1-500 | 501-907
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |              Report covers most relevant diseases and disorders as well as
  2    I,     2.  1        |                  zoonoses and food borne diseases much more difficult.~ ~At
  3    I,     2.  2        |                  zoonoses and food-borne diseases as well as of other problematic
  4    I,     2.  2        |               transmission of infectious diseases although there are severe
  5    I,     2.  2        |                 exposed to (re-)emerging diseases and can be an involuntary
  6    I,     2.  2        |                for the entrance of these diseases in Europe. Environmental,
  7    I,     2.  2        |        vector-borne and other infectious diseases, some of them imported from
  8    I,     2.  2        |                  of food-borne and other diseases much more difficult to carry
  9    I,     2.  3        |            coming from specific areas of diseases almost absent or assumed
 10    I,     2.  4        |              declines for cardiovascular diseases. In many Western European
 11    I,     2.  4        |              prevalence of most specific diseases (including mental illness)
 12    I,     2.  4        |               indicate that most chronic diseases have a higher prevalence
 13    I,     2.  4        |                 and incidence of certain diseases; and ensuring more effective
 14    I,     2.  5        |               the risk of cardiovascular diseases.~ ~Pension provision. Whereas
 15    I,     2.  9        |                 A number of vector-borne diseases are expected to increase
 16    I,     2.  9        |                 possible spread of these diseases is very dependent on early
 17    I,     2. 10.  1    |              understanding of health and diseases as well as concepts of prevention
 18    I,     2. 10.  1    |         underlying biological factors of diseases such as genomic variants.
 19    I,     2. 10.  1    |                measure the prevalence of diseases if the surveillance is purely
 20   II,     4.  1        |             assumption whilst infectious diseases represented the main cause
 21   II,     4.  1        |                 were replaced by chronic diseases, the risk of becoming ill
 22   II,     4.  2        |                heart and cerebrovascular diseases to the rise in life expectancy
 23   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by circulatory diseases (causes 6, 7 and 8 in table
 24   II,     4.  2        |                 ischemic and other heart diseases and strokes. Changes in
 25   II,     4.  2        |              expectancy than circulatory diseases. One important part of mortality
 26   II,     4.  2        |                all countries. Infectious diseases (cause 1 in table 3) did
 27   II,     4.  2        |            several countries, infectious diseases had a negative effect on
 28   II,     4.  2        |                 Mortality by respiratory diseases (cause 9 in table 3) declined
 29   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality of circulatory diseases. Smoking has had a negative
 30   II,     4.  2        |              circulatory and respiratory diseases.~ ~Table 4.2.4 shows by
 31   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by circulatory diseases and its share in the total
 32   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by circulatory diseases caused more than half of
 33   II,     4.  2        |                 mortality by circulatory diseases to changes in life expectancy
 34   II,     5            |              IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES~AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS~ ~
 35   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 1. Main non-communicable diseases and their risk factors~ ~
 36   II,     5.  1.  1    |                    Main non-communicable diseases with a high impact in terms
 37   II,     5.  1.  1    |         morbidity include cardiovascular diseases; cancer; asthma and other
 38   II,     5.  1.  1    |             asthma and other respiratory diseases; diabetes; obesity and other
 39   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  and other chronic liver diseases; nephrological diseases;
 40   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  diseases; nephrological diseases; musculoskeletal diseases;
 41   II,     5.  1.  1    |                diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; mental disease and disorders;
 42   II,     5.  1.  1    |    neurodegenerative and non psychiatric diseases. Injuries, poisoning and
 43   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  Main non lethal chronic diseases include dermatological diseases,
 44   II,     5.  1.  1    |          diseases include dermatological diseases, allergic diseases and intolerances.~ ~
 45   II,     5.  1.  1    |        dermatological diseases, allergic diseases and intolerances.~ ~In developed
 46   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 chronic non-communicable diseases are clearly on the rise
 47   II,     5.  1.  1    |              countries. Non-communicable diseases, disorders and disabilities
 48   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 chronic non-communicable diseases (Table 5.1.1). On the other
 49   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  such as coronary hearth diseases. Finally, rehabilitation
 50   II,     5.  1.  1    |             factors for non-communicable diseases~Cardiovascular diseases~
 51   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  diseases~Cardiovascular diseases~CVD clinically manifests
 52   II,     5.  1.  1    |              report. ~.~Neuropsychiatric diseases and disorders~ ~· Mood/anxiety
 53   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  of other conditions and diseases such as cancer and cardio-vascular
 54   II,     5.  1.  1    |               cancer and cardio-vascular diseases.~ ~· Multiple Sclerosis~
 55   II,     5.  1.  1    | neurodegenerative process of Parkinson’s Diseases is still unknown.~ ~· Other
 56   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 section 5.6.~Respiratory diseases including asthma~The main
 57   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  with chronic infections diseases like HIV and viral hepatitis (
 58   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 drinking.~Dermatological diseases~Main contact dermatitis
 59   II,     5.  1.  1    |            rubber compounds.~Periodontal diseases~The available evidence shows
 60   II,     5.  1.  2    |         consultations are due to chronic diseases which cannot be healed,
 61   II,     5.  1.  2    |              with his patient.~ ~Chronic diseases and their treatments can
 62   II,     5.  1.  2    |                  in case of long lasting diseases. A successful management
 63   II,     5.  1.  3    |                The management of chronic diseases requires the development
 64   II,     5.  1.  3    |                of care for all long-term diseases or conditions, although
 65   II,     5.  1.  4    |                  for people with chronic diseases in several ways. The interactive
 66   II,     5.  1.  4    |               People affected by chronic diseases should be informed about
 67   II,     5.  2        |                      5.2. Cardiovascular diseases~ ~
 68   II,     5.  2.Acr    |           determinants of CArdiovascular diseases~WHO-HFA~World Health Organization –
 69   II,     5.  2.  1    |                    5.2.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases of the circulatory system (
 70   II,     5.  2.  1    |                consist of ischemic heart diseases including myocardial infarction (
 71   II,     5.  2.  1    |               ICD 9: 410-414), and other diseases (ICD 9: 390-409 and 415-
 72   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Table 5.2.1. Ischemic heart diseases (codes ICD-9: 410-14) -
 73   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Trends for ischemic heart diseases (codes ICD-9 410-14) Men
 74   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Trends for ischemic heart diseases (codes ICD-9 410-14) Women
 75   II,     5.  2.  5    |             other major non-communicable diseases.~· In 2006, a large conference
 76   II,     5.  2.  6    |             faster for CVD than in other diseases. Therefore, policies that
 77   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 and other cardiovascular diseases in 27 countries, 1968-1977.
