke mortality were more favourable in
171   II,     5.  2.  3    |             gradient with the highest mortality rates in Baltic Europe and
172   II,     5.  2.  3    |         standard European population) mortality rates per 100.000 Cerebrovascular
173   II,     5.  2.  3    |               Figure 5.2.4) for which mortality rates fell by 39% in Central
174   II,     5.  2.  3    |              193 to 121 per 100.000). Mortality rates increased by 21% in
175   II,     5.  2.  3    |            246 per 100.000). In 2003, mortality rates in Southern Europe
176   II,     5.  2.  3    |         standard European population) mortality rates per 100.000 Cerebrovascular
177   II,     5.  2.  3    |        fatality rates with changes in mortality rates revealed that two
178   II,     5.  2.  3    |              thirds of the decreasing mortality was attributable to reduced
179   II,     5.  2.  3    |            declining trends of stroke mortality during the last 10 years
180   II,     5.  2.  3    |            increasing. The decline in mortality has been greater in countries
181   II,     5.  2.  3    |       dramatically increase in stroke mortality for men and women in Eastern
182   II,     5.  2.  3    |               explain the increase in mortality.~ ~
183   II,     5.  2.  5    |           Project, which measured IHD mortality trends between the early
184   II,     5.  2.  5    |           populations with decreasing mortality, two-thirds of the decline
185   II,     5.  2.  5    |         looking at the decline in IHD mortality over a 20-year period in
186   II,     5.  2.  5    |              the remaining 42% of the mortality decline (Unal et al, 2005).~
187   II,     5.  2.  5    |               the world’s highest CVD mortality rate. Planners examined
188   II,     5.  2.  5    |          blood pressure. By 1992, CVD mortality rates for men aged 35-64
189   II,     5.  2.  5    |          factor levels, morbidity and mortality were also attributed to
190   II,     5.  2.  5    |         explain less than half of the mortality decline; the major contribution
191   II,     5.  2.  5    |             the major contribution to mortality decline comes from risk
192   II,     5.  2.  6    |         explain less than half of the mortality decline; the major contribution
193   II,     5.  2.  6    |             the major contribution to mortality decline comes from risk
194   II,     5.  2.  6    |           large benefits for reducing mortality.~Nevertheless, it is important
195   II,     5.  2.  6    |             with the country specific mortality for Coronary Heart Disease (
196   II,     5.  2.  6    |        reduction of CHD morbidity and mortality (Baigent C et al, 2005).
197   II,     5.  2.  6    |            blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual
198   II,     5.  2.  6    |            coronary heart disease and mortality in elderly men (the Zutphen
199   II,     5.  2.  6    |              cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure:
200   II,     5.  2.  7    |          Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality JAMA 292:1588-1592.~Daviglus
201   II,     5.  2.  7    |          cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in Western and Eastern Union
202   II,     5.  2.  7    |            Uemura K (1982): Trends of mortality from ischemic heart disease
203   II,     5.  2.  7    |               cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. Task force of
204   II,     5.  2.  7    |          Cardiology on Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity statistics
205   II,     5.  2.  7    |        Project (2003): Are changes in mortality from stroke caused by changes
206   II,     5.  2.  7    |              TJ (1989): International mortality from heart disease: rates
207   II,     5.  2.  7    |                1985). Trends in total mortality and mortality from heart
208   II,     5.  2.  7    |         Trends in total mortality and mortality from heart disease in 26
209   II,     5.  2.  7    |             in coronary heart disease mortality: 10-year results from 37
210   II,     5.  2.  7    |            and coronary heart disease mortality across the WHO MONICA Project
211   II,     5.  2.  7    |             in cardiovascular disease mortality in industrialized countries
212   II,     5.  3.  1    |               population at risk;~ ~- Mortality: cancer mortality rates
213   II,     5.  3.  1    |           risk;~ ~- Mortality: cancer mortality rates show the number of
