1-500 | 501-792
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4        |                  expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among men, 2 to 4
  2    I,     2.  5        |                During the period 2006-2007 6.5 million new jobs have
  3    I,     2.  6        |                                          2.6. Education~ ~Education is
  4    I,     2.  6        |                     i.e. ISCED levels 5 or 6) in 2003/2004~ ~This gap
  5    I,     2.  6        |                 students enrolled in ISCED 6 or advanced research programmes
  6    I,     2.  6        |                    enrolled in ISCED level 6 programmes compared to men
  7    I,     2.  6        |                   women enrolling in ISCED 6 programmes (i.e. those graduating
  8    I,     2.  6        |                   decline from 91.8 and 91.6 millions in 2002 and 2003
  9    I,     2. 10.  4    |                  healthcare costs but only 6-8% in the retail industry
 10    I,     2. 10.  4    |                  the retail industry and 3-6% in the grocery industry –
 11    I,     3.  2        |                  of the EU27 population to 6% in 2025 and 5% in 2050 (
 12    I,     3.  3        |                    linearly. While about 1.6% of all EU citizens were
 13    I,     3.  3        |                  coming decade.~ ~Figure 3.6. Share of EU27 population
 14    I,     3.  3        |                 the European Union from 21.6 in 1980 to 25.5 in 2005.
 15    I,     3.  3        |                    followed by Portugal (1.6%) and Spain (1.5%).~ ~Nevertheless,
 16    I,     3.  3        |                annual growth varied from 0.6% to 1.0% over the periods
 17    I,     3.  3        |                  current 4.2%. A figure of 6.6% is expected in 2025.
 18    I,     3.  3        |                current 4.2%. A figure of 6.6% is expected in 2025. The
 19   II,     4.  1        |                  than elsewhere in the EU (6 to 7 years). For the future,
 20   II,     4.  1        |                  do, for at least the last 6 months, because of health
 21   II,     4.  1        |                   for women including 5 to 6 years with severe limitations.
 22   II,     4.  1        |         limitations. Women live on average 6 years longer than men but
 23   II,     4.  1        |                  remaining HLY at 50 is 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years
 24   II,     4.  1        |          respectively from 9.1 years to 23.6 years (14.5 years gap) for
 25   II,     4.  1        |                 birth are expected to live 6 years more than men. They
 26   II,     4.  1        |             remaining HLY still reaches 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years
 27   II,     4.  2        |               circulatory diseases (causes 6, 7 and 8 in table 3) has
 28   II,     4.  2        |                   in recent decades, table 6 shows the average change
 29   II,     4.  2        |                 were selected.~ ~Table 4.2.6. Average annual change in
 30   II,     4.  2        |            selected countries.~ ~Table 4.2.6 shows that in 11 out of
 31   II,     4.  3        |                    of Public Health 13(3): 6-14.~ ~Robine, J.-M., C.
 32   II,     4.  3        |                  of Public Health 2003; 13:6-14.~ ~Robine, J.-M., C.
 33   II,     4.  3        |                Science Medical Science 59A(6): 590-597.~ ~Sullivan, D.
 34   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 and problems~See section 5.6.~Respiratory diseases including
 35   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    to 180 per 100.000) and 6% in Baltic Europe countries (
 36   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  are reported in Table 5.2.6: here mean attack rates
 37   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.6. WHO-MONICA Project 6 EU
 38   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    2.6. WHO-MONICA Project 6 EU population. Age-standardized
 39   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8) and difficulties
 40   II,     5.  2.  4    |             definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8) and difficulties
 41   II,     5.  2.  4    |                1995-96, 1999-2000 and 2005-6 in different European countries
 42   II,     5.  2.  6    |                                        5.2.6. Future developments~ ~In
 43   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  cancer incidence (Figures 6) and mortality trends (Figures
 44   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6 Control tools and policies~ ~
 45   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6.1 Primary prevention~ ~The
 46   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6.2 Early diagnosis (secondary
 47   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6.3. Oncologic care and practice~ ~
 48   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6.4 Cancer Plans~ ~Definition
 49   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                        5.3.6.5 Research collaboration~ ~
 50   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 global prevalence of about 6.0%, 46% of which in the
 51   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 increase to 9.1% (about 58.6 million people) over the
 52   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    Epidemic~ ~(WHO Report, 6 May, 2004)~ ~A complex interaction
 53   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 expenditures ranged from 1.6% in the Netherlands to 6.