 78   II,     5.  2.  7    |             prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Bulletin of the World Health
 79   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 burden of cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. Task
 80   II,     5.  3.Acr    |          International Classification of Diseases~LE~Life Expectancy~MOSES~
 81   II,     5.  3.  2    |                Unlike other communicable diseases, registration for cancer
 82   II,     5.  3.  3    |        presentation~ ~Cancer is a mix of diseases with different burden in
 83   II,     5.  3.  3    |          International Classification of Diseases (ICD).~- Cancer mortality
 84   II,     5.  3.  8    |           limited number of major killer diseases to a long list of distinct
 85   II,     5.  3.  8    |              preventing non-communicable diseases published by the WHO in
 86   II,     5.  3.  9    |               Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. htt f (document online,
 87   II,     5.  4.  1    |                As for many other chronic diseases, an adequate self-management
 88   II,     5.  4.  2    |            collection of data on chronic diseases hamper the establishment
 89   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  ideal model for chronic diseases, with very little technical
 90   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 those diagnosed with the diseases, and other sources are not
 91   II,     5.  4.  7    |             Diabetes, like other chronic diseases, needs a long-term vision
 92   II,     5.  4.  7    |              areas, particularly chronic diseases although no one fits all
 93   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  epidemiology of chronic diseases: the example of diabetes.
 94   II,     5.  5        |                    5.5. Mental and brain diseases and disorders~ ~
 95   II,     5.  5.Int(19)|     population-based cohorts. Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research
 96   II,     5.  5.  1    |      attributable, for example, to heart diseases and diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.
 97   II,     5.  5.  2    |               cerebral and extracerebral diseases. Neuro-degenerative diseases
 98   II,     5.  5.  2    |             diseases. Neuro-degenerative diseases and small cerebro-vascular
 99   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  cerebro-vascular vessel diseases account for most cases of
100   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  of other conditions and diseases such as cancer and cardio-vascular
101   II,     5.  5.  2    |               cancer and cardio-vascular diseases (British Heart Foundation,
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |                             5.5.3. OTHER DISEASES~ ~
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 endocrines and metabolic diseases and mental disorders are
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |            unhealthy behaviour may cause diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis,
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |            complications, cardiovascular diseases, overweight, diabetes, dental
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |              With respect to psychiatric diseases, depression and addiction
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 with consecutive somatic diseases of the cardiovascular system (
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  great deal of co-morbid diseases remains undiagnosed and
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |             mental illnesses and somatic diseases. The rates vary widely depending
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Psychotherapy and Nervous Diseases recently initiated a National
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |               wider and complex group of diseases/conditions known as Autism
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |                accidents and respiratory diseases among people with severe
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |            problems e.g. cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and cancer.~In
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   and ‘Major and Chronic DiseasesTask Forces of the European
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Vaa T (2005): Impairments, diseases, age and their relative
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |          International Classification of Diseases) codes as they may reflect
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |               causes or from age-related diseases if they are in the older
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |          International Classification of Diseases~IL~Interleukin~IM~Intramuscularly~
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |               nigra pars compacta. Other diseases which also result in the
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |               selected as one of the key diseases. New studies are planned
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |        productivity loss due to 12 major diseases in 6 countries representative
122   II,     5.  6.  1    |               sometimes called rheumatic diseases and those predominantly
123   II,     5.  6.  1    |               the major non-communicable diseases in Europe in the WHO European
124   II,     5.  6.  2    |              Report on Major and Chronic Diseases. These data have been supplemented
125   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 reported musculoskeletal diseases per age group in the Netherlands~ ~
126   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 reported musculoskeletal diseases per age group in the Netherlands (
127   II,     5.  6.  3    |          Netherlands (different group of diseases)~ ~Disability and quality
128   II,     5.  6.  3    |              retardation. Coronary heart diseases and other circulatory diseases
129   II,     5.  6.  3    |           diseases and other circulatory diseases accounted for 4.8%. This
130   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  related musculoskeletal diseases as studies have shown that
131   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Socioeconomic Costs of Rheumatic Diseases. Implications for Technology
132   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 reported musculoskeletal diseases is high. Ann Rheum Dis.