214   II,     5.  3.  2    |               introduction; trends in mortality among screened subjects
215   II,     5.  3.  3    |           indicators (i.e. incidence, mortality, survival) are presented
216   II,     5.  3.  3    |             Switzerland).~- The basic mortality and population information
217   II,     5.  3.  3    |               annual reported data on mortality statistics by age, sex,
218   II,     5.  3.  3    |              Diseases (ICD).~- Cancer mortality trends in men and women
219   II,     5.  3.  3    |          Figures on cancer incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival
220   II,     5.  3.  3    |          these reasons all incidence, mortality and relative survival data
221   II,     5.  3.  4    |             lung cancer incidence and mortality are influenced by past exposure
222   II,     5.  3.  5    |                                 5.3.4 Mortality and incidence data discussion~ ~
223   II,     5.  3.  5    |           cases per 100,000). Maximum mortality rates (Figures 5.3.3) were
224   II,     5.  3.  5    |              3.2b), while the highest mortality rates were reported in Eastern
225   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Figures 5.3.4 show that mortality is decreasing for men with
226   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
227   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
228   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
229   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
230   II,     5.  3.  5    |               while maximum levels of mortality rates (Figures 5.3.7) were
231   II,     5.  3.  5    |               100,000). Incidence and mortality levels seem to be negatively
232   II,     5.  3.  5    |             incidence (Figures 6) and mortality trends (Figures 5.3.8) are
233   II,     5.  3.  5    |           both for male incidence and mortality.~ ~Figure 5.3.5a. Stomach
234   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
235   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
236   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
237   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
238   II,     5.  3.  5    |               and Slovakia had higher mortality rates than the rest of Europe
239   II,     5.  3.  5    |            men (Figure 5.3.10a). Male mortality rates (Figure 5.3.12a) are
240   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
241   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
242   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
243   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
244   II,     5.  3.  5    |        incidence (Figure 5.3.14a) and mortality (Figure 5.3.16a) rates (
245   II,     5.  3.  5    |        incidence (Figure 5.3.14b) and mortality (Figure 5.3.16b) rates for
246   II,     5.  3.  5    |                although incidence and mortality rates are now declining
247   II,     5.  3.  5    |               contrast, incidence and mortality are increasing for women (
248   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
249   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
250   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
251   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
252   II,     5.  3.  5    |               3.19 shows that in 2007 mortality rates varied by 17 deaths (
253   II,     5.  3.  5    |             per 100,000 (in Denmark). Mortality trends (Figure 5.3.20) are
254   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 174) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
255   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 174) standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~
256   II,     5.  3.  5    |         cervical cancer incidence and mortality, most clearly observed in
257   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Uterus cancer standardized mortality rates (European standard)
258   II,     5.  3.  5    |            uterus cancer standardized mortality rates (European standard)
259   II,     5.  3.  5    |               the PSA test diffusion. Mortality rates by years (Figure 5.
260   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 185) standardized mortality rates (European standard)
261   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 185) standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~
262   II,     5.  3.  6    |              decreased post-operative mortality (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure
