1-500 | 501-824
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |            Globalisation of trade in food and animals has broadened
  2    I,     2.  1        |              control of zoonoses and food borne diseases much more
  3    I,     2.  2        |              ecosystems and trade in food, animals and other goods
  4    I,     2.  8        |              transported goods (e.g. food).~ ~
  5    I,     2. 10.  1    |      toxicogenomics) or the impact o food on human health (nutrigenomics).
  6    I,     2. 10.  2    |             and other fields such as food packaging, food supplements,
  7    I,     2. 10.  2    |              such as food packaging, food supplements, food and feed
  8    I,     2. 10.  2    |         packaging, food supplements, food and feed additives, animal
  9   II,     5.  1.  1    |            natural toxins present in food; some metals (arsenic, cadmium,
 10   II,     5.  1.  1    |          have emerged. Some, such as food, physical activity and mental
 11   II,     5.  1.  1    |            of the incident patients.~Food Allergy~In adults, main
 12   II,     5.  1.  1    |         impact in the development of food allerfy, even if definitive
 13   II,     5.  1.  1    |       associated with an increase of food allergy because of the incomplete
 14   II,     5.  1.  1    |     determine an higher incidence of food allergy, because of the
 15   II,     5.  1.  1    |     Overweight and obesity~Excessive food intake as compared to needs
 16   II,     5.  2.  6    |             European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy 2007-
 17   II,     5.  2.  6    |       establishes health, nutrition, food safety and food security
 18   II,     5.  2.  6    |           nutrition, food safety and food security goals and provides
 19   II,     5.  2.  6    |              improving nutrition and food safety in early life, ensuring
 20   II,     5.  2.  6    |              healthy and sustainable food supply, providing comprehensive
 21   II,     5.  2.  6    |          strengthening nutrition and food safety in the health sector,
 22   II,     5.  2.  7    |             European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy 2007-
 23   II,     5.  3.  9    |              784-796.~ ~WCRF (2007): Food, Nutrition, Physical activity,
 24   II,     5.  4.  1    |             sanitation, and low cost food constitute a threatening
 25   II,     5.  5.  2    |           such as washing, preparing food and getting dressed as well
 26   II,     5.  5.  2    |              research. Some, such as food, physical activity and mental
 27   II,     5.  5.  2    |       commercial companies producing food products are emphasising
 28   II,     5.  5.  3    |          unhealthy relationship with food, abnormal weight loss, difficulties
 29   II,     5.  5.  3    |          avoidance of highly-caloric food, self-induced vomiting,
 30   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Union~EUFIC~The European Food Information Council~HBSC~
