1-500 | 501-808
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |              physical and socio-economic factors through a number of exposure
  2    -,     1            |          technical, political and social factors. Cross-country comparisons
  3    -,     1            |                  and analysis; (iv) Risk factors; (v) Control tools and policies; (
  4    I,     2.  1        |               analysis of the underlying factors which deeply influence the
  5    I,     2.  2        |                 innovation are important factors to avoid the decline of
  6    I,     2.  3        |                 persisting push and pull factors related to globalisation
  7    I,     2.  4        |             combination of (interlinked) factors: a rise in economic insecurity
  8    I,     2.  4        |                  drinking and other risk factors for premature mortality.
  9    I,     2.  4        |                 e.g. by: addressing risk factors through health promotion;
 10    I,     2.  5        |      satisfaction (EUROFOUND, 2005). Key factors for workerswell-being
 11    I,     2.  5        |           violence and psychosocial risk factors. More women than men work
 12    I,     2.  5        |             their work. These “newrisk factors are associated with psychological
 13    I,     2.  8        |           population vulnerability. Such factors are likely to significantly
 14    I,     2. 10.  1    |              insight into the biological factors which drive disease mechanisms,
 15    I,     2. 10.  1    |     environmental, social and lifestyles factors, genetic determinants will
 16    I,     2. 10.  1    |              cover underlying biological factors of diseases such as genomic
 17    I,     2. 10.  3    |                in the health sector, the factors promoting or inhibiting
 18    I,     3.  2        |                 persisting push and pull factors related to globalisation
 19   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  diseases and their risk factors~ ~Main non-communicable
 20   II,     5.  1.  1    |              control of behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, alcohol
 21   II,     5.  1.  1    |      environmental and occupational risk factors have been identified; thus
 22   II,     5.  1.  1    |                        Table 5.1.1. Risk factors for non-communicable diseases~
 23   II,     5.  1.  1    |            physical inactivity) and risk factors (elevated total and low
 24   II,     5.  1.  1    |                that several predisposing factors simultaneously affect its
 25   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains the most important
 26   II,     5.  1.  1    |          physical inactivity. Other risk factors are: air pollution (carbon
 27   II,     5.  1.  1    |                noise; stress.~ ~The risk factors identified as the most important
 28   II,     5.  1.  1    |         appropriate diets and associated factors. Non-starchy vegetables,
 29   II,     5.  1.  1    |               abdominal fatness, and the factors that lead to greater adult
 30   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 hormone related, and the factors that modify the risk of
 31   II,     5.  1.  1    |  postmenopausally are not the same. Risk factors for breast cancer in women
 32   II,     5.  1.  1    |          reproductive life and lifestyle factors (diet, alcohol, ecc) that
 33   II,     5.  1.  1    |        convincing. The evidence that the factors that lead to greater adult
 34   II,     5.  1.  1    |              history. Other certain risk factors are an high fat diet and
 35   II,     5.  1.  1    |             history, while possible risk factors are androgens and race (
 36   II,     5.  1.  1    |         gallbladder cancer.~ ~Other risk factors are: air pollution (inhalable
 37   II,     5.  1.  1    |                the disease. Further risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes:~ ~·
 38   II,     5.  1.  1    |                one or many environmental factors will lead to the immune-mediated
 39   II,     5.  1.  1    |                critically important risk factors influencing personal health
 40   II,     5.  1.  1    |                only influenced by social factors, but rather anorexia and
 41   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  including psychological factors, interpersonal factors,