133   II,     5.  6.  6    |                reporting musculoskeletal diseases. J Rheumatol 19:1020-1030~
134   II,     5.  6.  6    |                Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases at the Start of the New
135   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Report of the 56th Session
136   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Economic Burden of Rheumatic Diseases. In Kelley's Textbook of
137   II,     5.  7.  1    |                 not listed among chronic diseases in the 2005 WHO report (
138   II,     5.  7.  1    |             patients with cardiovascular diseases where it acts as a risk
139   II,     5.  7.  1    |           complications in other chronic diseases like in neoplasia and in
140   II,     5.  7.  1    |            between CKD and other chronic diseases with the ultimate scope
141   II,     5.  7.  1    |         cardiovascular risk and to other diseases and its economic implications
142   II,     5.  7.  1    |                  costs for other chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes
143   II,     5.  7.  1    |              diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are magnified by the epidemics
144   II,     5.  7.  1    |               burden deriving from these diseases. Even though cardiovascular
145   II,     5.  7.  1    |               Even though cardiovascular diseases largely remain the main
146   II,     5.  7.  1    |                the death toll of chronic diseases, communicable diseases are
147   II,     5.  7.  1    |           chronic diseases, communicable diseases are not yet under control
148   II,     5.  7.  1    |                in people with infectious diseases and neoplasias and amplifies
149   II,     5.  7.  1    |               policies for other chronic diseases.~ ~Information on CKD in
150   II,     5.  7.  1    |            Fadrowski et al, 2006), these diseases impose high direct and indirect
151   II,     5.  7.  3    |           overestimate the prevalence of diseases and this is apparent also
152   II,     5.  7.  3    |           overestimate the prevalence of diseases and this was apparent also
153   II,     5.  7.  4    |                  with chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis (
154   II,     5.  7.  4    |           inequalities. This is true for diseases such as hypertension (Diez
155   II,     5.  7.  5    |                  with chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis (
156   II,     5.  7.  5    |               for the detection of these diseases.~ ~Policies~ ~· The Danish
157   II,     5.  7.  5    |               not list CKD among chronic diseases. On September 26th 2007,
158   II,     5.  7.  5    |          exacerbate the effects of their diseases. Early figures indicate
159   II,     5.  7.  6    |               policies for other chronic diseases.~ ~In Europe there is still
160   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2005.~Ardissino G, Dacco
161   II,     5.  8.  1    |              associated with respiratory diseases, accounting for 3.8% of
162   II,     5.  8.  2    |                ICD10 Codes for pulmonary diseases~ ~J43~ ~Emphysema~ ~ ~Excludes:~
163   II,     5.  8.  2    |                    emphysema ( J4 )~lung diseases due to external agents ( J6 )~
164   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  pathway co-morbidities: diseases with a common patho-physiology,
165   II,     5.  8.  3    |              COPD, other smoking-related diseases~• Complicating co-morbidities:
166   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 cataract, migraine, skin diseases, depression, up to diabetes,
167   II,     5.  8.  3    |            subjects with different index diseases at baseline, showed that
168   II,     5.  8.  3    |               stage I, II and III of the diseases.~ ~In the SCOPE study, performed
169   II,     5.  8.  3    |          exacerbations, and 34% to other diseases, one-third of the total
170   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  to admissions for other diseases.~ ~In Sweden, the largest
171   II,     5.  8.  4    |                 for acute cardiovascular diseases, and acute infections, will
172   II,     5.  8.  4    |                is one of several chronic diseases that will become more frequent.
173   II,     5.  8.  5    |              against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) is being developed
174   II,     5.  8.  5    |             great problem of respiratory diseases among the general public
175   II,     5.  8.  5    |          research on chronic respiratory diseases (MacNee et al, 2007).~ ~
176   II,     5.  8.  7    |              against Chronic Respiratory Diseases.~Eur Respir J 2007; 29:
177   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Comorbidity of somatic chronic diseases and decline in physical
178   II,     5.  9.Acr    |          SAPALDIA~Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults~ ~ ~ ~
179   II,     5.  9. FB    |                       FOCUS BOX~Allergic diseases and atopy~ ~
180   II,     5.  9. FB    |        Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients~ Associations~-
181   II,     5.  9. FB    |                allergic march~ ~Allergic diseases can currently be managed
182   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 Epidemiology of allergic diseases~ ~Prevalence of allergic
183   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   Prevalence of allergic diseases~ ~More and more people are
184   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  are developing allergic diseases and it is estimated that,~
185   II,     5.  9. FB    |           allergy. Furthermore, allergic diseases are often underestimated,
186   II,     5.  9. FB    |             adequate treatment. Allergic diseases are consideredglobal”
187   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  are consideredglobaldiseases not only because they are