 54   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   6% in the Netherlands to 6.6 % in Italy. Hospitalisations
 55   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    in the Netherlands to 6.6 % in Italy. Hospitalisations
 56   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                      5.4.2.6. Hospital discharge records~ ~
 57   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  last 12 months with LDL>2.6 mmol/l (>3 mmol/l)~13~Percent
 58   II,     5.  4.  2    |              retinopathy in last 12 months~6~Percent of diabetic subjects
 59   II,     5.  4.  2    |              plasma glucose equal or above 6.1 mmol/l and below 7.0 mmol/
 60   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     fasting plasma glucose 6,1 mmol/l and <7,0 mmol/l).~
 61   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l is an important indicator
 62   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 presenting a value above 2.6 mmol/l.~Measurement of HDL
 63   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 variation, ranging between 6 (Luxembourg) and 60 (Finland)
 64   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 the rates of increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children
 65   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l. Crude percentages
 66   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  on 11 countries vary from 6% (Scotland) to 42% (Cyprus),
 67   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6. Control tools and policies~
 68   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.1. Surveillance~The development
 69   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.2. Primary prevention~For
 70   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.3. Secondary prevention~
 71   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.4. National guidelines and
 72   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.5. EU initiatives against
 73   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                        5.4.6.6. International initiatives~ ~
 74   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                      5.4.6.6. International initiatives~ ~
 75   II,     5.  4.  8    |                    Med. 1995 Mar;12(3):271-6~Beck, P, Battlogg, K, Gfrerer,
 76   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  Europe. Lancet 11;355 873-6~EUDIP group (2002): Establishment
 77   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1270-6.~Greenfield S, Nicolucci
 78   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  810) ISBN 978 92 4 159493 6 © World Health Organization
 79   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    spend on average around 6% of their health budgets
 80   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    chronic illnesses and 2-6 times more likely to have
 81   II,     5.  5.Int(18)|            non-Western countries.MedGenMed.6:49.~
 82   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    EU varies between 3 and 6 per 1.000 inhabitants. Data,
 83   II,     5.  5.Int    |             prevalence six per 1000) and 0.6 million aged 65 or older (
 84   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   lost productivity in the 6 ESEMED countries, a burden
 85   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   presented in Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually
 86   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually age adjusted mortality
 87   II,     5.  5.  1    |                annual change estimated at -6.1%(P<0.0001), –5.4%(P<0.
 88   II,     5.  5.  1    |        health promotion for Children up to 6 years of age(1997-99): Early
 89   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   the European level (2004-6), provided final set of
 90   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                      5.5.1.6. References~ ~Alonso J,
 91   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Initiative. World Psychiatry 6(3):168-76.~ ~Kessler R,
 92   II,     5.  5.  1    |              evidence. Am J Psychiatry 159(6):909-16.~ ~Ormel J, Petukhova
 93   II,     5.  5.  1    |             Epidemiol Community Health. 62(6):545-51.~ ~ ~
 94   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  an estimated 5,526,488 to 6,120,842 people with dementia (
 95   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                      5.5.2.6. Future developments~ ~September
 96   II,     5.  5.  2    |          well-being in later life, Chapter 6, available at: htt m (accessed
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |             exercise a mortality rate of 5,6% per decade (Misra et al,
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~Due
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    PEDIATRICS Vol. 114 No. 6, 1574-1583.~NEDA (National
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |              median point prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, period prevalence
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |               median point prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for period
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    disorder accounting for 6.2% YLDs).~Table 5.5.3.2.