 42   II,     5.  1.  1    |     psychological factors, interpersonal factors, social factors as well
 43   II,     5.  1.  1    |            interpersonal factors, social factors as well as biological factors.
 44   II,     5.  1.  1    |            factors as well as biological factors. In other words, eating
 45   II,     5.  1.  1    |                or bulimic:~Psychological factors: low self-esteem, feelings
 46   II,     5.  1.  1    |                loneliness.~Interpersonal factors: trouble with family and
 47   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  or sexual abuse.~Social Factors: cultural pressure that
 48   II,     5.  1.  1    |               perfect body”.~Biochemical factors: chemicals in the brain
 49   II,     5.  1.  1    |           genetic and environmental risk factors for Autism is still unresolved.~ ~·
 50   II,     5.  1.  1    |                Dementia~A number of risk factors and possible protective
 51   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  and possible protective factors have emerged. Some, such
 52   II,     5.  1.  1    |             likely that a combination of factors may be beneficial such as
 53   II,     5.  1.  1    |              mental stimulation. Certain factors, such as alcohol intake
 54   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 disentangle other social factors which are associated with
 55   II,     5.  1.  1    |              certain possible protective factors, such as healthy eating,
 56   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   in which environmental factors are hypothesised to interact
 57   II,     5.  1.  1    |          cigarette smoking, occupational factors and indoor-outdoor pollution
 58   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 are well recognized risk factors. Cigarette smoking is a
 59   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  were the two major risk factors, in a multivariate analysis
 60   II,     5.  1.  1    |             perhaps non-traditional risk factors like anemia, hyperphosphatemia,
 61   II,     5.  1.  1    |                shows that important risk factors for periodontal disease
 62   II,     5.  1.  2    |                  human and institutional factors. In order to globally encompass
 63   II,     5.  1.  2    |              depend only on two or three factors but rather a sort of strange
 64   II,     5.  1.  2    |                alchemy of many different factors.~ ~
 65   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  and WHO MONICA for risk factors distribution.~Following
 66   II,     5.  2.  2    |            changes in environmental risk factors (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000)
 67   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 trends in classical risk factors and advancements in coronary
 68   II,     5.  2.  2    |                             5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically manifests
 69   II,     5.  2.  2    |            physical inactivity) and risk factors (elevated total and low
 70   II,     5.  2.  2    |                that several predisposing factors simultaneously affect its
 71   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains the most important
 72   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Last available data on risk factors were taken from WHO HFA
 73   II,     5.  2.  2    |                          2007). The risk factors identified as the most important
 74   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 difficult due to various factors, such as different hospital
 75   II,     5.  2.  3    |                the average level of risk factors, such as serum cholesterol
 76   II,     5.  2.  3    |               and the management of risk factors.~Comparable data on morbidity
 77   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 difficult due to various factors such as different hospital
 78   II,     5.  2.  3    |                age distribution and risk factors.~In addition, the recent
 79   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 difficult due to various factors such as multiple hospital
 80   II,     5.  2.  3    |         prevalence of some environmental factors (intake of dietary salt
 81   II,     5.  2.  3    |               levels of traditional risk factors, such as diet rich in saturated
 82   II,     5.  2.  4    |                              5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~
 83   II,     5.  2.  4    |                            5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary prevention~CVD
 84   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 which means that several factors simultaneously affect its
 85   II,     5.  2.  4    |                and hyperlipidemia. These factors, with the obvious exception
 86   II,     5.  2.  4    |                habit.~Some of these risk factors are linked to a continuous
 87   II,     5.  2.  4    |           disease does not develop: risk factors thresholds are arbitrary
 88   II,     5.  2.  4    |                is to keep levels of risk factors at a favourable level throughout
 89   II,     5.  2.  4    |                Although the role of risk factors is well known, national
 90   II,     5.  2.  4    |            mentioned most important risk factors for the prediction of CVD.
 91   II,     5.  2.  4    |            different age ranges.~ ~Other factors associated with CVD include
 92   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  changes in classic risk factors explained only a part of
 93   II,     5.  2.  4    |           differences in ‘classical risk factors’ such as smoking, hypertension,
 94   II,     5.  2.  4    |    recommendations on management of risk factors are still not properly followed,
 95   II,     5.  2.  4    |          describe the management of risk factors in hospitalized patients
 96   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 reductions in major risk factors, mainly smoking, whereas
 97   II,     5.  2.  5    |              trends, treatments and risk factors in order to improve public
 98   II,     5.  2.  5    |               emphasized that known risk factors account for more than ¾
 99   II,     5.  2.  5    |                one or more previous risk factors (Greenland et al, 2003),
100   II,     5.  2.  5    |             optimal levels of known risk factors are associated with very
101   II,     5.  2.  5    |              commonly believed that risk factors increase with age, but severe
102   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  is that individual risk factors (such as hypertension and
103   II,     5.  2.  5    |        nutritional control of these risk factors (Poli A et al, 2008; Sacks
104   II,     5.  2.  5    |        prevention approaches of CVD risk factors related to the lifestyles
105   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 policy and environmental factors contributing to CVD and
106   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  decline comes from risk factors reduction.~ ~
107   II,     5.  2.  6    |            disease indicators. All these factors may have an influence in
108   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 as the reduction of risk factors or through more expensive
109   II,     5.  2.  6    |          important to remember that risk factors such as smoking habit, cholesterol,
110   II,     5.  2.  6    |                  aetiology of CVD. These factors are largely modifiable through
111   II,     5.  2.  6    |                  decline comes from risk factors reduction.~One of the first
112   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  Trends in coronary risk factors in the WHO MONICA Project.