188   II,     5.  9. FB    |                body as a whole. Allergic diseases can arise at any age, although
189   II,     5.  9. FB    |                to the fact that allergic diseases require the health care
190   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 crucial as some allergic diseases can be risk factors for
191   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 epidemiology of allergic diseases. First of all, despite the
192   II,     5.  9. FB    |           allergic individuals.~Allergic diseases have a multifactorial aetiology,
193   II,     5.  9. FB    |                the incidence of allergic diseases in Europe seen particularly
194   II,     5.  9. FB    |         increasing incidence of allergic diseases across Europe could be partially
195   II,     5.  9. FB    |        development of atopy and allergic diseases. Exclusive breast-feeding
196   II,     5.  9. FB    |                the incidence of allergic diseases at 1847 ys of age (Bener
197   II,     5.  9. FB    |               the prevalence of allergic diseases has become a serious public
198   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  improvement of allergic diseases. The following measures
199   II,     5.  9. FB    |            prevent the onset of allergic diseases and finally, remove employees
200   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  developments~ ~Allergic diseases can have a heavy impact
201   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 in dealing with allergic diseases is their prevention, mainly
202   II,     5.  9.  1    |               and AR are often co-morbid diseases to such an extent that the
203   II,     5.  9.  2    |                  J45-J46 ICD9)~Groups of diseases which are dealt with in
204   II,     5.  9.  2    |              objective markers of atopic diseases and investigated allergic
205   II,     5.  9.  3    |           Allergy White Paper” (Allergic diseases as a public health problem
206   II,     5.  9.  4    |         decreased prevalence of allergic diseases in children having daily
207   II,     5.  9.  4    |                on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) (Wü ch
208   II,     5.  9.  4    |                was collected on allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis,
209   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  in relation to allergic diseases (Alberg T 2009)~ ~Also the
210   II,     5.  9.  5    |            related to the major allergic diseases were included in all health
211   II,     5.  9.  5    |                well as for other chronic diseases;~3. monitoring asthma related
212   II,     5.  9.  6    |           patients affected by different diseases with healthy subjects, while
213   II,     5.  9.  6    |              against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) (Bo l, 2006), a WHO
214   II,     5.  9.  6    |            regarding chronic respiratory diseases. The participating organizations
215   II,     5.  9.  6    |           control of chronic respiratory diseases, with a particular emphasis
216   II,     5.  9.  7    |                Alfvén T (2006): Allergic diseases and atopic sensitization
217   II,     5.  9.  7    |             Canonica GW (2006): Allergic diseases and their impact on quality
218   II,     5.  9.  7    |              against chronic Respiratory Diseases). Rev Mal Respir.Sep; 23 (
219   II,     5.  9.  7    |               study on asthma and atopic diseases : I.Comparison of study
220   II,     5.  9.  7    |                          2007): Allergic diseases. Results from the German
221   II,     5.  9.  7    |                 Allergy (1997): Allergic diseases as a public health problem
222   II,     5. 10.Acr    |          International Classification of Diseases~IgE~Immunoglobulin E~SCF~
223   II,     5. 10.  2    |          International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding is used to
224   II,     5. 11        |                     5.11. Dermatological diseases~ ~
225   II,     5. 11.  1    |                   5.11.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases of the skin, the largest
226   II,     5. 11.  1    |          melanoma skin cancer, most skin diseases are not life threatening.
227   II,     5. 11.  1    |             produce a wide range of skin diseases. The skin also has a crucial
228   II,     5. 11.  1    |             which usually cite around 50 diseases, dermatology has a complement
229   II,     5. 11.  1    |               Most of the major systemic diseases (e.g. infectious, vascular
230   II,     5. 11.  1    |           vascular and connective tissue diseases) have manifestations which
231   II,     5. 11.  2    |                 and distribution of skin diseases within Europe.~· the Psonet -
232   II,     5. 11.  3    |               description and analysis~ ~Diseases of the skin are particularly
233   II,     5. 11.  3    |           influences. The number of skin diseases has been estimated to be
234   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 higher than for that for diseases of any other organ of the
235   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   The prevalence of skin diseases tends to increase with age,
236   II,     5. 11.  3    |            Williams et al, 2006).~ ~Skin diseases are a major source of morbidity.
237   II,     5. 11.  3    |               2003).~Relatively few skin diseases are directly and acutely
238   II,     5. 11.  3    |         dermatitis, recalcitrant bullous diseases, chronic wounds such as
239   II,     5. 11.  3    |        ichthyoses and hereditary bullous diseases. Some of the most aggressive
240   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  Chapter 4.3).~Some skin diseases may not seem to qualify
241   II,     5. 11.  3    |                seem to qualify as severe diseases at first glance, but their
242   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  selected dermatological diseases are reported in Tables 5.