263   II,     5.  3.  7    |      effectiveness in reducing cancer mortality. Attention should also be
264   II,     5.  3.  7    |         screening is to reduce cancer mortality, and reduce the incidence
265   II,     5.  3.  7    |           been shown to reduce cancer mortality in regional comparisons
266   II,     5.  3.  7    |             population. Reductions in mortality of about 25% can be envisaged
267   II,     5.  3.  7    |               concerns a reduction in mortality. The results of those trials
268   II,     5.  3.  7    |               in cancer morbidity and mortality;~· People affected (or suspect
269   II,     5.  3.  9    |              the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol
270   II,     5.  4.  1    |      contribute to high morbidity and mortality.~Diagnosis of diabetes according
271   II,     5.  4.  2    |               diabetes~Cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes~ ~ ~ ~
272   II,     5.  4.  2    |            case of outcome is that of mortality: HDRs may provide information
273   II,     5.  4.  2    |               necessary to organize a mortality register that is lacking
274   II,     5.  4.  2    |              the diabetic population.~Mortality is the most fundamental
275   II,     5.  4.  2    |               measure such condition, mortality data in diabetes are not
276   II,     5.  4.  3    |             no clear age band effect.~Mortality. According to EUCID, standardised
277   II,     5.  4.  3    |           standardised data show that mortality ranges between 7 (Luxembourg)
278   II,     5.  4.  4    |         variations found in dialysis. Mortality rates are extremely important,
279   II,     5.  4.  6    |               to reduce morbidity and mortality through the timely initiation
280   II,     5.  4.  6    |             and reporting of diabetes mortality, morbidity and risk factor
281   II,     5.  4.  8    |             incidence, prevalence and mortality, Diabetologia. 2008 Sep
282   II,     5.  4.  8    |               Economics of Health and Mortality Special Feature: Nature
283   II,     5.  5.Int    |              ill-health and premature mortality in Europe with women twice
284   II,     5.  5.Int    |         greater toll on morbidity and mortality than depression. Yet depression
285   II,     5.  5.Int    |        suggest that the incidence and mortality of epilepsy are declining.
286   II,     5.  5.  1    |             and also due to increased mortality for suicide. For example
287   II,     5.  5.  1    |           systems. Also statistics on mortality due to suicide are not totally
288   II,     5.  5.  1    |             include data on causes of mortality and potential years of life
289   II,     5.  5.  1    |         mental health indicators like mortality and potential years of life
290   II,     5.  5.  1    |           residence.~ ~Suicides~ ~The mortality rates for suicides and intentional
291   II,     5.  5.  1    |            presenting the data.~ ~The mortality rate for suicide and intentional
292   II,     5.  5.  1    |             indicate that the highest mortality rates of suicide and intentional
293   II,     5.  5.  1    |               The annual age adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and
294   II,     5.  5.  1    |              6. Annually age adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and
295   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Table 5.5.1.7. Age adjusted mortality rates and trends due to
296   II,     5.  5.  1    |               changes in age-adjusted mortality rates in Belgium, Ireland,
297   II,     5.  5.  1    |           average yearly age adjusted mortality rates (SMR) of the last
298   II,     5.  5.  1    |               have much lower suicide mortality rates compared to men.~ ~
299   II,     5.  5.  1    |              rates compared to men.~ ~Mortality rates for suicide are higher
300   II,     5.  5.  1    |            the fourth highest rate of mortality for suicide in the world
301   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|            countries with a low adult mortality rate (Bulgaria, Poland,
302   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|               those with a high adult mortality rate (Estonia, Hungary,
303   II,     5.  5.  2    |             or cure and no changes in mortality.~ ~The data clearly suggest
304   II,     5.  5.  3    |   Supranuclear Palsy~SMR~Standardized Mortality Ratio~ ~
305   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and excessive exercise a mortality rate of 5,6% per decade (
306   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the general morbidity and mortality for nutrition endocrines
307   II,     5.  5.  3    |           analysed indicators such as mortality (death, suicide), diagnostic,
308   II,     5.  5.  3    |           have a high level of excess mortality due to treatable physical
309   II,     5.  5.  3    |        accounts for 28% of the excess mortality and is the largest single
310   II,     5.  5.  3    |              The other main causes of mortality are due to the high psychiatric
311   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Inter-country comparison data on mortality for selected causes of death
312   II,     5.  5.  3    |               all EU15 countries. WHO mortality rates are available for
313   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in the European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDE) but are