113   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Wilson PW (2003): Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal
114   II,     5.  2.  7    |              Optimal and Borderline Risk Factors. Arch Intern Med. 167:573-
115   II,     5.  2.  7    |                changes in classical risk factors to trends in coronary event
116   II,     5.  2.  7    |                other cardiovascular risk factors explain trends in Stroke
117   II,     5.  2.  7    |              potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial
118   II,     5.  3.  1    |                importance of cancer risk factors and also due to increased
119   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 environmental and social factors on cancer risk and outcomes,
120   II,     5.  3.  4    |                               5.3.3 Risk factors~ ~The majority of cancers
121   II,     5.  3.  4    |             below we have the major risk factors for the cancer sites included
122   II,     5.  3.  4    |         appropriate diets and associated factors. Non-starchy vegetables,
123   II,     5.  3.  4    |               abdominal fatness, and the factors that lead to greater adult
124   II,     5.  3.  4    |                 hormone related, and the factors that modify the risk of
125   II,     5.  3.  4    | post-menopausally are not the same. Risk factors for breast cancer in women
126   II,     5.  3.  4    |          reproductive life and lifestyle factors ( e.g. unbalanced diet and
127   II,     5.  3.  4    |        convincing. The evidence that the factors that lead to greater adult
128   II,     5.  3.  4    |              history. Other certain risk factors are a diet rich of fat and
129   II,     5.  3.  4    |             history, while possible risk factors are linked to androgens
130   II,     5.  3.  7    |                approaches of cancer risk factors related to lifestyles or
131   II,     5.  3.  7    |             least partly attributable to factors that are in need of intervention,
132   II,     5.  3.  7    |               primary prevention of risk factors to early diagnosis, adequate
133   II,     5.  3.  7    |                four basic cancer control factors: prevention, early detection,
134   II,     5.  3.  8    |             still exposed to cancer risk factors. Moreover, cancer patients
135   II,     5.  4.  1    |               and fatigue. Environmental factors combined with a genetic
136   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 social and environmental factors leads to the increased prevalence
137   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  highly significant risk factors that can be usefully targeted
138   II,     5.  4.  1    |            diabetes. Among the potential factors, impaired glucose tolerance (
139   II,     5.  4.  2    |          prevalence of the disease, risk factors, quality of care, and population
140   II,     5.  4.  2    |               data~Data sources~ ~I Risk factors of diabetes~ ~ ~% of the
141   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  or diet only~2~III Risk factors for complications~ ~Percent
142   II,     5.  4.  2    |         concentrate on the most relevant factors.~Impaired glucose tolerance
143   II,     5.  4.  3    |              hypotheses on possible risk factors for T1DM, some of which
144   II,     5.  4.  3    |         concentrate on the most relevant factors.~Impaired glucose tolerance.
145   II,     5.  4.  5    |                              5.4.5. Risk factors~ ~The major risk factor
146   II,     5.  4.  5    |                the disease.~Further risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes
147   II,     5.  4.  6    |           Diabetes Mellitus and its risk factors available throughout the
148   II,     5.  4.  6    |                one or many environmental factors will lead to the immune-mediated
149   II,     5.  4.  6    |             lifestyle intervention. Risk factors are well known and must
150   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  2.4. and for other risk factors see Chapter 10.~To prevent
151   II,     5.  4.  6    |          important to monitor other risk factors regularly in order to capture
152   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 the above mentioned risk factors. This is one case in which
153   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  disease share many risk factors, as for example high waist
154   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 enough as also the other factors should be included.~Regular
155   II,     5.  4.  6    |                as data on the underlying factors;~· Development and implementation
156   II,     5.  4.  6    |             health determinants and risk factors of diabetes into account
157   II,     5.  4.  7    |   characteristics (diabetes status, risk factors e.g. obesity, lifestyle,
158   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 are gender-specific risk factors for some common mental disorders.
159   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 be reduced by addressing factors that have an impact on mental
160   II,     5.  5.Int    |         depression in older people, risk factors, detection and treatment
161   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 environmental and social factors. An individual with a family
162   II,     5.  5.Int(17)|               Burden of Disease and Risk Factors [on-line publications available
163   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  life-long. Predisposing factors are both congenital and
164   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  commit suicide. Several factors interact to place an individual
165   II,     5.  5.  1    |                et al., 2006) and genetic factors (Currier et Mann, 2008).~ ~
166   II,     5.  5.  1    |                covered: prevalence, risk factors, disability, health-related
167   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Investigators (2006). Risk factors for suicidality in Europe:
168   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 where there may be other factors affecting prevalence.~ ~
169   II,     5.  5.  2    |                            5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A tremendous amount of
170   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 out in order to identify factors which might cause or protect
171   II,     5.  5.  2    |              dementia). A number of risk factors and possible protective
172   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  and possible protective factors have emerged from such research.
173   II,     5.  5.  2    |             likely that a combination of factors may be beneficial such as
174   II,     5.  5.  2    |              mental stimulation. Certain factors, such as alcohol intake
175   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 disentangle other social factors which are associated with
176   II,     5.  5.  2    |              certain possible protective factors, such as healthy eating,
177   II,     5.  5.  2    |               descriptive review of risk factors for dementia based on meta-analyses
178   II,     5.  5.  2    |        psycho-social interventions, risk factors and risk reduction/prevention
179   II,     5.  5.  2    |             include reducing exposure to factors which might cause dementia
180   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    Certain possible risk factors such as age, gender or genetic
181   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  reduce exposure to risk factors which can be influenced
182   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  the non-modifiable risk factors. Useful primary prevention
183   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   which could also cover factors which have a buffering effect,
184   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  to reduce vascular risk factors and public campaigns to
185   II,     5.  5.  2    |               investigate other possible factors which might put people at
186   II,     5.  5.  3    |                          5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and vulnerable population
187   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 disorder depends on risk factors as well as on individual
188   II,     5.  5.  3    |                critically important risk factors influencing personal health
189   II,     5.  5.  3    |                only influenced by social factors; actually anorexia and bulimia
190   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  including psychological factors, interpersonal factors,