 31   II,     5.  5.  3    |     Parkinson’s disease: the role of food groups and specific foods.
 32   II,     5.  7.  7    |         Kanaya AM, Kushel MB (2007): Food insecurity is associated
 33   II,     5.  9. FB    |          complaints, conjunctivitis, food and drug hypersensitivities.
 34   II,     5.  9. FB    |           the human organism through food, airways and contact with
 35   II,     5.  9. FB    |               Clustering of European food allergy research~- World
 36   II,     5.  9. FB    |        allergic asthma, rhinitis and food allergies. This correlation
 37   II,     5.  9. FB    |          developing IgE responses to food proteins early in life.~ ~
 38   II,     5.  9. FB    |      maternal avoidance of potential food allergens (milk, eggs and
 39   II,     5.  9. FB    |           may only be related to the food proteins that were avoided
 40   II,     5.  9.  5    |              of allergies, some with food allergens and some with
 41   II,     5. 10        |                                5.10. Food allergy and intolerance~ ~
 42   II,     5. 10.Acr    |          Health Survey~EFSA~European Food safety Authority~EU~European
 43   II,     5. 10.Acr    |       Authority~EU~European Union~FA~Food Allergy~FHS~Food Hypersensitivity~
 44   II,     5. 10.Acr    |            Union~FA~Food Allergy~FHS~Food Hypersensitivity~ICD~International
 45   II,     5. 10.Acr    |             Scientific Committee for Food~
 46   II,     5. 10.  1    |  Introduction~ ~Adverse reactions to food include immune mediated
 47   II,     5. 10.  1    |           immune mediated reactions (food allergy) involving either
 48   II,     5. 10.  1    |           immune-mediated responses (food intolerance) that are dependent
 49   II,     5. 10.  1    |              of adverse reactions to food.~(Adapted from EFSA, 2004
 50   II,     5. 10.  1    |      problems by eating a particular food, and about 12% declare to
 51   II,     5. 10.  1    |          time they consume a certain food. This prevalence of self-perceived
 52   II,     5. 10.  1    |         prevalence of self-perceived food hypersensitivity (FHS) is
 53   II,     5. 10.  1    |              of clinically confirmed food allergy (FA), which has
 54   II,     5. 10.  1    |              time frame in which the food is consumed, the sensitivity
 55   II,     5. 10.  1    |              are more than 80 common food items with allergenic potential (
 56   II,     5. 10.  1    |            avoiding the incriminated food. In the case of IgE-mediated
 57   II,     5. 10.  1    |             the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, where very small
 58   II,     5. 10.  1    |            could inadequately reduce food choice among allergic consumers
 59   II,     5. 10.  2    |         allergens in general, and on food allergens in particular,
 60   II,     5. 10.  2    |                   Bioinformatics for Food Safety (BIFS)~htt tm~Central
 61   II,     5. 10.  2    |       network of over 30 clinicians, food scientists and plant biologists
 62   II,     5. 10.  2    |             studying the problems of food allergy, with funding from
 63   II,     5. 10.  2    |        allergenic potential of plant food proteins, their molecular
 64   II,     5. 10.  2    |      Commission (Communicating about Food AllergiesInformation
 65   II,     5. 10.  2    |            information on allergenic food materials of both plant
 66   II,     5. 10.  2    |         information for more than 80 food allergens.~ ~
 67   II,     5. 10.  2    |            the question of labelling food ingredients to which some
 68   II,     5. 10.  2    |             Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) was asked to identify
 69   II,     5. 10.  2    |         asked to identify the foods, food components and food ingredients
 70   II,     5. 10.  2    |           foods, food components and food ingredients more frequently
 71   II,     5. 10.  2    |              5.10.2.3. Prevalence of food hypersensitivity and food
 72   II,     5. 10.  2    |            food hypersensitivity and food allergy~ ~The first attempt
 73   II,     5. 10.  2    |         differentiate between FA and food intolerance) and/or sensitization
 74   II,     5. 10.  2    |            standard methodology (i.e food challenge studies and particularly
 75   II,     5. 10.  2    |            characterise and classify food allergic reactions across
 76   II,     5. 10.  2    |             no specific reference to food allergy, apart from dermatitis
 77   II,     5. 10.  2    |           dermatitis due to ingested food (Table 2).~ ~Table 5.10.
 78   II,     5. 10.  2    |             of allergic reactions to food in 11 countries of the European
 79   II,     5. 10.  2    |           Dermatitis due to ingested food~995.0~Anaphylactic shock~
 80   II,     5. 10.  2    |           Dermatitis due to ingested food~T78.0~Anaphylactic shock
 81   II,     5. 10.  2    |    Anaphylactic shock due to adverse food reaction~T78.1~Other adverse
 82   II,     5. 10.  2    |         reaction~T78.1~Other adverse food reactions, not elsewhere
 83   II,     5. 10.  3    |             analysis~ ~Prevalence of food hypersensitivity~ ~A community
 84   II,     5. 10.  3    |             most commonly identified food items considered responsible
 85   II,     5. 10.  3    |             in allergic reactions to food - namely skin rash/urticaria,
 86   II,     5. 10.  3    |          2001) - out of 87 different food items, include chocolate (
 87   II,     5. 10.  3    |              Figure 5.10.2. Reported food allergy/intolerance prevalence