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 between 36% and 45% of the 6.6 million people in the
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |               between 36% and 45% of the 6.6 million people in the WHO
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 relatives) (Figure 5.5.3.3.6). Internalized stigma is
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    disease.~Figure 5.5.3.2.6. Experiences of stigma in
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    care (see Table 5.5.3.3.6). Since psychotic disorders
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    al, 2007)~Table 5.5.3.2.6. Expenditures by kind of
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.2.6. References~AGREE Collaboration (
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Aust N Z J Psychiatry.39(6):514-21.~ ~
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     The average finding of 6.6 and 6.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   The average finding of 6.6 and 6.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 average finding of 6.6 and 6.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.3.6. References~ ~Blaxill MF (
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |              trauma (2-16%) and neoplasms (6-10%).~There are only few
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    generalized epilepsy in 6% (3.4 per 100,000 per year).
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |             idiopathic 1.7; symptomatic 13.6), 6.7 per 100,000 for generalized
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    1.7; symptomatic 13.6), 6.7 per 100,000 for generalized
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   epilepsies (idiopathic 5.6; symptomatic 1.1) and 1.
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 All ages ~MR review~333 ~7.6 ~Joensen, 1986 (*)~Estonia ~
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Children ~Prospective~560 ~3.6 ~Beilmann et al., 1999~Estonia ~
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |               review and examination~1233 ~6.3 ~Keranen et al., 1989 (*)~
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   278/51~ ~199/235~ ~81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      All ages ~GP files~? ~6.2 ~Pond et al., 1960 (*)~
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2003 (*)~+ = 5-14 years - = 6-12 years MR = Medical record
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Pediatricians ~ = 6-16 years Ø = 6-14 years GP = General practitioners
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 undetermined epilepsies (0.6 per 1,000). Localization-related
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    5-17%, absence epilepsy 6-8%, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 2-6%.~Socio-economic background
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 years, a mortality rate of 6.23 per 1,000 person-years
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  was found to range from 1.6 to 9.3 in community-based
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 for epilepsy ranges from 1.6 to 5.3 in children and adults (
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Prevalent cohorts~32~12.4~2.6~Preston and Clarke, 1966 (*)~
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Incident cohort~45~28.0~1.6~Olafsson et al., 1998~Poland~
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |            policies~Prevalent cohort~32~14.6~2.2~Svensson and Astrand,
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |              incident cohort~4001~1109.0~3.6~Nilsson et al, 1997~U.K.~
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Incident cohort~149~58.3~2.6~Lhathoo et al., 2001~ GP:
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 deaths range between 1 and 6% of all deaths, with SMR
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  ranging between 2.4 and 5.6 (Gaitatzis and Sander, 2004).
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.4) in non-surgical patients,
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |             incidence of SUDEP was 2.5 vs. 6.3 per 1,000 (Nilsson et
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |               common comorbid disorder (PR 6.1) followed by schizophrenia (
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  First unprovoked seizure (6 months)~ First seizure,
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  First unprovoked seizure (6 months)~ II 60 months (taxi
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |                months)~ Sporadic seizures (6 months)~ Myoclonias (dose)~
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |              occasion-related seizures~ (3-6 months)~ First seizure,
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |               First seizure, idiopathic (3-6 months)~ Treatment stop (
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  First unprovoked seizure (6 months)~ First unprovoked,
149   II,     5.  5.  3    |                months)~ Sporadic seizures (6 months)~ Myoclonias, single
150   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.4.6. References~ ~Anonymous (
151   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Employment. Epilepsia 44 (suppl 6):49-50.~Barraclough BM (
152   II,     5.  5.  3    |                revisited. Epileptic Disord 6:3-13.~Gaitatzis A, Carroll
153   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to 3.5), moderate (4.0 to 6.5) and severe (7.0 to 9.