191   II,     5.  5.  3    |     psychological factors, interpersonal factors, social factors as well
192   II,     5.  5.  3    |            interpersonal factors, social factors as well as biological factors.
193   II,     5.  5.  3    |            factors as well as biological factors. In other words, eating
194   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   2004):~· Psychological factors: low self-esteem, feelings
195   II,     5.  5.  3    |              loneliness;~· Interpersonal factors: trouble with family and
196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                or sexual abuse;~· Social Factors: cultural pressure that
197   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  body”; and~· Biological factors: chemicals in the brain
198   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for Europe points out main factors to guarantee a successful
199   II,     5.  5.  3    |              data are not yet available. Factors that may influence the prevalence,
200   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the disease and how these factors can be operationalised,
201   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Thus, mortality increasing factors such as lifestyle issues –
202   II,     5.  5.  3    |         deinstitutionalization and other factors (Healy et al, 2006).~Currently
203   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 schizophrenia.~All these factors underline the need of evaluating
204   II,     5.  5.  3    |               moderating risk/resilience factors of psychosis. As different
205   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Lysaker et al, 2007) – factors associated with a chronic
206   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and prevalence rates, risk factors etc is most desirable (Wölwer
207   II,     5.  5.  3    |         substance misuse), emerging risk factors like migration;~· to increase
208   II,     5.  5.  3    |                life in general, as major factors of quality of life.~ ~
209   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Prevalence of and risk factors for medication nonadherence
210   II,     5.  5.  3    |           genetic and environmental risk factors for ASD. The study of risk
211   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for ASD. The study of risk factors has contributed to the prevention
212   II,     5.  5.  3    |               found to be potential risk factors. Most risk factors have
213   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  risk factors. Most risk factors have been identified in
214   II,     5.  5.  3    |                direct comparison of risk factors very difficult. Considering
215   II,     5.  5.  3    |       identifying unique and strong risk factors for ASD.~A systematic review
216   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 country. Other important factors were whether the study was
217   II,     5.  5.  3    |                The impact of these known factors on prevalence estimates
218   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism and Cerebral
219   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 France and Denmark. Risk factors found in more than one of
220   II,     5.  5.  3    |              populations as well as risk factors found to be associated in
221   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 for including the unique factors in the guide is that the
222   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to country. Among other factors, this depends on the number
223   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism and Cerebral
224   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 absence of precipitating factors. Unprovoked seizures include
225   II,     5.  5.  3    |       distribution of environmental risk factors to be evenly distributed.~ ~
226   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of the most common risk factors in the two sexes and the
227   II,     5.  5.  3    |            prevalence of the etiological factors in the local environment,
228   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  most common etiological factors (14-21%) followed by trauma (
229   II,     5.  5.  3    |              2004). The main etiological factors are virtually the same as
230   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 stressors and iatrogenic factors may thus explain the increased
231   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  al, 2007). Psychosocial factors also tend to affect employment.
232   II,     5.  5.  3    |        activities. However, psychosocial factors and stigma have also been
233   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Farahmand BY, et al (2002): Risk factors for suicide in epilepsy:
234   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the role of environmental factors and their interaction with
235   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 distribution, biological factors, i.e., differences in environmental
236   II,     5.  5.  3    |                          5.5.3.5.4. Risk factors~ ~MS is a complex multifactorial
237   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   in which environmental factors supposedly interact with
238   II,     5.  5.  3    |               level. Major environmental factors, directly or indirectly
239   II,     5.  5.  3    |             mononucleosis, and lifestyle factors also acting early in life,
240   II,     5.  5.  3    |              importance of environmental factors and their practical relevance
241   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 major environmental risk factors, studies of disease should
242   II,     5.  5.  3    |         situation focused on identifying factors that differentiated the
243   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  can address these other factors in a way that promotes the
244   II,     5.  5.  3    |            people with MS;~o identifying factors that enable employed people
245   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the impact of a variety of factors that influence a person’
246   II,     5.  5.  3    |                environmental and genetic factors. Acta Neurol Scand 91(Suppl
247   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 GC (2008). Environmental factors and multiple sclerosis.
248   II,     5.  5.  3    |                1444-1452.~Larocca et al. Factors associated with unemployment
249   II,     5.  5.  3    |                          5.5.3.6.4. Risk factors~ ~The cause of the neurodegenerative
250   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Aston, 2000).~Lifestyle factors such as smoking cigarettes
251   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 risk of PD.~Some dietary factors such as animal product intake,
252   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Swanson PD (1999): Dietary factors in Parkinson’s disease:
253   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Nutritional and occupational factors influencing the risk of
254   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Steering Committee (2002): Factors impacting on quality of
255   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Stebbins GT (1993): Risk factors for nursing home placement
256   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 CC (2004): Multiple risk factors for Parkinson’s disease.