 88   II,     5. 10.  3    |           Prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy~ ~There is a wide
 89   II,     5. 10.  3    |      perceive they are intolerant to food (see section 5.10.3.1.)
 90   II,     5. 10.  3    |            the number confirmed with food challenge (0.8-2.4%) (EU
 91   II,     5. 10.  3    |        IgE-mediated FA to individual food items in single European
 92   II,     5. 10.  3    |   IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food in Europe (Gupta et al 2003),
 93   II,     5. 10.  3    |       Prevalence of non IgE-mediated food allergy~Celiac disease (
 94   II,     5. 10.  3    |            diffused non IgE-mediated food allergy worldwide (Figure
 95   II,     5. 10.  4    |           true allergic reactions to food are often under-diagnosed
 96   II,     5. 10.  4    |   self-perceived hypersensitivity to food and over-diagnosis of FA
 97   II,     5. 10.  4    |        avoidance of the incriminated food. Patients and their families
 98   II,     5. 10.  4    |            families tend to restrict food choices, limit social occasions
 99   II,     5. 10.  4    |           social occasions linked to food consumption and show high
100   II,     5. 10.  5    |             the main way of managing food allergy and intolerance
101   II,     5. 10.  5    |         exposure to the incriminated food, adequate food labelling
102   II,     5. 10.  5    |          incriminated food, adequate food labelling is a major policy
103   II,     5. 10.  5    |             consumers suffering from food allergies or who wish to
104   II,     5. 10.  5    |           less than 25% of the final food product. In addition, Annex
105   II,     5. 10.  5    |            2003) specifies a list of food ingredients or substances
106   II,     5. 10.  5    |    IgE-mediated and non IgE-mediated food allergy, or between food
107   II,     5. 10.  5    |             food allergy, or between food allergy and food intolerance
108   II,     5. 10.  5    |             between food allergy and food intolerance regarding the
109   II,     5. 10.  5    |                Table 5.10.3. List of food ingredients/substances subject
110   II,     5. 10.  5    |             opinions of the European Food safety Authority (EFSA)
111   II,     5. 10.  5    |            to note that the lists of food ingredients or substances
112   II,     5. 10.  6    |          minimum threshold doses for food allergens below which the
113   II,     5. 10.  6    |     responsible for non IgE-mediated food allergies and intolerances.
114   II,     5. 10.  6    |              methods of detection of food allergens in foods that
115   II,     5. 10.  6    |    sensitivity and possibly overcome food matrix issues, would be
116   II,     5. 10.  6    |       extraordinarily helpful to the food industry and policy makers
117   II,     5. 10.  6    |      consumers is a must to increase food choice and the quality of
118   II,     5. 10.  6    |            quality of social life of food allergic individuals (de
119   II,     5. 10.  6    |           allergens, on the way that food processing may affect allergenicity
120   II,     5. 10.  6    |            allergenicity of foods or food components, and on the allergenic
121   II,     5. 10.  7    |        Vieths S (2007): IgE-Mediated food allergy diagnosis: Current
122   II,     5. 10.  7    |           new perspectives. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 135-147.~ ~Brusic
123   II,     5. 10.  7    |       measuring the social impact of food allergy across Europe: a
124   II,     5. 10.  7    |  Incorporating a gender dimension in food allergy research: a review.
125   II,     5. 10.  7    |          2005 establishing a list of food ingredients or substances
126   II,     5. 10.  7    |           Council as regards certain food ingredients. Official Journal
127   II,     5. 10.  7    |          2007, pp. 1114.~ ~European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (
128   II,     5. 10.  7    |             The occurrence of severe food allergies in the EU”. April
129   II,     5. 10.  7    |         sequence databases. Mol Nutr Food Res. 50(7):633-637):~ ~Gupta
130   II,     5. 10.  7    |            concise monograph series: food allergy. Brussels: International
131   II,     5. 10.  7    |           Institute.~ ~International Food Authorities Network (INFOSAN) (
132   II,     5. 10.  7    |         information note No. 3/2006- Food Allergies. World Health
133   II,     5. 10.  7    |            Consequences of perceived food intolerance for welfare,
134   II,     5. 10.  7    |           for welfare, lifestyle and food choice practices, in a community
135   II,     5. 10.  7    |         severe allergic reactions to food - results after three years.
136   II,     5. 10.  7    |              where are we going with food allergen labelling? Allergy
137   II,     5. 10.  7    |        prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe. Allergy
138   II,     5. 10.  7    |             2007): The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis.
139   II,     5. 10.  7    |       adverse reactions to foods and food ingredients. Reports of
140   II,     5. 10.  7    |             novel proteins. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:604-9. The InformAll
141   II,     5. 10.  7    |             Evaluating the effect of food processing on the potential
142   II,     5. 10.  7    |       international workshop report. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jul;45(