243   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  selected dermatological diseases~ ~DISEASE~STUDY POPULATION~
244   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 al. Epidemiology of skin diseases in Europe Eur J Dermatol
245   II,     5. 11.  3    |              Lambeth~ ~Inflammatory skin diseases~ ~Atopic Dermatisis~Atopic
246   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 Surveys of specific skin diseases such as childhood eczema (
247   II,     5. 11.  3    |            common occupationally-related diseases, accounting for substantial
248   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  evolve into more severe diseases, such as pustular or erythrodermic
249   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 their lives.~ ~Rare skin diseases~Historically, skin diseases
250   II,     5. 11.  3    |              diseases~Historically, skin diseases have been mainly perceived
251   II,     5. 11.  3    |                skin disorders. Metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes, hyperlipidemias,
252   II,     5. 11.  3    |            pulmonary and~digestive tract diseases (e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis
253   II,     5. 11.  3    |            disorderscollagen vascular diseases, systemic vasculitides –
254   II,     5. 11.  3    |                organ specific autoimmune diseases (e.g. alopecia areata, vitiligo)
255   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  importance of rare skin diseases such as epidermolysis bullosa (
256   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  study of such rare skin diseases is an area which lends itself
257   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  underlying genetic skin diseases that may greatly profit
258   II,     5. 11.  4    |                   Some inflammatory skin diseases such as occupational hand
259   II,     5. 11.  4    |             characteristic for most skin diseases. Nevertheless, there are
260   II,     5. 11.  4    |               multisystem dermatological diseases are associated with reduced
261   II,     5. 11.  4    |            expectancy: collagen vascular diseases, acquired blistering diseases
262   II,     5. 11.  4    |            diseases, acquired blistering diseases and genetic diseases such
263   II,     5. 11.  4    |          blistering diseases and genetic diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum,
264   II,     5. 11.  4    |               and many others. Rare skin diseases such as blistering drug
265   II,     5. 11.  4    |               among the top four chronic diseases when entire communities
266   II,     5. 11.  4    |                  impact of specific skin diseases and these have shown that
267   II,     5. 11.  4    |                as high as for many other diseases, with much of that cost
268   II,     5. 11.  4    |               and skin care in many skin diseases also need to be considered
269   II,     5. 11.  5    |                dermatitis and many other diseases such as asthma, neurodevelopmental
270   II,     5. 11.  5    |                  water- and food-related diseases, and injuries. Based on
271   II,     5. 11.  5    |             young women. Infectious skin diseases, such as outbreaks of fungal
272   II,     5. 11.  6    |                very common ii) some skin diseases such as skin cancer are
273   II,     5. 11.  6    |                  It is evident that skin diseases can profoundly influence
274   II,     5. 11.  6    |               indications that some skin diseases can be prevented to some
275   II,     5. 11.  6    |                country. Even though skin diseases have the advantage of being
276   II,     5. 11.  6    |              find out the causes of skin diseases which could, in turn, improve
277   II,     5. 11.  6    |               incidence and cost of skin diseases is required in order to
278   II,     5. 11.  7    |                1980): Prevalence of skin diseases in old age. Acta Dermato
279   II,     5. 11.  7    |              2006): Epidemiology of skin diseases in Europe Eur J Dermatol
280   II,     5. 12.  2    |          International Classification of Diseases (ICD) were used (WHO, 1967;
281   II,     5. 12.  5    |                  and other chronic liver diseases is based on the control
282   II,     5. 13        |               medical costs to treat the diseases associated with it (direct
283   II,     5. 13        |                  groups; this originates diseases such as neural defects,
284   II,     5. 13        |                  The prevalence of these diseases is particularly significant
285   II,     5. 13        |             women.~ ~The above-mentioned diseases are dealt with in Chapter
286   II,     5. 13        |                close connection of these diseases with excessive food intake
287   II,     5. 14        |                     5.14 Dental and oral diseases~ ~
288   II,     5. 14.  1    |               the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide; individuals
289   II,     5. 14.  1    |               development.~ ~Periodontal diseases are usually seen as a multifactorial
290   II,     5. 14.  1    |               consequence of periodontal diseases can be the loss of attachment.
291   II,     5. 14.  1    |             manifestation of periodontal diseases is a major cause of tooth
292   II,     5. 14.  2    |                and burden of periodontal diseases and its determinants and
293   II,     5. 14.  2    |              Surveillance of periodontal diseases condition should encourage
294   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  high level of untreated diseases. Oral health is characterized