257   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Occupational and environmental risk factors for Parkinson’s disease.
258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  life environmental risk factors in Parkinson disease: what
259   II,     5.  6.  1    |     osteoarthritis. Changes in lifestyle factors such as obesity and lack
260   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 the epidemiology of risk factors, such as obesity, may result
261   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Women~ ~Determinants, risk factors and population at risk~ ~
262   II,     5.  6.  3    |                knee OA. Other mechanical factors and intensive activity are
263   II,     5.  6.  3    |              intensive activity are risk factors for the development of OA
264   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  al, 1996).~ ~These risk factors are summarised in table
265   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 6.5.~ ~Table 5.6.5. Risk factors for incidence and progression
266   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Global burden and risk factors 2006) .~ ~Economic impact
267   II,     5.  6.  3    |              clear.~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population at risk~ ~
268   II,     5.  6.  3    |                and obesity are also risk factors for RA (Symmons and Harrison,
269   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 have one of several risk factors: low body weight, premature
270   II,     5.  6.  3    |               2000)~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population at risk~ ~
271   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 fracture. There are risk factors that identify those more
272   II,     5.  6.  3    |               some semi-independent risk factors for fracture such as bone
273   II,     5.  6.  3    |               co-morbidity are also risk factors for poor outcome of fracture (
274   II,     5.  6.  3    |               1995).~ ~Table 5.6.8. Risk Factors for Falling in the Elderly~ ~
275   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Elderly~ ~Table 5.6.9. Risk factors for bone loss, development
276   II,     5.  6.  3    |               the presence of other risk factors for fracture. In particular,
277   II,     5.  6.  3    |               density combined with risk factors that are at least partly
278   II,     5.  6.  3    |            interaction of different risk factors has not yet been established.
279   II,     5.  6.  3    |           population and changes in risk factors (Report on osteoporosis
280   II,     5.  6.  3    |              2003).~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population at risk~ ~
281   II,     5.  6.  3    |         abdominal muscles. Psychological factors associated to the occurrence
282   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  behaviour. Occupational factors clearly play a role such
283   II,     5.  6.  4    |     osteoarthritis. Changes in lifestyle factors such as obesity and lack
284   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  D, Vogt TM (1995): Risk factors for hip fracture in white
285   II,     5.  6.  6    |          fracture and the effect of risk factors on screening strategies.
286   II,     5.  6.  6    |                of radiographic and other factors affecting the outcome. Ann
287   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Burden of Disease and Risk Factors ISBN-10: 0-8213-6262-3.
288   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  the literature. I. Risk factors for the development of inflammatory