143   II,     5. 10.  7    |            EH et al (1998): Reported food intolerance and respiratory
144   II,     5. 10.  7    |              prevalences of reported food allergies and intolerances (
145   II,     5. 10.  7    |              2002): Reported adverse food reactions overestimate true
146   II,     5. 10.  7    |          reactions overestimate true food allergy in the community.
147   II,     5. 13        |            associated with excessive food consumption and with the
148   II,     5. 13        |    physiological needs) energy-dense food (i.e. food containing large
149   II,     5. 13        |              energy-dense food (i.e. food containing large amounts
150   II,     5. 13        |            cheaper than good quality food. The prevalence of overweight
151   II,     5. 13        |   body weight derived from excessive food consumption and inadequate
152   II,     5. 13        |             There is an abundance of food in Europe that, while energy-rich,
153   II,     5. 13        |             often poor in nutrients. Food portion sizes are growing,
154   II,     5. 13        |             Southern (Mediterranean) food cultures. Nevertheless,
155   II,     5. 13        |            In spite of the excessive food consumptions occurring in
156   II,     5. 13        |              diseases with excessive food intake and unbalanced nutrition.~
157   II,     6.  3.  1    |           sectors (especially in the food and agricultural sectors)
158   II,     6.  3.  6    |                               6.3.6. Food and waterborne infections~ ~
159   II,     6.  3.  6    |      intensified farming, industrial food production, and a largely
160   II,     6.  3.  6    |              a largely international food market have created new,
161   II,     6.  3.  6    |             one contaminated part of food can affect a large number
162   II,     6.  3.  6    |              of coordination between food, animal and environmental
163   II,     6.  3.  6    |             also with veterinary and food safety authorities. At EU
164   II,     6.  3.  6    |        infections, there are several food or waterborne infections
165   II,     6.  3.  6    |            to identify weaknesses in food (and water) processing and
166   II,     6.  3.  6    |          consumption of contaminated food (mainly chicken) or water.
167   II,     6.  3.  6    |          consumption of contaminated food. After a peak in 1995, the
168   II,     6.  3.  6    |          consumption of contaminated food and water. Preventive measures
169   II,     6.  3.  6    |            include good personal and food hygiene.~ ~The overall incidence
170   II,     6.  3.  6    |          indirectly via contaminated food or water. General hygiene
171   II,     6.  3.  6    |          consumption of contaminated food (especially beef and raw
172   II,     6.  3.  6    |            of the bacterium into the food chain. In addition, good
173   II,     6.  3.  6    |     practices in meat processing and food handling are essential preventive
174   II,     6.  3.  6    |          consumption of contaminated food is the principal route of
175   II,     6.  3.  6    |         prevent the contamination of food products. Preventive measures
176   II,     6.  3.  6    |        Clostridium botulinum. Eating food that contains the botulism
177   II,     6.  3.  6    |            ingestion of contaminated food, though recently sexual
178   II,     6.  3.  6    |            ingestion of contaminated food or water, and several large
179   II,     6.  3.  6    |              of undercooked infected food. The number of reported
180   II,     6.  3.  6    |            enter the human or animal food chains, and that blood or
181   II,     6.  3.  6    |           vCJD through prions in the food chain has had profound political,
182   II,     6.  3.  7    |       contact or ingestion of water, food, or soil contaminated by
183   II,     6.  4.  5    |       products but also through:~ ~· food surveillance with the aim
184   II,     6.  4.  5    |         programmes; e) reinforce the food monitoring system as regards
185   II,     6.  4.  5    |       different purposes in feed and food; g) give particular attention
186   II,     9            |             There is an abundance of food in Europe that, while energy-rich,
187   II,     9            |             often poor in nutrients. Food portion sizes are growing,
188   II,     9            |           status, dietary habits and food pattern, energy and nutrient
189   II,     9            |            widely across Europe. The food pattern in southern countries
190   II,     9            |              Volkert, 2005). Healthy food and eating habits should
191   II,     9.  1.  2    |            fortification of a staple food, such as flour, following
192   II,     9.  1.  2    |           recommended by the British Food Standards Agency. Research
193   II,     9.  1.  2    |              additional argument for food fortification.~ ~Secondary
194   II,     9.  1.  2    |            fortification of a staple food is the single most promising
195   II,     9.  1.  2    |              Europe Fortify a Staple Food with Folic Acid?", The Lancet,
196   II,     9.  2.  2    |           particular health outcome. Food and alcohol consumption
197   II,     9.  2.  2    |            consumption are examples. Food preferences will vary geographically,
198   II,     9.  2.  2    |       socioeconomic opportunity, and food availability. Distinct differences
199   II,     9.  2.  2    |             Southern (Mediterranean) food cultures. Structural and
200   II,     9.  2.  7    |       Commission (2006d): Health and Food, Special Eurobarometer Issue
201   II,     9.  3.  1    |             There is an abundance of food in Europe that, while energy-rich,
202   II,     9.  3.  1    |             often poor in nutrients. Food portion sizes are growing,
203   II,     9.  4.  4    |           status, dietary habits and food pattern, energy and nutrient
204   II,     9.  4.  4    |            widely across Europe. The food pattern in southern countries
205   II,     9.  4.  4    |              Volkert, 2005). Healthy food and eating habits should
206   II,     9.  5.  3    |             There is an abundance of food in Europe that, while energy-rich,
207   II,     9.  5.  3    |             often poor in nutrients. Food portion sizes are growing,
208   II,     9.  5.  3    |             southern (Mediterranean) food cultures. Nevertheless,
209   II,     9.  5.  3    |           commonly women who provide food, health and care to their
210   II,     9.  5.  3    |            an important influence on food choice, divided per sex
211   II,     9.  5.  3    |          1996 (%)~ ~Women’s personal food choices, however, may have
212   II,     9.  5.  3    |             carried out by women are food preparation and cleaning
213  III,    10.  1        |     exposures from multiple sources (food, air and water), the 'cocktail-effect'
214  III,    10.  1        |            Ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water~Schools~
215  III,    10.  1        |          Biological~Contact with non food consumer products~Urban,
216  III,    10.  1        |         environment, ambient air and food; and biological factors,
217  III,    10.  1        |              diseases~water, air and food contamination~climate change-related
218  III,    10.  1        |            noise~inhalable particles~food, e.g. high cholesterol~stress~ ~
219  III,    10.  1        |            dioxins~Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high fat~poor exercise~