295   II,     5. 14.  3    |                approaches.~ ~Periodontal diseases~ ~Gingival bleeding is highly
296   II,     5. 14.  3    |            diabetes, some cardiovascular diseases and the risk of premature
297   II,     5. 14.  3    |                 with the burden of these diseases and disorders, falling disproportionately
298   II,     5. 14.  4    |                excess leading to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes,
299   II,     5. 14.  4    |                 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis and
300   II,     5. 14.  4    |            cancer, osteoporosis and oral diseases. Oral health is an integral
301   II,     5. 14.  4    |         synergistic relationship. Dental diseases related to diet include
302   II,     5. 14.  4    |                  prevent or control oral diseases~ ~Currently available evidence
303   II,     5. 14.  5    |                  if the most common oral diseases are preventable, a large
304   II,     5. 14.  5    |                or prevalence of specific diseases to objectives expressed
305   II,     5. 14.  7    |                 be enhanced through oral diseases prevention and health promotion.
306   II,     5. 14.  8    |             epidemiology and periodontal diseases. In: Bourgeois DM, Llodra
307   II,     5. 14.  8    |                The global burden of oral diseases and risk to oral heath.
308   II,     5. 15.  2    |                 OMIM lists 5,760 genetic diseases which are rare. The definition
309   II,     5. 15.  2    |                 split in several genetic diseases.~ ~Orphanet is a database
310   II,     5. 15.  2    |                  not exclusively genetic diseases as for OMIM, but also infectious
311   II,     5. 15.  2    |               intoxications, auto-immune diseases, and RD of unknown aetiology (
312   II,     5. 15.  2    |                 provided by disease. The diseases are listed by alphabetical
313   II,     5. 15.  3    |               single disease or group of diseases. However, in order to evaluate
314   II,     5. 15.  3    |         disabling and for 10% of studied diseases, the patients have no autonomy.
315   II,     5. 15.  3    |                  only 20% of the studied diseases do not affect life expectancy.
316   II,     5. 15.  3    |               expectancy. For 39% of the diseases the life expectancy is rather
317   II,     5. 15.  3    |                MIM catalogue lists 3,600 diseases for which the causal gene(
318   II,     5. 15.  3    |              According to Orphanet 1,360 diseases can be diagnosed through
319   II,     5. 15.  3    |                 This means that for most diseases, the diagnosis can only
320   II,     5. 15.  3    |                 vast majority of genetic diseases are inherited through a
321   II,     5. 15.  3    |               The fact that most genetic diseases mode of inheritance is recessive,
322   II,     5. 15.  4    |         rare diseases, including genetic diseases, was adopted for the period
323   II,     5. 15.  4    |                  information about these diseases. Rare diseases are still
324   II,     5. 15.  4    |                  Paediatric Neurological diseases) have been selected for
325   II,     5. 15.  4    |                  the fight against major diseases, including rare diseases
326   II,     5. 15.  4    |           mendelian phenotypes of common diseases.~ ~
327   II,     5. 15.  5    |              care system.~ ~RD are model diseases for improving the level
328   II,     5. 15.  6    |              Leufkens HGM (2004): Orphan Diseases in “Priority Medicines for
329   II,     6            |                     6.~MAIN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS:
330   II,     6.Acr        |                  VPD~Vaccine-Preventable Diseases~VTEC~Verocytotoxin-producing
331   II,     6.  1        |              most important communicable diseases in 2005 in the 25 EU countries
332   II,     6.  1        |                  and Liechtenstein). The diseases are grouped under six major
333   II,     6.  1        |               trends of the communicable diseases under EU-wide surveillance
334   II,     6.  1        |             chapter is to identify those diseases or disease-specific areas
335   II,     6.  2        |             surveillance of communicable diseases in the European Union must
336   II,     6.  2        |              reported data, both between diseases and between Member States.~ ~
337   II,     6.  2.  0(2) |   Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europe. As the data comes
338   II,     6.  3.  1    |                 3.1. Overview~ ~For some diseases there has been significant
339   II,     6.  3.  1    |               groups). For some of these diseases further joint actions (e.g.
340   II,     6.  3.  1    |            overview of trends for the 49 diseases under surveillance (Table
341   II,     6.  3.  1    |      surveillance (Table 6.1). Of the 49 diseases, 21 have incidence levels
342   II,     6.  3.  1    |                  of the six communicable diseases with the highest incidence
343   II,     6.  3.  1    |                also observed for the two diseases with the highest crude incidence
344   II,     6.  3.  1    |             improved surveillance. In 22 diseases the age groups most affected
345   II,     6.  3.  1    |              threats detected (2005) for diseases reported on EU-level.~ ~
346   II,     6.  3.  1    |          notified. For a large number of diseases under EU-wide surveillance,
347   II,     6.  3.  1    |               programme. For many of the diseases discussed in this report,
348   II,     6.  3.  1    |                for treating communicable diseases are significant, as indicated
349   II,     6.  3.  1    |                  related to communicable diseases have been estimated at around
350   II,     6.  3.  1    |             consequences of communicable diseases can be very severe and instantaneous,
351   II,     6.  3.  1    |             impact of these communicable diseases on the:~· health of present
352   II,     6.  3.  2    |               weapons against infectious diseases.~ ~Resistance has also evolved
353   II,     6.  3.  2    |               comes to the global killer diseases TB, malaria, HIV and pneumococcal
354   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 morbidity from bacterial diseases. They are also absolutely
355   II,     6.  3.  3    |             approaches since each of the diseases has a different pattern
356   II,     6.  3.  3    |                the full picture of these diseases. Best practices for preventive
357   II,     6.  3.  3    |              most important communicable diseases in Europe. In western and
358   II,     6.  3.  3    |               infection into the list of diseases under surveillance at national
359   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 3.5. Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD)~ ~Several of the serious
360   II,     6.  3.  5    |              serious vaccine-preventable diseases are now almost eradicated
361   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  million or lower.~ ~All diseases covered by the MMR vaccine (
362   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 meningitis is one of the diseases for which surveillance figures
363   II,     6.  3.  5    |         situation. Most of the childhood diseases that are now preventable
364   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 and outbreaks of certain diseases. Examples are diphtheria
365   II,     6.  3.  6    |            surveillance of this group of diseases is restricted by variations
366   II,     6.  3.  6    |                     For several of these diseases surveillance has improved
367   II,     6.  3.  6    |   gastroenteritis. Surveillance of these diseases remains important, not only
368   II,     6.  3.  6    |          surveillance for all food-borne diseases (covering all the diseases,
369   II,     6.  3.  6    |               diseases (covering all the diseases, but also enhancing the
370   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  sub-typing. The list of diseases currently under surveillance