154   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    significantly from 3 to 6 per 100 000 per year in
155   II,     5.  5.  3    |                annual incidence rate was 2.6 in 197488. Multiple assessments
156   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  is shown in Table 5.5.3.5.6 and Figure 5.5.3.5.2. The
157   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    for moderate MS (EDSS 4-6.5) and between 5% (Austria)
158   II,     5.  5.  3    |                EDSS 7-9.5)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.6. Proportion of Multiple
159   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   mortality ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 per 100 000 as reported
160   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     However, rates up to 3.6 per 100 000 are reported
161   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 one functional system, 4.0-6.5 refers to fully ambulatory,
162   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.5.6. Future developments~ ~There
163   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   at: www tm Accessed Sept 6 2004.~Fangerau T, Schimrigk
164   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 pathogenesis. Brain Pathol 6:259-274.~Mc Donald WI, Compston
165   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6. Parkinson’s disease~ ~ ~
166   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.1. Introduction~ ~Parkinson’
167   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.2. Data source~To identify
168   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.3. Data description and
169   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    community (Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
170   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   in Europe~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
171   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    shown in Table 5. 5. 3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence
172   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence studies of
173   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  summarised in Table 5.5.3.6.2..(von Campenhausen et
174   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   al, 2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.2. Prevalence studies of
175   II,     5.  5.  3    |               varied considerably, from 65.6/100,000 in Sardinia (Rosati
176   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    variations in rates (65.6 to 12,500/100,000) may be
177   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   few studies (Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
178   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   al, 1986).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
179   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 including PD (Figure 5.5.3.6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki et al,
180   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of €7,600.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.2. Cost per case in PD in
181   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   cost category totalling €6.1 billion, constituting
182   II,     5.  5.  3    |             healthcare cost totalled to €4.6 billion. Hospitalization
183   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  five groups (Figure 5.5.3.6.3). In the early stages
184   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   HY IV).~ ~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.3. Cost of Parkinson’s disease
185   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.4. Risk factors~ ~The cause
186   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
187   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    to 12 major diseases in 6 countries representative
188   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.6. Future developments~ ~
189   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.6.6. Future developments~ ~Based
190   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   PD was between 4.1 and 4.6 million and the number will
191   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.7. References~Aarsland D,
192   II,     5.  5.  3    |                disease. Br J Clin Pract 49(6):288-293.~Claveria LE, Duarte
193   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Disease. Moving Along 5 (1): 6. Available at http://www.
194   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   s disease. Mov Disord 22(6):804-812.~Mutch WJ, Dingwall-Fordyce
195   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 10(6):549-554.~Vanacore N (2005):
196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                      5.5.3.6.8. Acronyms~ ~EBC~European
197   II,     5.  6        |                                          5.6. Musculoskeletal conditions
198   II,     5.  6.  1    |                                          5.6.1. Introduction~ ~Musculoskeletal
199   II,     5.  6.  1    |                 occupation or sports; and (6) genetic, congenital and
200   II,     5.  6.  2    |                                          5.6.2. Data sources~ ~The epidemiological
201   II,     5.  6.  3    |                                          5.6.3. Data description and
202   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 2003) are given in table 5.6.1.~ ~Table 5.6.1. General
203   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  in table 5.6.1.~ ~Table 5.6.1. General Incidence and
204   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Hagen et al, 1997) (Figure 5.6.1), explained partly by
205   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   with older age (Figure 5.6.2). A decline in the complaint
206   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  working place.~ ~Figure 5.6.1. The age and sex-specific
207   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     in Sweden~ ~ ~Figure 5.6.2. Prevalence of self reported
208   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 the Netherlands~ ~Figure 5.6.2.b Prevalence of self reported
209   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 categories representing 22.6% of the total cost of illness (
210   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  al, 1998), accounting for 6% of total health care costs
211   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 physical activity (Table 5.6.4). The pain and disability
212   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  not reversible (Figures 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 and Tables 5.