289   II,     5.  7.  1    |              Independent from other risk factors, patients with stage 4-5
290   II,     5.  7.  4    |                              5.7.4. Risk factors~ ~Hypertension and diabetes (
291   II,     5.  7.  4    |             perhaps non-traditional risk factors such as anaemia, hyperphosphatemia,
292   II,     5.  7.  4    |                  2006). Since these risk factors are also the main drivers
293   II,     5.  7.  4    |                likely that socioeconomic factors are also linked to CKD.
294   II,     5.  7.  4    |                complex interplay of many factors that have effects in different
295   II,     5.  7.  4    |        developing ESRD will, among other factors, be affected by the age
296   II,     5.  7.  5    |                 with cardiovascular risk factors or with cardiovascular disease (
297   II,     5.  7.  5    |          complications due to modifiable factors is high, for example when
298   II,     5.  7.  5    |                  modifying the lifestyle factors which exacerbate the effects
299   II,     5.  7.  7    |      Identification of patients and risk factors in chronic kidney disease --
300   II,     5.  7.  7    |               disease -- evaluating risk factors and therapeutic strategies.
301   II,     5.  8.  1    |            tobacco smoking, occupational factors and air pollution) causes
302   II,     5.  8.  3    |                likely to be due to other factors in addition to smoking.~ ~
303   II,     5.  8.  4    |                              5.8.4. Risk factors~ ~Active and passive tobacco
304   II,     5.  8.  4    |           tobacco smoking are major risk factors for COPD. Occupational factors
305   II,     5.  8.  4    |           factors for COPD. Occupational factors and indoor-outdoor pollution
306   II,     5.  8.  4    |               other well recognized risk factors.~ ~Among 1711 middle-aged
307   II,     5.  8.  4    |         associated with ageing, and some factors allowing people to survive
308   II,     5.  8.  5    |           spirometry. Most relevant risk factors have been identified and
309   II,     5.  8.  6    |                 the influence of genetic factors, exacerbations, comorbidities,
310   II,     5.  8.  7    |               incidence of COPD and risk factors for incident disease in
311   II,     5.  8.  7    |               burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis
312   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future
313   II,     5.  9. FB    |            allergic diseases can be risk factors for further allergic reactions
314   II,     5.  9. FB    |                FB.5. Risk and protective factors~ ~The development of allergies
315   II,     5.  9. FB    |               accounted to environmental factors, since it is very unlikely
316   II,     5.  9. FB    |                  that genetic/hereditary factors could change in such a short
317   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   The evaluation of risk factors and determinants is a necessary
318   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 deeper knowledge of risk factors in the aetiology of allergic
319   II,     5.  9.  1    |           exposure to environmental risk factors and to the so-called western
320   II,     5.  9.  3    |         environmental and socio-economic factors.~ ~Mortality data~ ~Although
321   II,     5.  9.  3    |          socio-economic costs, different factors must be considered, such
322   II,     5.  9.  4    |                              5.9.4. Risk factors~ ~Data show a significant
323   II,     5.  9.  4    |                genetic and environmental factors. Different hypothesis have
324   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 the sex ratio, but other factors such as those enhancing
325   II,     5.  9.  4    |           environmental and occupational factors may determine and aggravate
326   II,     5.  9.  4    |              lifestyle and environmental factors. The main determinants considered
327   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  be related to different factors, such as type of allergen,
328   II,     5.  9.  4    |                is also likely that other factors may be important determinants
329   II,     5.  9.  4    |               familiar and environmental factors among 1450 children aged
330   II,     5.  9.  4    |               familial and environmental factors, providing further support
331   II,     5.  9.  4    |              importance of environmental factors and lifestyle in the development
332   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 information on lifestyle factors such as diet, and look for
333   II,     5.  9.  4    |               DNA damage, susceptibility factors, and DNA modifications due
334   II,     5.  9.  5    |              about the places where risk factors conditions are progressively
335   II,     5.  9.  5    |                  and other environmental factors. The main determinants considered
336   II,     5.  9.  5    |                 deeper knowledge of risk factors in the aetiology of allergic
337   II,     5.  9.  5    |                 are all critical success factors for the implementation of
338   II,     5.  9.  5    |              needed to investigate which factors influence the development
339   II,     5.  9.  7    |               familial and environmental factors - a population-based study.
340   II,     5.  9.  7    |               Wichmann HE (2001): Indoor Factors and Genetics in Asthma (
341   II,     5.  9.  7    |                  of knowledge about risk factors and preventive factors for
342   II,     5.  9.  7    |              risk factors and preventive factors for atopy in Europe. Allergy
343   II,     5. 10.  1    |       interactions between environmental factors (exposure) and personal
344   II,     5. 10.  1    |                  susceptibility (genetic factors). The type and severity
345   II,     5. 10.  1    |            individual or other modifying factors.~ ~There are more than 80
346   II,     5. 10.  2    |                 and to identify the risk factors associated with the international
347   II,     5. 10.  2    |             although the impact of these factors on both self-perceived and
348   II,     5. 10.  3    |           allergens and other background factors (EFSA, 2004).~Although very
349   II,     5. 11.  3    |              skin susceptible to trigger factors - including irritants and
350   II,     5. 11.  3    |                likely that environmental factors associated to urbanization
351   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 of external and internal factors. However, the term dermatitis
352   II,     5. 11.  3    |               caused by a combination of factors such as excessive and abnormal
353   II,     5. 11.  5    |            intended at reducing allergic factors before or around birth (
354   II,     5. 12.  3    |             However, the impact of these factors on national mortality rates
355   II,     5. 12.  4    |                             5.12.4. Risk factors~ ~The patterns in mortality
356   II,     5. 13        |               global disease burden risk factors closely related to diet
357   II,     5. 13        |               Europe, 2005).~ ~Lifestyle factors, including eating habits
358   II,     5. 13        |            strongly associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease
359   II,     5. 14.  1    |                  assessed and whose risk factors are still to be identified.
360   II,     5. 14.  1    |                basis of sociodemographic factors.~ ~
361   II,     5. 14.  2    |                 chronic disease and risk factors (Petersen et al, 2005).
362   II,     5. 14.  2    |                its determinants and risk factors on the morbidity rates and
363   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  several risky lifestyle factors. Only adults aged 65-74
364   II,     5. 14.  4    |                             5.14.4. Risk factors~ ~The caries decline observed
365   II,     5. 14.  4    |                must address dietary risk factors associated with oral disease.
366   II,     5. 14.  4    |                shows that important risk factors for periodontal disease
367   II,     5. 14.  5    |                basis of sociodemographic factors. A concern among public
368   II,     5. 14.  7    |            health services is limited by factors such as the availability
369   II,     6.  3.  1    |                in-depth analysis of risk factors, determinants, or burden
370   II,     6.  3.  2    |            public health concern.~ ~Risk factors~ ~A key factor in the development
371   II,     6.  3.  2    |          requires the collection of risk factors and the involvement of clinicians,
372   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  other countries.~ ~Risk factors~ ~In 2005, 28 044 HIV diagnoses
373   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 EU27 by one half.~ ~Risk factors~ ~Recent demographic, political
374   II,     6.  3.  6    |            chicken) or water. Other risk factors include outdoor swimming
375   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  outbreaks, monitor risk factors and standardise laboratory