371   II,     6.  3.  6    |           established for all food-borne diseases.~ ~
372   II,     6.  3.  6    |             coastal waters, transmitting diseases through infected seafood.
373   II,     6.  3.  6    |          occurred in Europe. As for many diseases, large differences between
374   II,     6.  3.  6    |                           6.3.6.4. Prion diseases~ ~Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
375   II,     6.  3.  7    |                             6.3.7. Other diseases of zoonotic and environmental
376   II,     6.  3.  7    |              very heterogeneous group of diseases that fall into two broad
377   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  two broad categories:~· Diseases present in Europe (tularaemia,
378   II,     6.  3.  7    |                infection). Some of these diseases have the potential to be
379   II,     6.  3.  7    |            tularemia). At present, these diseases have a low number of cases,
380   II,     6.  3.  7    |             countries. For each of these diseases there is a need to develop
381   II,     6.  3.  7    |        standardise laboratory methods.~· Diseases imported into Europe (malaria,
382   II,     6.  3.  7    |                   and plague). For these diseases it is important to have
383   II,     6.  3.  7    |              most important of the above diseases are tularaemia, puumala
384   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 EU.~ ~A number of exotic diseases, such as VHF, malaria and
385   II,     6.  3.  7    |               remain valid. Few of these diseases actually pose any major
386   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  citizens. Some of these diseases are prone to outbreaks,
387   II,     6.  3.  7    |        vector-borne and other infectious diseases, some of them imported from
388   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  This is a wide range of diseases with different modes of
389   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  Considering the type of diseases and their possible impact,
390   II,     6.  3.  7    |                                 6.3.7.2. Diseases present in Europe~ ~Tularemia~ ~
391   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 6.3.7.3. Mainly imported diseases~ ~Malaria~ ~Malaria is caused
392   II,     6.  4.  1    |                 the list of communicable diseases (as listed on http://europa.
393   II,     6.  4.  1    |                  control of communicable diseases are greatly facilitated
394   II,     6.  4.  1    |                  control of communicable diseases was established by Decision
395   II,     6.  4.  1    |                in 1999. The Communicable Diseases Network was set up to detect
396   II,     6.  4.  2    |                  related to communicable diseases, the Commission has put
397   II,     6.  4.  2    |                  to control communicable diseases and the European Centre
398   II,     6.  4.  2    |                 other major communicable diseases.~ ~The ECDC is in charge
399   II,     6.  4.  2    |               for reporting communicable diseases to the Community network.~ ~
400   II,     6.  4.  4    |               health posed by infectious diseases. In order to achieve this
401   II,     6.  4.  4    |                  and emerging infectious diseases.~ ~ ~The ECDC has a budget
402   II,     6.  4.  4    |                work on several groups of diseases.~ ~The ECDC is the hub of
403   II,     6.  4.  4    |             extended beyond communicable diseases to tackle other major cross
404   II,     6.  4.  5    |                  control of communicable diseases (Decision 2119/98/EC). Such
405   II,     6.  4.  5    |               the spread of communicable diseases, on the occurrence of resistant
406   II,     6.  4.  5    |                outbreaks of communicable diseases, to reduce the need for
407   II,     7.Acr        |            Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems~
408   II,     7.  1        |              States after cardiovascular diseases, cancer and respiratory
409   II,     7.  1        |                   cancer and respiratory diseases. About 60 million people,
410   II,     7.  2        |          International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (
411   II,     7.  2.  1    |            Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems)
412   II,     7.  3.  2    |                  EU. Only cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diseases of
413   II,     7.  3.  2    |      cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diseases of the respiratory system
414   II,     8.  1.  1    |             aging or to sequelae of some diseases, road traffic, home and
415   II,     8.  1.  3    |               suffering from progressive diseases and other problems.~ ~Slightly
416   II,     8.  2.  1    |          International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, 1992) as a
417   II,     8.  2.  1    |          International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Geneva,
418   II,     8.  2.  2    |                  of the treatment of eye diseases, including the relevant
419   II,     8.  2.  2    |            statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of
420   II,     8.  2.  3    |            congenital causes, infectious diseases, other diseases or injury (
421   II,     8.  2.  3    |               infectious diseases, other diseases or injury (adult-onset hearing
422   II,     9            |       pregnancies, fertility, infectious diseases and other reproductive health
423   II,     9            |                    Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which reduce functional
424   II,     9            |             pollution and to the risk of diseases such as respiratory infections.
425   II,     9            |               transmission of infectious diseases (WHO, 1999). ~ ~Nutrition.
426   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   in part, to infectious diseases and accidental deaths which
427   II,     9.  1.  2    |                see Chapter 5). Metabolic diseases diagnosed through neonatal
428   II,     9.  1.  2    |                anomalies and more common diseases for what concerns access
429   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 oriented towards genetic diseases and towards developing drug
430   II,     9.  1.  2    |              drug treatments for genetic diseases. Full attention should in
431   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 Study", Congenital Heart Diseases, Vol 2, pp 165-169.~Garne
432   II,     9.  2.  1    |              pressure and cardiovascular diseases.~ ~The consequences of the
433   II,     9.  2.  1    |                  of childhood infectious diseases through measures such as
434   II,     9.  2.  2    |                 adults, and by the major diseases of adulthood.~ ~The European
435   II,     9.  2.  3    |                  reduction in infectious diseases, particularly those categorised
436   II,     9.  2.  3    |               priority, and outbreaks of diseases such as measles continue
437   II,     9.  2.  3    |                At the same time, related diseases are manifesting themselves
438   II,     9.  2.  4    |       pregnancies, fertility, infectious diseases and other reproductive health
439   II,     9.  2.  5    |                are provided for specific diseases in Chapter 5 and for specific
440   II,     9.  2.  7    |          overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. Brussels~ ~European Commission (
441   II,     9.  2.  7    |                   Fetal growth and adult diseases. Semin Perinatol. 28:81-
442   II,     9.  3.  1    |               death being cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, violence,
443   II,     9.  3.  1    |              increased susceptibility to diseases and death. Neither can these
444   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  Even some male specific diseases are still seen to be lacking
445   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  World Bank’s “Burden of Diseases Study”.~ ~Determining the