213   II,     5.  6.  3    |            reversible (Figures 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 and Tables 5.6.1-5.6.3)
214   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   3 and 5.6.4 and Tables 5.6.1-5.6.3) and this is where
215   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   5.6.4 and Tables 5.6.1-5.6.3) and this is where the
216   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.6.2. Osteoarthritis Incidence
217   II,     5.  6.  3    |               European countries~ ~Table 5.6.3. Osteoarthritis Prevalence
218   II,     5.  6.  3    |               EUGLOREH Countries~ ~Table 5.6.4. Osteoarthritis Prevalence (
219   II,     5.  6.  3    |             European Countries ~ ~Figure 5.6.3. Prevalence of knee OA
220   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    OA in Europe~ ~Figure 5.6.4a. Prevalence of radiographic
221   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  OA by age A) Men~Figure 5.6.4b. Prevalence of radiographic
222   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   radiographic OA (Table 5.6.4). Almost everyone who
223   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  are summarised in table 5.6.5.~ ~Table 5.6.5. Risk factors
224   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  in table 5.6.5.~ ~Table 5.6.5. Risk factors for incidence
225   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    SEK739 million (Euro 59.6 million) was for inpatient
226   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 for inpatient care and SEK 6.4 billion (Euro 630.4 million)
227   II,     5.  6.  3    |              prevalence of RA range from 1-6 per 1000 for men and 3-12
228   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Linos et al, 1980). (Table 5.6.6)~ ~Table 5.6.6. Prevalence
229   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   et al, 1980). (Table 5.6.6)~ ~Table 5.6.6. Prevalence
230   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     Table 5.6.6)~ ~Table 5.6.6. Prevalence and incidence
231   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Table 5.6.6)~ ~Table 5.6.6. Prevalence and incidence
232   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Finland is reported as 0.6%, France 0.32% and Italy
233   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   is considerable (Table 5.6.7).~ ~Table 5.6.7. Estimated
234   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    Table 5.6.7).~ ~Table 5.6.7. Estimated lifetime risks
235   II,     5.  6.  3    |                                          5.6.3.4.4 Prevalence~ ~Prevalence
236   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 per year among women and 0.6% per year among men from
237   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    likely to fall (Table 5.6.8) and those who may have
238   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  risk of fracture (Table 5.6.9). There are some semi-independent
239   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Melton, 1995).~ ~Table 5.6.8. Risk Factors for Falling
240   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   in the Elderly~ ~Table 5.6.9. Risk factors for bone
241   II,     5.  6.  3    |                Kanis et al, 2002) (Table 5.6.10).~ ~Table 5.6.10. Estimated
242   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   Table 5.6.10).~ ~Table 5.6.10. Estimated 10 year risks
243   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 good functional outcome at 6 months (Kaukonen et al,
244   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  back pain is of less than 6 weeks duration; subacute
245   II,     5.  6.  3    |              duration; subacute is between 6 weeks and 3 months duration
246   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  pain with sciatica was 11.6 / 1000 people per year,
247   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   to return to work. After 6 months off work, less than
248   II,     5.  6.  4    |                                          5.6.4. Societal impact~ ~Musculoskeletal
249   II,     5.  6.  4    |              rheumatoid arthritis (Table 5.6.11).~ ~Table 5.6.11. Distribution (
250   II,     5.  6.  4    |                   Table 5.6.11).~ ~Table 5.6.11. Distribution (in per
251   II,     5.  6.  4    |                most common reason (Table 5.6.12). (European Commission (
252   II,     5.  6.  4    |                  and Conditions)~ ~Table 5.6.12. Distribution (in per
253   II,     5.  6.  5    |                                          5.6.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
254   II,     5.  6.  6    |                                          5.6.6. References~ ~Altman R,
255   II,     5.  6.  6    |                                        5.6.6. References~ ~Altman R,
256   II,     5.  6.  6    |                   Survey. Ann Rheum Dis 52:6-13~Bergman S, Herrstrom
257   II,     5.  6.  6    |                     J Occup Environ Med 42(6):588-96~Brage S, Nygard
258   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 France]. Rev Rhum Ed Fr 60(6 Pt 2):63S-7S~Lin CT, Albertson
259   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 care plan. Am J Manag Care 6:669-678~Linos A, Worthington
260   II,     5.  6.  6    |                    Ann Rheum Dis 62(3):222-6~National Board on Health
261   II,     5.  7.  1    |                     or dialysis)~585.5~585.6 (if ESRD)~V codes for dialysis