376   II,     6.  4.  1    |            identify disease trends, risk factors, and the need for interventions.
377   II,     7.  1        |            information on these external factors. Detailed injury data make
378   II,     7.  2        |              measure trends and identify factors related to injury. These
379   II,     7.  3.  3    |                  yet, both are important factors in reduced productivity.
380   II,     7.  3.  5    |                  with a complex array of factors such as:~ ~· mental illness~·
381   II,     7.  3.  5    |                abuse disorder. Some risk factors vary with age, gender and
382   II,     7.  3.  5    |            gender and ethnic group. Risk factors may change over time, while
383   II,     7.  3.  5    |             change over time, while some factors frequently occur in combination.~ ~
384   II,     7.  3.  5    |           combination.~ ~Identified risk factors also vary in their degree
385   II,     7.  3.  5    |                  the background and risk factors of suicide attempts and
386   II,     7.  4        |             injuries. Both are important factors in reduced productivity.
387   II,     7.  4.  2    |              well as the individual risk factors (e.g. training of muscular
388   II,     7.  4.  6    |                  with a complex array of factors that interact with each
389   II,     7.  4.  6    |                 include:~ ~· psychiatric factors such as major depression,
390   II,     7.  4.  6    |                  disorders;~· biological factors or genetic traits (family
391   II,     7.  4.  6    |                  a job);~· psychological factors such as interpersonal conflict,
392   II,     7.  4.  6    |                 social and environmental factors, including availability
393   II,     7.  4.  6    |           economic hardship.~ ~Some risk factors vary with age, gender, sexual
394   II,     7.  4.  6    |           sufficiently strong protective factors may reduce the risk of suicide.
395   II,     7.  4.  6    |              risk of suicide. Protective factors are related to emotional
396   II,     7.  4.  6    |               effective in reducing risk factors and enhancing protective
397   II,     7.  4.  6    |                 and enhancing protective factors. For adult patients who
398   II,     7.  4.  6    |             interactions of various risk factors and protective factors,
399   II,     7.  4.  6    |              risk factors and protective factors, it has been suggested that
400   II,     7.  4.  6    |                addressing different risk factors at different levels will
401   II,     7.  4.  7    |               cultural and environmental factors. Understanding how these
402   II,     7.  4.  7    |                  Understanding how these factors are related to violence
403   II,     7.  4.  7    |               Addressing individual risk factors and taking steps to modify
404   II,     7.  4.  7    |            cultural, social and economic factors that contribute to violence
405   II,     7.  5        |               collect data, analyse risk factors and to inform stakeholders
406   II,     7.  7        |                   What are the main risk factors for falls among older people
407   II,     8.  1.  1    |                conditions and contextual factors such as the environment
408   II,     8.  2.  1    |                            8.2.1.4. Risk factors~ ~Causes of intellectual
409   II,     8.  2.  1    |      intellectual disability~A number of factors causing intellectual disability
410   II,     8.  2.  1    |                that multiple and complex factors associated with access to
411   II,     8.  2.  1    |                 reflect a combination of factors including, for example,
412   II,     8.  2.  1    |                et al 2005) are among the factors likely to contribute to
413   II,     8.  2.  1    |                  for example – and other factors such as severity of intellectual
414   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 vision. However, various factors are responsible for refractive
415   II,     9            |        considerations apply also to risk factors particularly relevant for
416   II,     9            |                    Table 9.1a. Main risk factors for newborns and perinatal
417   II,     9            |              with social and health care factors, including lack on antenatal
418   II,     9            |            outcomes are linked to social factors (Kaminski et al, 2000; Kramer
419   II,     9            |                environmental and genetic factors. For about 15% of cases,
420   II,     9            |              importance of environmental factors as causes, and these are
421   II,     9            |               often many coexisting risk factors such as smoking, alcohol,
422   II,     9            |                 nutrition and other risk factors associated with deprivation.~ ~
423   II,     9            |                    Table 9.1b. Main risk factors for children and adolescents~
424   II,     9            |                family environment. Three factors in particular are well-known
425   II,     9            |            health problems. Several risk factors have been identified for
426   II,     9            |              papilloma virus (HPV). Risk factors for STIs can include multiple
427   II,     9            |                    Table 9.1c. Main risk factors for adults~ ~Major modifiable
428   II,     9            |                    Major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic CHD
429   II,     9            |                treating the classic risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension,