314   II,     5.  5.  3    |          associated with an increased mortality mainly caused by co-morbid
315   II,     5.  5.  3    |       schizophrenia. Therefore, these mortality data have to be interpreted
316   II,     5.  5.  3    |               or other forms of early mortality, also need to be re-evaluated.
317   II,     5.  5.  3    |       regarding mental health policy.~Mortality~The crude F20-death rates
318   II,     5.  5.  3    |            from the European Detailed Mortality Database show very high
319   II,     5.  5.  3    |              already mentioned above, mortality data seem to be quite questionable
320   II,     5.  5.  3    |               statistics and expected mortality rates according to literature.~
321   II,     5.  5.  3    |             literature.~The projected mortality rates for schizophrenia
322   II,     5.  5.  3    |              schizophrenia-attributed mortality rates stated in literature (
323   II,     5.  5.  3    |     schizophrenia are at an increased mortality risk compared to the general
324   II,     5.  5.  3    |          mental health services, this mortality gap has even worsened during
325   II,     5.  5.  3    |              deaths, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for people with
326   II,     5.  5.  3    |           that the SMRs for all-cause mortality had significantly increased
327   II,     5.  5.  3    |             evaluated that the higher mortality rate (23.0% vs. 11.2%) was
328   II,     5.  5.  3    |               cardiovascular disease. Mortality due to cardiovascular disease
329   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Fors et al, 2007).~Thus, mortality increasing factors such
330   II,     5.  5.  3    |              programmes to reduce the mortality of people with schizophrenia.~
331   II,     5.  5.  3    |             their contribution to the mortality rate (Saha, 2007).~The mortality
332   II,     5.  5.  3    |      mortality rate (Saha, 2007).~The mortality data attributed to the group
333   II,     5.  5.  3    |           need of evaluating detailed mortality data with a more distinct
334   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Brown S (1997): Excess mortality of schizophrenia, A meta-analysis.
335   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Bingefors K, Widerlöv B (2007): Mortality among persons with schizophrenia
336   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from
337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the
338   II,     5.  5.  3    |    schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time?
339   II,     5.  5.  3    |           exist. ~ ~Although a higher mortality risk has been observed in
340   II,     5.  5.  3    |             incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy are fairly homogeneous
341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Morgan et al, 2000).~ ~Mortality~The mortality rate due to
342   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2000).~ ~Mortality~The mortality rate due to epilepsy ranges
343   II,     5.  5.  3    |          vital statistics give annual mortality rates at 1-2 per 100,000 (
344   II,     5.  5.  3    |           followed up for 35 years, a mortality rate of 6.23 per 1,000 person-years
345   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of studies investigating mortality in the past 100 years, the
346   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Community-based studies of mortality in epilepsy~Modified from
347   II,     5.  5.  3    |         facilities; SMR: Standardized mortality ratio; (*) Reference listed
348   II,     5.  5.  3    |               strongest predictors of mortality in epilepsy. Patients with
349   II,     5.  5.  3    |               have a two- to six-fold mortality risk than the general population.
350   II,     5.  5.  3    |             at birth have the highest mortality, with a SMR between 7 and
351   II,     5.  5.  3    |             account for the increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy.
352   II,     5.  5.  3    |             childhood-onset epilepsy. Mortality is greater in men than in
353   II,     5.  5.  3    |    cryptogenic epilepsy in remission, mortality does not appear to be substantially
354   II,     5.  5.  3    |               population. The highest mortality in children may be thus
355   II,     5.  5.  3    |            associated to an increased mortality in several studies from
356   II,     5.  5.  3    |          contrast, data regarding the mortality in patients with partial
357   II,     5.  5.  3    |             associated to significant mortality. In prospective population-based
358   II,     5.  5.  3    |             not available.~Differient mortality rates have been found for
359   II,     5.  5.  3    |       epilepsy. While seizure-related mortality is rare in new onset epilepsy,
360   II,     5.  5.  3    |             incidence, prevalence and mortality rates are expected in these
361   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Geertz AT, et al (2001): Mortality risk in children with epilepsy:
362   II,     5.  5.  3    |              A, Sander JW (2004): The mortality of epilepsy revisited. Epileptic
363   II,     5.  5.  3    |           1405-1415.~Jallon P (2004): Mortality in patients with epilepsy’
364   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Nystrom L, Forsgren L (2000): Mortality risk in an adult cohort
365   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Loiseau P (1999): Short-term mortality after a first epileptic
366   II,     5.  5.  3    |             EW, Schoenberg BS (1985): Mortality from epilepsy. International
367   II,     5.  5.  3    |             al (1997): Cause-specific mortality in epilepsy: a cohort study
368   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Farahmand BY, Tomson T (2003): Mortality in a population-based cohort
369   II,     5.  5.  3    |             MF, Sander JW (1997): The mortality associated with epilepsy,
370   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepsy: an estimate of the mortality risk. Epilepsia 43:445-450.~
371   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Krumholz A. Li G (2004): Mortality in epilepsy: driving fatalities