220  III,    10.  1.  1    |       Association between subgroups (food choices / nutrition and
221  III,    10.  1.  1    |         physical activity influences food intake are complex (Titchenal,
222  III,    10.  1.  1    |            play an important role in food intake regulation (Blundell
223  III,    10.  1.  1    |             that behavioural acts of food intake depend partly on
224  III,    10.  1.  1    |       explained by the fact that the food intake response to exercise
225  III,    10.  1.  1    |        cognitions, susceptibility to food advertising and reasons
226  III,    10.  1.  1    |              the interaction between food intake and physical activity
227  III,    10.  1.  1    |           field (Titchenal, 1988).~ ~Food intake is not only influenced
228  III,    10.  1.  3    |        between physical activity and food intake. Proc Nutr Soc 57:
229  III,    10.  1.  3    |              of physical activity on food intake. Clinical Nutrition
230  III,    10.  1.  3    |               product placement, and food labelling. J Public Health
231  III,    10.  1.  3    |              CA (1988): Exercise and food intake. What is the relationship?
232  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Alcohol and Other Drugs~FAO~Food and Agriculture Organization~
233  III,    10.  2.  1    |     Agriculture Organization~FAOSTAT~Food and Agriculture Organization
234  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Children (HBSC; WHO-EURO)~ ~Food and Agriculture Organization~ ~·
235  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Frequency of daily intake of food and drink~ ~· Proportion
236  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Wave 64.3: Health and Food (TNS Opinion and Social,
237  III,    10.  2.  1    |             stakeholders influencing food choices (WHO, 2006a; WHO,
238  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity
239  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Wave 64.3: Health and Food. Requested by Health and
240  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  10.2.1.7. Excessive food intake and imbalanced diet~ ~ ~
241  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Scientific Committee on Food~UNECE~United Nations Economic
242  III,    10.  2.  1    |            associated with excessive food consumption and with the
243  III,    10.  2.  1    |    physiological needs) energy-dense food (i.e. food containing large
244  III,    10.  2.  1    |              energy-dense food (i.e. food containing large amounts
245  III,    10.  2.  1    |            cheaper than good quality food. The prevalence of overweight
246  III,    10.  2.  1    |               derived from excessive food consumption and inadequate
247  III,    10.  2.  1    |            In spite of the excessive food consumptions occurring in
248  III,    10.  2.  1    |        listed under references.~ ~b) Food consumption and dietary
249  III,    10.  2.  1    |              dietary intake data and food composition tables are comparable.~
250  III,    10.  2.  1    |          regard to the collection of food consumption data at individual
251  III,    10.  2.  1    |              20,000 people. However, food consumption data obtained
252  III,    10.  2.  1    |             to the national surveys, food consumption data are also
253  III,    10.  2.  1    |         specific issues, like:~ ~· A food survey in a sample of Italian
254  III,    10.  2.  1    |          overcome this, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
255  III,    10.  2.  1    |        developing a concise European food consumption database with
256  III,    10.  2.  1    |   consumption database with 15 broad food categories and 21 subcategories.
257  III,    10.  2.  1    |    established a European Network of Food Consumption Database Managers.
258  III,    10.  2.  1    |         recent and relevant national food consumption data to EFSA.
259  III,    10.  2.  1    |       database is planned to contain food consumption data only for
260  III,    10.  2.  1    |          database with more specific food categories. The “concise
261  III,    10.  2.  1    |             categories. The “concise food consumption database” is
262  III,    10.  2.  1    |          information on the national food consumption surveys of each
263  III,    10.  2.  1    |             EFSA European Network of Food Consumption Database Managers
264  III,    10.  2.  1    |              information on national food consumption surveys of the
265  III,    10.  2.  1    |             EFSA European Network of Food Consumption Database Managers.~ ~ ~
266  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Belgium~Belgian National Food Consumption Survey~BNFCS2004~
267  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Bulgaria~National Survey of Food Intake and Nutritional Status~ ~
268  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Czech Republic~Individual food consumption study~SISP04~
269  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Mensink G B M et.al. (2004) Food and nutrient intake in European
270  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Ireland~North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS)~
271  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Cialfa E, D'Amicis A (2001): Food consumption patterns in
272  III,    10.  2.  1    |              NORKOST~1997~2672~16-79~Food Frequency Questionnaire~ ~ ~
273  III,    10.  2.  1    |   Questionnaire~ ~ ~Poland~Household Food Consumption and Anthropometric
274  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Weisell R.C.: The Household Food Consumption and Anthropometric
275  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Netherlands~Dutch National Food Consumption Survey~DNFCS~
276  III,    10.  2.  1    |           General information at www.food.gov.uk~ ~ ~Supply Balance
277  III,    10.  2.  1    |          EUROSTAT (2006) to estimate food availability to the consumer.
278  III,    10.  2.  1    |            human consumption of main food items and the accessibility
279  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and the accessibility of food to consumers.~ ~European