430   II,     9            |                 of stroke. The main risk factors for stroke are not gender
431   II,     9            |          conflict between partners. Risk factors for breast cancer in women
432   II,     9            |                    Table 9.1d. Main risk factors for the elderly~ ~The natural
433   II,     9            |           largely determined by external factors relating to adult life style.
434   II,     9            |               decline caused by external factors can be reversible at any
435   II,     9            |          countries (WHO, 1999).~ ~Social factors. Social factors, which the
436   II,     9            |                   Social factors. Social factors, which the individual can
437   II,     9            |            Healthy Ageing, 2007).~ ~Risk factors for falls are muscle weakness,
438   II,     9            |                  with the number of risk factors. Visual performance, medical
439   II,     9            |              mobility become significant factors with age. These difficulties
440   II,     9.  1.  1    |          birth weight are important risk factors for morbidity in infancy
441   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 characteristics and risk factors; and health services. Core
442   II,     9.  1.  1    |          Population characteristics/Risk factors~C: Multiple birth rate by
443   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 characteristics and risk factors~ ~In order to monitor perinatal
444   II,     9.  1.  1    |          childbearing women and the risk factors associated with poor outcomes.
445   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  S (2004): Institutional factors in cesarean delivery rates:
446   II,     9.  1.  2    |             regarding environmental risk factors, this places a great importance
447   II,     9.  1.  2    |                in the prevalence of risk factors affecting total prevalence,
448   II,     9.  1.  2    |             influenced by health service factors (e.g. the proportion of
449   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 performed ) and registry factors (e.g. specificity of coding
450   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 or more of the following factors: a) the risk of pregnancies
451   II,     9.  1.  2    |            quality and increases in risk factors may represent other possible
452   II,     9.  1.  2    |              cultural and organisational factors, and differences in TOPFA
453   II,     9.  1.  2    |               Italy. Diet and/or genetic factors may explain this low prevalence.~ ~
454   II,     9.  1.  2    |                            9.1.2.4. Risk factors~ ~For main risk factors
455   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  factors~ ~For main risk factors see Table 9.1a.~ ~Table
456   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    Table 9.1a. Main risk factors for newborns and perinatal
457   II,     9.  1.  2    |              with social and health care factors, including lack on antenatal
458   II,     9.  1.  2    |            outcomes are linked to social factors (Kaminski et al, 2000; Kramer
459   II,     9.  1.  2    |                environmental and genetic factors. For about 15% of cases,
460   II,     9.  1.  2    |              importance of environmental factors as causes, and these are
461   II,     9.  1.  2    |               often many coexisting risk factors such as smoking, alcohol,
462   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 nutrition and other risk factors associated with deprivation.~ ~
463   II,     9.  1.  2    |             number of environmental risk factors for congenital anomaly such
464   II,     9.  1.  2    |               due to genetic or cultural factors. Measures to alleviate family
465   II,     9.  1.  2    |                help to reduce known risk factors.~ ~The potential to prevent
466   II,     9.  1.  2    |              reducing environmental risk factors for congenital anomalies,
467   II,     9.  1.  2    |             public health agenda.~ ~Risk factors for congenital anomalies
468   II,     9.  1.  2    |               and obesity, are also risk factors for congenital anomalies.
469   II,     9.  1.  2    |             needed, as reduction of risk factors needs to start very early
470   II,     9.  1.  2    |             Review of Environmental Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies",
471   II,     9.  2.  1    |             sustain good habits, are key factors for healthy development
472   II,     9.  2.  2    |                 comprehensive account of factors influencing the health of
473   II,     9.  2.  2    |            exacerbated by socio-economic factors.~ ~Cultural variation: Context
474   II,     9.  2.  3    |            socio-economic or educational factors, where an individual may
475   II,     9.  2.  4    |                              9.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A number of first-level
476   II,     9.  2.  4    |               number of first-level risk factors have been identified for
477   II,     9.  2.  4    |                peer pressures – all risk factors of locally varying significance
478   II,     9.  2.  4    |                    Table 9.1b. Main risk factors for children and adolescents~ ~
479   II,     9.  2.  4    |                family environment. Three factors in particular are well-known
480   II,     9.  2.  4    |            health problems. Several risk factors have been identified for
481   II,     9.  2.  4    |              papilloma virus (HPV). Risk factors for STIs can include multiple
482   II,     9.  2.  5    |                  the social and economic factors that influence health and
483   II,     9.  2.  5    |         addresses the environmental risk factors that most affect the health
484   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 effect of socio-economic factors within a country (White &
485   II,     9.  3.  1    |          worldwide. Understanding of the factors that influence age at menopause
486   II,     9.  3.  1    |                   Familial or hereditary factors appear to be the most predictive.
487   II,     9.  3.  1    |         depression in older people, risk factors, detection, treatment and
488   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 prevalence of other risk factors such as obesity, stress
489   II,     9.  3.  1    |         thromboembolism. Modifiable risk factors for venous thrombo-embolism
490   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  is only one of the many factors that affect sexual function.
491   II,     9.  3.  1    |            affect sexual function. Other factors include the presence of
492   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  employment, personality factors and negative attitudes towards
493   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 is only one of many risk factors that contribute to the risk
494   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  in origin, with organic factors and psychogenic factors
495   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  factors and psychogenic factors likely to contribute to
496   II,     9.  3.  1    |              condition. However, organic factors are the most common reasons
497   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  specific gender-related factors contribute to the increased
498   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  would appear to be risk factors. It has been argued that
499   II,     9.  3.  1    |                            9.3.1.4. Risk factors~ ~The main risk factors
500   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  factors~ ~The main risk factors for adults are summarized