372   II,     5.  5.  3    |           focus on physical injuries, mortality, traffic accidents and their
373   II,     5.  5.  3    |               JJ (1974): Epilepsy and mortality rate and cause of death.
374   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Excellence~PMR~Proportionate Mortality Ratio~SEWGED~Second European
375   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Guidelines~SMR~Standardized Mortality Ratio~SUDEP~Sudden Unexplained
376   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disability,and that of MS mortality was reviewed for Europe
377   II,     5.  5.  3    |               with both morbidity and mortality studies (Vukusic et al,
378   II,     5.  5.  3    |               EUGLOREH countries~ ~MS mortality rates and survival time
379   II,     5.  5.  3    |             time in Europe~Data on MS mortality must be taken cautiously
380   II,     5.  5.  3    |             for death in Europe, with mortality ranging from 0.6 to 1.0
381   II,     5.  5.  3    |            literature. An overview of mortality rates in Europe is reported
382   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Italy for women. The highest mortality rates from MS in Austria
383   II,     5.  5.  3    |             to 45.~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.7. Mortality (per 100 000) of MS patients
384   II,     5.  5.  3    |        lifetime lost due to premature mortality (years of life lost, YLLs)
385   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and varies according to mortality strata, being 157 000 in
386   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the low-child/high-adult mortality strata respectively (WHO,
387   II,     5.  5.  3    |           general decreasing trend of mortality rates over time reported
388   II,     5.  5.  3    | Koch-Henriksen H (2006): Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS.
389   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Doll R, Hill AB (1966). Mortality of British doctors in relation
390   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Ekestern E, Lebhart G (2004). Mortality from multiple sclerosis
391   II,     5.  5.  3    |             incidence, prevalence and mortality of multiple sclerosis in
392   II,     5.  5.  3    |              analysis~ ~Morbidity and mortality~A recent initiative to calculate
393   II,     5.  5.  3    |               a significant increased mortality (SMR: 2.9) was reported
394   II,     5.  5.  3    |               with the disability and mortality of PD.~The prevalence and
395   II,     5.  5.  3    |             diagnosis, work capacity, mortality and cause of death in Parkinson
396   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disease: progression and mortality at 10 years. Journal of
397   II,     5.  5.  3    |                onset, progression and mortality. Neurology:427-442.~Hoehn
398   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2005): Population based mortality and quality of death certification
399   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disease~SMR~Standardized Mortality Ratio~ ~ ~ ~
400   II,     5.  6.  3    |            There is also an increased mortality associated with RA (EULAR
401   II,     5.  6.  3    |       countries.~ ~Co-morbidities and mortality~ ~RA is associated to reduced
402   II,     5.  6.  3    |              reduced life expectancy. Mortality is generally greater in
403   II,     5.  6.  3    |           severe form of the disease. Mortality is related to severity of
404   II,     5.  6.  3    |           loss of mobility and excess mortality. Nearly all are hospitalised
405   II,     5.  6.  3    |       fracture is associated with 20% mortality or 50% loss of function,
406   II,     5.  6.  3    |         quality of life and increased mortality (Woolf and Akesson, 2006).~ ~
407   II,     5.  6.  3    |          Sernbo and Johnell, 1993).~ ~Mortality~ ~Mortality following hip
408   II,     5.  6.  3    |         Johnell, 1993).~ ~Mortality~ ~Mortality following hip fracture is
409   II,     5.  6.  3    |          associated with an increased mortality at 5 years as seen with
410   II,     5.  6.  3    |              5 year period. No excess mortality is associated with wrist
411   II,     5.  6.  3    |             on individual (morbidity, mortality) and on society (socioeconomic)~ ~
412   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Sambrook PN, Eisman JA (1999) Mortality after all major types of
413   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Laet C, Jonsson B (2004): Mortality after osteoporotic fractures.