280  III,    10.  2.  1    |           European Union DAFNE (DAta Food NEtworking) – is harmonising
281  III,    10.  2.  1    |           creation of a pan-European food databank based on national
282  III,    10.  2.  1    |         methodologies to utilise the food and related data derived
283  III,    10.  2.  1    |         person per day of comparable food items or groups among DAFNE
284  III,    10.  2.  1    |              developed a databank on food availability at the household
285  III,    10.  2.  1    |         participated in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (
286  III,    10.  2.  1    |              a method for monitoring food consumption in nationally
287  III,    10.  2.  1    |        indicate how to make existing food consumption data comparable;
288  III,    10.  2.  1    |              a method for monitoring food consumption in nationally
289  III,    10.  2.  1    |            continued in the European Food Consumption Validation(EFCOVAL)
290  III,    10.  2.  1    |       validation of a trans-European food consumption data acquisition
291  III,    10.  2.  1    |        capable of measuring habitual food intake at the individual
292  III,    10.  2.  1    |            to study the diversity of food habits in Europe. It includes
293  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) of 200 µg is still
294  III,    10.  2.  1    |             their own guidelines for food intake. In Scandinavian
295  III,    10.  2.  1    |            with age (Gennari, 2001).~Food sources of vitamin D are
296  III,    10.  2.  1    |             due to small contents in food or low bioavailability or
297  III,    10.  2.  1    |           generally lower from plant food making vegetarians and especially
298  III,    10.  2.  1    |           very low amounts of animal food products are at risk. This
299  III,    10.  2.  1    |             its people with adequate food and the nutrients needed,
300  III,    10.  2.  1    |          population.~ ~No individual food contains all nutrients in
301  III,    10.  2.  1    |           bring about changes in the food supply (Gurr, 1998). Many
302  III,    10.  2.  1    |          work and spend less time on food preparation. Increasingly,
303  III,    10.  2.  1    |           preparation. Increasingly, food preparation and cooking
304  III,    10.  2.  1    |       decreased with improvements in food transport and distribution.
305  III,    10.  2.  1    |        distribution. Developments in food processing have helped manufacturers
306  III,    10.  2.  1    |              The contribution of the food industry (both manufacturers
307  III,    10.  2.  1    |               both manufacturers and food service operators) is crucial
308  III,    10.  2.  1    |          with nutritional content.~ ~Food consumption and nutrient
309  III,    10.  2.  1    |              consumption of the main food items is reported in table
310  III,    10.  2.  1    |         apparent consumption of main food items in EU15, 2002 (1 000
311  III,    10.  2.  1    |         consumption values per broad food categories (person/day)~
312  III,    10.  2.  1    |       provide information on average food and nutrient intake and
313  III,    10.  2.  1    |      consumption more closely.~ ~The food consumption data collected
314  III,    10.  2.  1    |         nutrients as calculated from food consumption data and average
315  III,    10.  2.  1    |     different nutrients in different food categories. As compared
316  III,    10.  2.  1    |            major role in determining food choices and in shaping environments
317  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and communities, such as food industry, transport, environment,
318  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy 2007-
319  III,    10.  2.  1    |    integrated approach to nutrition, food safety and food security
320  III,    10.  2.  1    |           nutrition, food safety and food security aimed at maximizing
321  III,    10.  2.  1    |              hazards associated with food production and consumption,
322  III,    10.  2.  1    |       benefits of existing and novel food products. The Action Plan
323  III,    10.  2.  1    |             health burden related to food and nutrition, namely: diet-related
324  III,    10.  2.  1    |        choices (cultural influences, food preferences) as well as
325  III,    10.  2.  1    |    affordability and availability of food products, facilities for
326  III,    10.  2.  1    |     activities has to be considered. Food advertising (particularly
327  III,    10.  2.  1    |              in determining children food preference and food behaviour (
328  III,    10.  2.  1    |         children food preference and food behaviour (UFC-Que Choisir’
329  III,    10.  2.  1    |              to be integrated across food services, health education,
330  III,    10.  2.  1    |             but important changes in food choices made by children,
331  III,    10.  2.  1    |              of healthier options in food vending machines in schools (
332  III,    10.  2.  1    |              macro-settings, such as food labelling, pricing and availability.
333  III,    10.  2.  1    |        alcohol; pricing policies for food or its main ingredients
334  III,    10.  2.  1    |           collection of nutrients.~· Food processing and preparation
335  III,    10.  2.  1    |        nutritional value of foods.~· Food components may have biological
336  III,    10.  2.  1    |            to collect information on food and health. Basically this
337  III,    10.  2.  1    |             consumers suffering from food allergies or who wish to
338  III,    10.  2.  1    |           less than 25% of the final food product. The amended Directive
339  III,    10.  2.  1    |            health-related, made on a food label in the EU is clear,
340  III,    10.  2.  1    |             choices when it comes to food and drinks. According to
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |             is the classification of food according to their content
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |              order to guide consumer food choice and to promote healthy
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |        health authorities to develop food based dietary guidelines
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |             communication tools e.g. food plate or food pyramid. It
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |             tools e.g. food plate or food pyramid. It is increasingly
346  III,    10.  2.  1    |    ingredients that might be used in food manufacturing, including (
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |         other substances to foods.~ ~Food supplements are concentrated
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |           rules for the labelling of food supplements and introduces
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |             vitamins and minerals in food supplements. The aim is
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |              nutritional purposes in food supplements. It has been
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy are
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and school nutrition and food safety policies).~· Ensure
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |              healthy and sustainable food supply (e.g. improve the
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |          reformulation of mainstream food products in order to reduce
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |              commercial provision of food products is aligned with
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |        promote adequate labelling of food products).~· Take integrated
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Strengthen nutrition and food safety in the health sector (
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |       systems on nutritional status, food availability and consumption,
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |    nutritional information including food labelling, advertising to
360  III,    10.  2.  1    |           survey]. Uppsala, National Food Administration (in Swedish).~ ~
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |              360:473-482.~ ~European Food Sicurety Agency EFSA (2007):
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Member States relating to food supplements (Text with EEA
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Health, 1997; quoted from: Food and health in Europe: a
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |   gospodarstwach domowych [Household food consumption and anthropometric
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy 2007-
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Scientific Committee for Food (SCF): Report of the Scientific
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Scientific Committee for Food. Nutrition and energy intakes
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |            2002): Summary - European food consumption survey method.
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Belgium.~ ~EUROSTAT (2006): Food: From farm to fork statistics.