262   II,     5.  7.  3    |            children and adolescents in the 6 months-16 years range) the
263   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 more restricted age-range (6 months-16 years) and applying
264   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    2006) in males and from 6.2% (Italy) (Cirillo et al,
265   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 pmp in Germany (Tables 5.7.6 A and B). It increased with
266   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 almost unmodified at about 6%. None of these data are
267   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  more recent cohorts had a 6% (cohort 1990-1994) and
268   II,     5.  7.  6    |                                        5.7.6. Future developments~ ~There
269   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  years. Kidney Int 2005;68(6):2839-45.~Chobanian AV,
270   II,     5.  7.  7    |              Kidney Int 2006 Aug;70(4):800-6.~Coresh J, Byrd-Holt D,
271   II,     5.  7.  7    |                aging. Circulation 2002 Aug 6;106(6):703-10.~Ejerblad
272   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Circulation 2002 Aug 6;106(6):703-10.~Ejerblad E, Fored
273   II,     5.  7.  7    |                    Soc Nephrol 2006 Jun;17(6):1695-702.~ERA-EDTA Registry (
274   II,     5.  7.  7    |                     Kidney Int 2005 Dec;68(6):2801-8.~Hallan SI, Coresh
275   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Intern Med 1999 Mar 16;130(6):461-70.~Levin A (2001):
276   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  Semin Nephrol 2002 Nov;22(6):441-8.~Otero A, Gayoso
277   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Nephrol 2004 May;15(5):1300-6.~Stengel B, Billon S, van
278   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  40-69 year olds to 14.4% (6.3% COPD) (Murtagh et al,
279   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   reported a prevalence of 6.2% of chronic bronchitis
280   II,     5.  8.  3    |                COPD was reported only by 5.6% of participants (Schirnhofer
281   II,     5.  8.  3    |                moderate 2.2%, and severe 0.6% (GOLD-COPD: mild 8.2%,
282   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    for the Netherlands was 6.5. for mild, 13.3 for moderate,
283   II,     5.  8.  3    |             moderate, 3.7 for severe and 0.6 for very severe COPD (Hoogendoorn
284   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    1.7), fractures (RR = 1.6), and glaucoma (RR = 1.3) [
285   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     OR 3.52, 95%CI 2.04 to 6.07) compared to non smokers..~ ~
286   II,     5.  8.  3    |             patients was 256 million euro (6% of the total). Only one
287   II,     5.  8.  5    |                    were present (mild in 7.6%, moderate in 6.7% and severe
288   II,     5.  8.  5    |                  mild in 7.6%, moderate in 6.7% and severe in 5.9%).
289   II,     5.  8.  6    |                                        5.8.6. Future developments~ ~Higher
290   II,     5.  8.  6    |            palliative care in hospital (47.6% vs 5.1%, p<0.001) or at
291   II,     5.  8.  7    |                  Monograph 38, 2006; 11: 1-6.~ ~Sidney S, Sorel M, Quesenberry
292   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   former East Germany only 6 to 8 years after the Germany
293   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   intervention beyond 4 to 6 months of age for the development
294   II,     5.  9. FB    |                                       5.FB.6. Control tools and policies~ ~
295   II,     5.  9.  2    |  rhino-conjunctivitis and atopic eczema in 6-7 and 13-15 years old were
296   II,     5.  9.  2    |            enrolled: 193 404 children aged 67 years from 66 centres
297   II,     5.  9.  3    |               remission rate was 45.8% (41.6% in women and 49.5% in men,
298   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 duration of the disease (5.6 vs 16.1 years, P 001) than
299   II,     5.  9.  3    |                   mean age at diagnosis (9.6 years) and the predominance
300   II,     5.  9.  3    |           population: 11.2% in children of 6-7 years of age and 16.9%
301   II,     5.  9.  3    |          Switzerland (9.1% in children and 6.8% in adults), Spain (6.
302   II,     5.  9.  3    |                    6.8% in adults), Spain (6.3%), Croatia (6%), Serbia (
303   II,     5.  9.  3    |                     Spain (6.3%), Croatia (6%), Serbia (6%), Greece (
304   II,     5.  9.  3    |                      Croatia (6%), Serbia (6%), Greece (5.6%), Poland (
305   II,     5.  9.  3    |                     Serbia (6%), Greece (5.6%), Poland (5.4%), Germany (
306   II,     5.  9.  3    |                   Croatia 12.1%, Serbia 11.6%, Iceland 11%, Spain 10.
307   II,     5.  9.  3    |                      Iceland 11%, Spain 10.6% and Poland 8.5% and Germany
308   II,     5.  9.  3    |                varied between 13.5% and 23.6% (median 18.9%) in 1998–
309   II,     5.  9.  3    |             disorder, more commonly in the 67 years of age-group than
310   II,     5.  9.  3    |                years of age-group: for the 67 years of age-group, two
311   II,     5.  9.  3    |                   3.8 billion), drugs (€ 3.6 billion) and inpatient care (€
312   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    asthma (relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, P=0.017).