414   II,     5.  6.  6    |            incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 111:87-98~
415   II,     5.  6.  6    |             SM and Symmons DP (2007): Mortality in Established Rheumatoid
416   II,     5.  7.  1    |             Apart from the morbidity, mortality and poor quality of life
417   II,     5.  7.  2    |             period. The data used for mortality analyses included patients
418   II,     5.  7.  3    |       hypertension and cardiovascular mortality in the populations were
419   II,     5.  7.  3    |              throughout the period.~ ~Mortality~ ~A recent meta-analysis
420   II,     5.  7.  3    |            has shown that the risk of mortality in CKD rises exponentially
421   II,     5.  7.  3    |         decreasing GFR (USRDS 2007 ). Mortality in ESRD patients is very
422   II,     5.  7.  3    |               is very high. Five-year mortality rates in incident RRT patients
423   II,     5.  7.  3    |               Table 5.7.8). Five-year mortality in patients on dialysis
424   II,     5.  7.  3    |                and 13%, respectively.~Mortality on RRT is lower in Europe
425   II,     5.  7.  3    |              one-, two- and five-year mortality rates in incident RRT patients
426   II,     5.  7.  3    |              lower risk of death. The mortality risk reduction in transplant
427   II,     5.  7.  3    |            burden on Member States.~ ~Mortality in ESRD patients is still
428   II,     5.  7.  4    |            risks (e.g. cardiovascular mortality in the general population) (
429   II,     5.  7.  7    |            and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men and women
430   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review.
431   II,     5.  8.  1    |            the fifth leading cause of mortality in the developed world (Lopez
432   II,     5.  8.  1    |           COPD is the main reason for mortality associated with respiratory
433   II,     5.  8.  1    |  augmentations in COPD prevalence and mortality are envisaged in the future;
434   II,     5.  8.  2    |       Foundation.~- European Detailed Mortality Database of the World Health
435   II,     5.  8.  3    |             incidence, prevalence and mortality associated with COPD. It
436   II,     5.  8.  3    |           respectively, in females.~ ~Mortality.~ ~Although there are some
437   II,     5.  8.  3    |        regarding the accuracy of COPD mortality data, the limited data available
438   II,     5.  8.  3    |               available indicate that mortality due to COPD increases with
439   II,     5.  8.  3    |              diagnosis, the trends in mortality rates over time provide
440   II,     5.  8.  3    |           important information. COPD mortality trends generally track several
441   II,     5.  8.  3    |           through 2002 show that COPD mortality increased over that period,
442   II,     5.  8.  3    |               over that period, while mortality from other chronic conditions
443   II,     5.  8.  3    |              performed an analysis of mortality in COPD patients discharged
444   II,     5.  8.  3    |              independent predictor of mortality, hospitalization,and outpatient
445   II,     5.  8.  3    |             COPD in Europe (excluding mortality and rehabilitation) was
446   II,     5.  8.  4    |            prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. In other words, as a result
447   II,     5.  8.  5    |         includes the total figures of mortality, morbidity and costs of
448   II,     5.  8.  6    |         effectiveness on symptoms and mortality rate of non invasive mechanical
449   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Järvholm B (2004): Increased mortality in COPD among construction
450   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Bakke P, Janson C (2007): Mortality in COPD patients discharged
451   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause
452   II,     5.  8.  7    |        pulmonary function and 40-year mortality: a follow-up in middle-aged
453   II,     5.  8.  7    |          disease hospitalizations and mortality: Kaiser Permanente Medical
454   II,     5.  8.  7    |        questionnaire is predictive of mortality and health-care utilization
455   II,     5.  9.  2    |                Health Working Paper~ ~Mortality due to asthma (J45-J46 ICD9)~
456   II,     5.  9.  3    |             socio-economic factors.~ ~Mortality data~ ~Although mortality