370  III,    10.  2.  4    |    toxico-genomics) or the impact of food on human health (nutria-genomics).
371  III,    10.  2.  4    |             regulatory areas such as food labelling, smoking, advertisement,
372  III,    10.  3.  2    |              Rapid Alert Systems for Food and Feed products~REACH~
373  III,    10.  3.  2    |             sanitation, contaminated food and infectious diseases,
374  III,    10.  3.  2    |             stressors further ahead. Food chemical contaminants are
375  III,    10.  3.  2    |              Rapid Alert Systems for Food and Feed products (RASFF)
376  III,    10.  3.  2    |            the case of acrylamide in food (EU, 2002; or other concerns,
377  III,    10.  3.  2    |          history of its detection in food. Brominated flame retardant
378  III,    10.  3.  2    |              diseases~water, air and food contamination~climate change-related
379  III,    10.  3.  2    |            noise~inhalable particles~food, e.g. high cholesterol~stress~ ~
380  III,    10.  3.  2    |            dioxins~Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high fat~poor exercise~
381  III,    10.  3.  2    |          bodies obtained through the food chain. A number of physiological
382  III,    10.  3.  2    |         exposure route for humans is food (especially seafood); additional
383  III,    10.  3.  2    |        Environment Programme (UNEP), Food and Agriculture Organisation (
384  III,    10.  3.  3    |              of undercooked infected food. Trichinellosis is a zoonotic
385  III,    10.  3.  3    |            enter the human or animal food chains, and that blood or
386  III,    10.  3.  4    |             Likely~Increased risk of food and water shortages, malnutrition
387  III,    10.  3.  4    |         released into floodwaters or food shortage. Consequently,
388  III,    10.  3.  4    |            clean water, blankets and food and provide technical support
389  III,    10.  3.  4    |        hazards in the flooded areas, food and public awareness. A
390  III,    10.  3.  4    |  contamination of water supplies and food sources posed a potential
391  III,    10.  3.  4    |              normally provided basic food for families was flooded
392  III,    10.  3.  4    |         erosion and desertification. Food production may also be affected
393  III,    10.  4.  2    |                10.4.2. Ingestion and food contamination/naturally
394  III,    10.  4.  2    |          occurring toxic substances (Food Safety)~ ~
395  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Assessment~EFSA~European Food Safety Authority~EU-RAIN~
396  III,    10.  4.  2    |              Information Network~FAO~Food and Agriculture Organization~
397  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Organization~GFK~General Food Law~GHP~Good Hygiene Practice~
398  III,    10.  4.  2    |         RASFF~Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed~SCNT~Somatic Cell
399  III,    10.  4.  2    |          have seen the regulation of food safety within the European
400  III,    10.  4.  2    |            BSE, the contamination of food with dioxins and the increasing
401  III,    10.  4.  2    |   technologies (genetically modified food) and a heightened sensitivity
402  III,    10.  4.  2    |          their regulatory systems on food safety, often characterised
403  III,    10.  4.  2    |              In the aftermath of the food crises that characterised
404  III,    10.  4.  2    |          which laid down the General Food Law (GFL) and established
405  III,    10.  4.  2    |             established the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). Using
406  III,    10.  4.  2    |         approach to cover the entire food chain, the ultimate goal
407  III,    10.  4.  2    |              GFL harmonises national food safety requirements and
408  III,    10.  4.  2    |         ensures the free movement of food and feed products within
409  III,    10.  4.  2    |            form the three pillars of food safety. EFSA’s evidence-based
410  III,    10.  4.  2    |      dialogue with all actors in the food chain – and the effective
411  III,    10.  4.  2    |           confidence in the European food supply. Indeed, this has
412  III,    10.  4.  2    |            to a notable decrease of “food scares” in recent years.~ ~
413  III,    10.  4.  2    |               in recent years.~ ~The food safety landscape is constantly
414  III,    10.  4.  2    |        prevent future threats to the food supply. New technologies
415  III,    10.  4.  2    |   implications for the safety of the food supply. In addition, the
416  III,    10.  4.  2    |            the sustainability of our food production systems, the
417  III,    10.  4.  2    |      addressed.~ ~White Paper and EU food law~ ~To restore and maintain
418  III,    10.  4.  2    |           confidence in the European food supply, an innovative White
419  III,    10.  4.  2    |            innovative White Paper on Food Safety was presented by
420  III,    10.  4.  2    |       several weaknesses in European food legislation systems, including
421  III,    10.  4.  2    |       scientific support to underpin food and feed law;~· poor overview
422  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 poor overview of the food chain as a result of not
423  III,    10.  4.  2    |        system.~ ~The “white paper on food safety”, attempted to guarantee
424  III,    10.  4.  2    |            guarantee a high level of food safety by improving quality
425  III,    10.  4.  2    |             of checks throughout the food chain. It outlines a comprehensive
426  III,    10.  4.  2    |           needed to make existing EU food legislation more coherent,
427  III,    10.  4.  2    |          measures which have enabled food safety to be organized in
428  III,    10.  4.  2    |              an independent European food authority;~· an improved
429  III,    10.  4.  2    |        framework covering the entire food chain "from farm to table";~·
430  III,    10.  4.  2    |    addressing various aspects of the food chain has been developed:
431  III,    10.  4.  2    |      spongiform encephalopathies; c) food hygiene: assure consistency
432  III,    10.  4.  2    |          requirements throughout the food production chain; d) food
433  III,    10.  4.  2    |            food production chain; d) food safety: limits on contaminants
434  III,    10.  4.  2    |              veterinary medicines in food; additives, flavourings,
435  III,    10.  4.  2    |      consumer information as regards food: labelling of allergens,
436  III,    10.  4.  2    |              labelling of allergens, food supplements.~ ~On 28th January
437  III,    10.  4.  2    |       Principles and requirements of Food Law (hereinafter General
438  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Law (hereinafter General Food Law Regulation or GFL) [