446   II,     9.  3.  1    |                the prevalence of certain diseases and conditions is difficult.
447   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 mainly to cardiovascular diseases, cancer and injury and poisoning (
448   II,     9.  3.  1    |               The World Bank’s Burden of Diseases Study, judged depression
449   II,     9.  3.  1    |               Chapter 5.3.~ ~Circulatory diseases~ ~Cardiovascular diseases
450   II,     9.  3.  1    |                diseases~ ~Cardiovascular diseases are the main group of causes
451   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  a year in the EU. These diseases tend to develop at a later
452   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  protected against heart diseases before menopause by oestrogen.
453   II,     9.  3.  1    |          oestrogen. The main circulatory diseases are ischemic heart disease,
454   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  deaths from circulatory diseases.~ ~Prevalence, incidence,
455   II,     9.  3.  1    |         morbidity data of cardiovascular diseases are described in Chapter
456   II,     9.  3.  1    |               Analysis of cardiovascular diseases highlighted the main reported
457   II,     9.  3.  1    |                     The main circulatory diseases are ischemic heart disease (
458   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  deaths from circulatory diseases) and stroke (one third of
459   II,     9.  3.  1    |         determinant of other circulatory diseases such as circulatory diseases
460   II,     9.  3.  1    |             diseases such as circulatory diseases and renal failure.~ ~Ischemic
461   II,     9.  3.  1    |               determinant of circulatory diseases and renal failure. In 2005,
462   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  a higher coronary heart diseases (CHD) mortality than men
463   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  obesity.~ ~Communicable diseases~ ~Hepatitis C. In Western
464   II,     9.  3.  1    |                progressive nature of the diseases and (b) those women with
465   II,     9.  3.  1    |                ART. Present and previous diseases and drugs taken should then
466   II,     9.  3.  1    |                are provided for specific diseases in Chapter 5 and for specific
467   II,     9.  3.  2    |              obstetric complications and diseases. Maternal morbidity is not,
468   II,     9.  3.  2    |             common prevalence of chronic diseases and maternal conditions,
469   II,     9.  3.  3    |               transmission of infectious diseases. Analysis of sexual behaviour
470   II,     9.  4.  2    |              ischemic or cerebrovascular diseases. Data is dated (often more
471   II,     9.  4.  2    |              size and pattern of chronic diseases and the socioeconomic differences
472   II,     9.  4.  2    |                  for some specific fatal diseases (e.g. stroke) and non-fatal
473   II,     9.  4.  2    |               e.g. stroke) and non-fatal diseases (e.g. arthritis) require
474   II,     9.  4.  3    |                 are malignant neoplasms, diseases of the circulatory and respiratory
475   II,     9.  4.  3    |                   other external causes, diseases of the circulatory system
476   II,     9.  4.  3    |               the circulatory system and diseases of the respiratory system (
477   II,     9.  4.  3    |                Leagues, 2005).~ ~Chronic diseases and disablement are predominant
478   II,     9.  4.  3    |                  suffer from the chronic diseases commonly associated with
479   II,     9.  4.  3    |                  but as women age, these diseases become the major causes
480   II,     9.  4.  3    |             Centre, 2006).~ ~Circulatory diseases~ ~This category includes
481   II,     9.  4.  3    |                  includes ischemic heart diseases and other heart diseases
482   II,     9.  4.  3    |                 diseases and other heart diseases as well as stroke and other
483   II,     9.  4.  3    |               and other cerebro-vascular diseases. Circulatory diseases are
484   II,     9.  4.  3    |   cerebro-vascular diseases. Circulatory diseases are responsible of about
485   II,     9.  4.  3    |                  causes of death are the diseases of pulmonary circulation
486   II,     9.  4.  3    |                al, 2001).~ ~Communicable diseases~ ~Preventive health services
487   II,     9.  4.  3    |            individuals, who have chronic diseases affecting respiratory functions
488   II,     9.  4.  3    |               other sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections were newly
489   II,     9.  4.  3    |             preventable non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular
490   II,     9.  4.  3    |                 including cardiovascular diseases and cancers, can be a major
491   II,     9.  4.  4    |                    Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which reduce functional
492   II,     9.  4.  4    |             pollution and to the risk of diseases such as respiratory infections.
493   II,     9.  4.  4    |               transmission of infectious diseases (WHO, 1999). ~ ~Nutrition.
494   II,     9.  4.  5    |                are provided for specific diseases in Chapter 5 and for specific
495   II,     9.  4.  5    |               risk of almost all chronic diseases than those in more privileged
496   II,     9.  4.  5    |                 control non-communicable diseases in the WHO European region;~·
497   II,     9.  4.  7    |            mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors
498   II,     9.  5.  1    |             bodies are affected by major diseases (Denton, 2004; Iredale,
499   II,     9.  5.  1    |              treatment of cardiovascular diseases vary between the genders.
500   II,     9.  5.  3    |                  the risk of contracting diseases such as cancers. Restricted