457   II,     5.  9.  3    |             Mortality data~ ~Although mortality is low, most asthma deaths
458   II,     5.  9.  3    |            000 per year worldwide. EU mortality due to asthma (death defined
459   II,     5.  9.  3    |           Netherlands, no decrease in mortality has been observed since
460   II,     5. 11.  3    |          women) (Plesko et al, 2000).~Mortality from NMSC is almost always
461   II,     5. 11.  3    |              Rosso et al, 1996). NMSC mortality in Europe presents an entirely
462   II,     5. 11.  3    |            and Western Europe whereas mortality was higher in men in eastern
463   II,     5. 11.  3    |          eastern and southern Europe. Mortality rates have been rising steadily
464   II,     5. 11.  3    |          place since the early 1980s. Mortality rates have also leveled
465   II,     5. 11.  3    |             Europe both incidence and mortality are still rising (De Vries
466   II,     5. 11.  3    |               effect is that melanoma mortality rates in the mid-1990s (
467   II,     5. 11.  4    |    concentration due to drowsiness.~ ~Mortality and Morbidity~Chronic suffering
468   II,     5. 11.  4    |         Chronic suffering rather than mortality is characteristic for most
469   II,     5. 11.  4    |        conditions are associated to a mortality of around 30%.~ ~Profound
470   II,     5. 11.  7    |                Smans M (2003): Cancer Mortality Atlas of European Union,
471   II,     5. 11.  7    |               trends in incidence and mortality but recent stabilizations
472   II,     5. 11.  7    |               2000: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide,
473   II,     5. 12.  1    |          1970s, the highest cirrhosis mortality rates (around 30-40/100,
474   II,     5. 12.  1    |              al, 1994). Subsequently, mortality from cirrhosis tended to
475   II,     5. 12.  1    |     substantial increase in cirrhosis mortality over the last two decades
476   II,     5. 12.  1    |               systematically reviewed mortality from cirrhosis up to 2002,
477   II,     5. 12.  1    |                2007). The patterns in mortality from cirrhosis are largely
478   II,     5. 12.  3    |          representations of cirrhosis mortality for men and women since
479   II,     5. 12.  3    |       Age-adjusted (world population) mortality rates from cirrhosis per
480   II,     5. 12.  3    |            declines in male cirrhosis mortality were observed in Southern
481   II,     5. 12.  3    |             the lowest male cirrhosis mortality in 2000-02, together with
482   II,     5. 12.  3    |        favourable trends of cirrhosis mortality in European men: Denmark
483   II,     5. 12.  3    |             and mainly Hungary, where mortality from cirrhosis rose from
484   II,     5. 12.  3    |           over ten-fold difference in mortality from cirrhosis in European
485   II,     5. 12.  3    |            showed also extremely high mortality rates from cirrhosis in
486   II,     5. 12.  3    |              men (around 75/100,000).~Mortality rates from cirrhosis were
487   II,     5. 12.  3    |              extremely high truncated mortality rates from cirrhosis (around
488   II,     5. 12.  3    |       Age-adjusted (world population) mortality rates from cirrhosis per
489   II,     5. 12.  3    |      regression analysis of cirrhosis mortality rates over the 1970-2002
490   II,     5. 12.  3    |               other Nordic countries, mortality from cirrhosis was still
491   II,     5. 12.  3    |            age-standardized cirrhosis mortality rates in men from selected
492   II,     5. 12.  3    |            age-standardized cirrhosis mortality rates in women from selected
493   II,     5. 12.  3    |              This updated analysis of mortality from cirrhosis shows a general
494   II,     5. 12.  3    |              extremely high cirrhosis mortality.~Changes in trends over
495   II,     5. 12.  3    |             some favourable impact on mortality from the disease in selected
496   II,     5. 12.  3    |             these factors on national mortality rates is difficult to quantify
497   II,     5. 12.  4    |             factors~ ~The patterns in mortality from cirrhosis are largely
498   II,     5. 12.  4    |             see Chapter 6), cirrhosis mortality trends and their variability
499   II,     5. 12.  4    |       comparable changes in cirrhosis mortality. Historically, short-term
500   II,     5. 12.  4    |    substantial variation in cirrhosis mortality following sudden changes