439  III,    10.  4.  2    |   obligations covering all stages of food/feed production and distribution.~ ~
440  III,    10.  4.  2    |              and distribution.~ ~The food law aims at ensuring a high
441  III,    10.  4.  2    |             general principle for EU food safety policy.~ ~The GFL
442  III,    10.  4.  2    |          ensure the free movement of food and feed in the EU. It recognises
443  III,    10.  4.  2    |      achievements has been to define food, which has enabled clarity
444  III,    10.  4.  2    |        enabled clarity in many other food law instruments.~ ~The Regulation
445  III,    10.  4.  2    |              analysis in relation to food and feed and establishes
446  III,    10.  4.  2    |           undertaken by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).~ ~
447  III,    10.  4.  2    |           the nature of the measure, food law, and in particular measures
448  III,    10.  4.  2    |      particular measures relating to food safety, must be underpinned
449  III,    10.  4.  2    | communication) provide the basis for food law as appropriate to the
450  III,    10.  4.  2    |         depending on the part of the food supply chain where the problem
451  III,    10.  4.  2    |         stages in the development of food law and establishes the
452  III,    10.  4.  2    |      increase consumer confidence in food law. Transparency of legislation
453  III,    10.  4.  2    |             ensuring compliance with food law, and in particular the
454  III,    10.  4.  2    |         particular the safety of the food, rests with the food business.
455  III,    10.  4.  2    |             the food, rests with the food business. It also formally
456  III,    10.  4.  2    |            of the origin of feed and food ingredients and food sources
457  III,    10.  4.  2    |             and food ingredients and food sources is of prime importance
458  III,    10.  4.  2    |         traceability which cover all food and feed and all food and
459  III,    10.  4.  2    |            all food and feed and all food and feed business operators,
460  III,    10.  4.  2    |            the general principles of food law and the creation of
461  III,    10.  4.  2    |             creation of the European Food Safety Authority, the GFL
462  III,    10.  4.  2    |             procedures in matters of food safety. In particular, it
463  III,    10.  4.  2    |           the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF);~· the
464  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health).~ ~
465  III,    10.  4.  2    |              regulatory framework on food safety was completed in
466  III,    10.  4.  2    |      Regulations 852 and 853/2004 on food hygiene and a series of
467  III,    10.  4.  2    |             to humans mainly through food (i.e. zoonoses) as a result
468  III,    10.  4.  2    |          communication: the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)~ ~
469  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Regulation, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
470  III,    10.  4.  2    |         January 2002.~ ~The European Food Authority would base its
471  III,    10.  4.  2    |           key point of reference for food safety within the EU and
472  III,    10.  4.  2    |          react in a timely manner to food safety crises.~EFSA acts
473  III,    10.  4.  2    |        communication in the areas of food and feed safety. In addition,
474  III,    10.  4.  2    |            possible risks related to food safety, the responsibility
475  III,    10.  4.  2    |           such as BSE, the safety of food additives such as aspartame,
476  III,    10.  4.  2    |             as aspartame, allergenic food ingredients, GMOs, contaminants,
477  III,    10.  4.  2    |        specific areas or Panels: (1) food additives and flavourings, (
478  III,    10.  4.  2    |            materials in contact with food; (3) animal health and welfare; (
479  III,    10.  4.  2    |               5) contaminants in the food chain; (6) additives and
480  III,    10.  4.  2    |           The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (htt m) is a system
481  III,    10.  4.  2    |            of information concerning food and feed safety. Whenever
482  III,    10.  4.  2    |              market or the recall of food or feed in order to protect
483  III,    10.  4.  2    |        market or the eventual use of food or feed on account of a
484  III,    10.  4.  2    |         batch, container or cargo of food or feed by a competent authority
485  III,    10.  4.  2    |   information notifications, where a food or feed risk is identified
486  III,    10.  4.  2    |            market, mostly concerning food and feed consignments that
487  III,    10.  4.  2    |        agents potentially present in food (or feed), consumption levels
488  III,    10.  4.  2    |        consumption levels of various food commodities in the EU are
489  III,    10.  4.  2    |            aggregated and individual food level. This concerns food
490  III,    10.  4.  2    |            food level. This concerns food consumption by the general
491  III,    10.  4.  2    |             on pesticide residues in food and feed.~ ~Four CRLs have
492  III,    10.  4.  2    |        cereals and feeding stuffs;~• food of animal origin and commodities
493  III,    10.  4.  2(27)|       pesticide residues analysis in food and feed, Document No SANCO/
494  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Reference Laboratories in food and feed for:~ ~• marine
495  III,    10.  4.  2    |        mycotoxins;~• heavy metals in food and feed;~• dioxins and
496  III,    10.  4.  2    |        medicines and contaminants in food of animal origin.~ ~In addition,
497  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Community reference lab for food contact materials.~ ~There
498  III,    10.  4.  2    |              check the compliance of food with the established pesticides
499  III,    10.  4.  2    |         following micro-organisms in food or feed:~ ~• Salmonella;~•
500  III,    10.  4.  2    |           RIVM Report, entitled “Our Food, Our Health”.~ ~