313   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, P=0.008). Among common
314   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    and bronchial asthma (1.6%) than children (n = 966)
315   II,     5.  9.  4    |            identified (Tables 5.9.4 to 5.9.6). The lowest sensitization
316   II,     5.  9.  4    |                     ragweed.~ ~ ~Table 5.9.6. Standardized (age, gender)
317   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    from current hay fever, 6.8% from asthma, 4.5% from
318   II,     5.  9.  4    |              initial years of life (OR = 0.6); attending day care (OR =
319   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   current wheeze: 5.2% and 6.9%, respectively, P = 0.
320   II,     5.  9.  6    |                                        5.9.6. Future Developments~ ~Asthma
321   II,     5.  9.  7    |                   Pulmonary Medicine 2006, 6(Suppl 1):S2 doi:10.1186/
322   II,     5.  9.  7    |                   S2 doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S2).~ ~Jarvis D, Luczynska
323   II,     5.  9.  7    |            Gesundheitsschutz. May-Jun;50(5-6):701-10~ ~Simpson A, Custovic
324   II,     5.  9.  7    |                 Clin Immunol. 2003 Jun;111(6):1232-8~ ~von Mutius (2006):
325   II,     5. 10.  1    |                around 1-3% in adults and 4-6% in children (EFSA, 2004).~ ~
326   II,     5. 10.  3    |          self-reported FHS, ranging from 4.6% in Spain to 19.1% in Australia,
327   II,     5. 10.  3    |                     4.7%), strawberries (4.6%), cow’s milk (4.3%), oranges
328   II,     5. 10.  3    |                   estimated to be around 4-6 % in children and 1-3% in
329   II,     5. 10.  6    |                                       5.10.6. Future developments~ ~The
330   II,     5. 10.  7    |                  the European Union L 109, 6.5.2000, pp. 2942.~htt ~ ~
331   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 Swedish school children (5-6 yrs)~Lifetime prevalence=
332   II,     5. 11.  3    |                    21.3% 1-year prevalence=6.7% Point prevalence=3.6%~
333   II,     5. 11.  3    |                    6.7% Point prevalence=3.6%~Mortz C, et al~Contact
334   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 from 1.1% in Denmark to 17.6% in Italy, and to potassium
335   II,     5. 11.  3    |                     956), a total of 44 (4.6%) had contact allergy to
336   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  Internal Medicine 1999;14(6):379385.~B Larsson-Stymne,
337   II,     5. 11.  3    |             overall, with rates as high as 6% in France and Germany (
338   II,     5. 11.  6    |                                       5.11.6. Future developments~ ~What
339   II,     5. 11.  7    |                     Ann Oncol 2004;15(1):5-6.~ ~Boyle P, Smans M (2003):
340   II,     5. 11.  7    |                   Dermatol 2002;146(S61):1-6.~ ~Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani
341   II,     5. 11.  7    |            Dermatol Venereol 2005;19(S3):2-6.~ ~Gudjonsson JE, Elder
342   II,     5. 11.  7    |                   Br J Hosp Med 1991;46:336.~ ~Royal College of General
343   II,     5. 12.  1    |               relevant Sections of Chapter 6.~ ~
344   II,     5. 12.  3    |                   the England and Wales (3.6/100,000), Ireland (3.4),
345   II,     5. 12.  3    |                     Finland from 7.4 to 13.6, Ireland from 3.4 to 4.8,
346   II,     5. 12.  3    |                   England and Wales from 3.6 to 8.9, Scotland from 7.
347   II,     5. 12.  3    |                   rates in 2000-02 were 22.6/100,000 in Romania, followed
348   II,     5. 12.  4    |                infection (see also Chapter 6) and alcohol drinking (Corrao
349   II,     5. 12.  4    |                   HBV and HCV (see Chapter 6), cirrhosis mortality trends
350   II,     5. 12.  5    |                   vaccination (sse Chapter 6), control of HCV transmission (
351   II,     5. 12.  5    |                  transmission (see Chapter 6) and of alcohol drinking.~ ~
352   II,     5. 12.  5    |                   death ( see also Chapter 6).~ ~There is inadequate
353   II,     5. 12.  6    |                                       5.12.6. Future developments~ ~In
354   II,     5. 14.  1    |                    molars in children aged 6 to 8 years. Retention of
355   II,     5. 14.  2    |                    present per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~Numerator:
356   II,     5. 14.  2    |                    present per children at 6 and 12 years of age.~Denominator:
357   II,     5. 14.  2    |                Total number of children at 6 and 12 years of age surveyed.~ ~
358   II,     5. 14.  2    |          periodontal pockets of from 4mm - 6 mm, periodontal pockets
359   II,     5. 14.  2    |                     periodontal pockets of 6 mm or deeper.~Numerator:
360   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  deep periodontal pockets (6 mm or more) affects 10%
361   II,     5. 14.  3    |                    was reported for 31% of 6-year-olds and 55.6% of 12-
362   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  31% of 6-year-olds and 55.6% of 12-year-olds; 17.8%
363   II,     5. 14.  3    |                     17.8% of children aged 6 had seen a dentist during
364   II,     5. 14.  6    |                                       5.14.6. Policies~ ~At the 60th
365   II,     5. 15.  3    |                    the age of 1 year, to 9.6% of deaths between the age
366   II,     5. 15.  6    |                                       5.15.6. References~ ~ALCIMED (2004):
367   II,     5. 15.  6    |            management. Pediatrics, 1978;62(6):1056-1060.~Kesselman I,
368   II,     6            |                                            6.~MAIN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
369   II,     6.  1        |                                            6.1. Introduction~ ~This chapter
370   II,     6.  2        |                                            6.2. Data sources~ ~The results
371   II,     6.  3        |                                            6.3. Data description and
372   II,     6.  3.  1    |                                            6.3.1. Overview~ ~For some
373   II,     6.  3.  1    |                  under surveillance (Table 6.1). Of the 49 diseases,
374   II,     6.  3.  1    |                  AMR and malaria).~ ~Table 6.1. Summary of general trends (
375   II,     6.  3.  2    |                                            6.3.2. Antimicrobial resistance
376   II,     6.  3.  2    |                                            6.3.2.1. Antimicrobial resistance
377   II,     6.  3.  2    |                   baseline figures (figure 6.1). However, two countries (
378   II,     6.  3.  2    |                  be irreversible.~ ~Figure 6.1. Proportion of methicillin-resistant
379   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 Latvia), but ranged from 06% in the rest of the countries.
380   II,     6.  3.  2    |                                            6.3.2.2. Healthcare-associated
381   II,     6.  3.  2    |              Staphylococcus aureus (Figure 6.1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
382   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                            6.3.3. HIV infection, sexually
383   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                            6.3.3.1. Human papilloma virus
384   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                            6.3.3.2. HIV infection~ ~HIV
385   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 EEA/EFTA countries (Figure 6.2). The epidemic exhibits
386   II,     6.  3.  3    |                    Netherlands.~ ~ ~Figure 6.2. HIV cases per million.~
387   II,     6.  3.  3    |                from 2 314 cases in 1996 to 6 386 in 2004. This increase
388   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                            6.3.3.3. Other sexually transmitted
389   II,     6.  3.  3    |                steadily since then (figure 6.3). In 2005, a total of
390   II,     6.  3.  3    |                    than in women.~ ~Figure 6.3. Trends of Gonorrhoea
391   II,     6.  3.  3    |                                            6.3.3.4. Blood-borne viral
392   II,     6.  3.  3    |              overall decreasing trend from 6.6 to 2.6 cases per 100 000
393   II,     6.  3.  3    |                    decreasing trend from 6.6 to 2.6 cases per 100 000
394   II,     6.  3.  3    |             decreasing trend from 6.6 to 2.6 cases per 100 000 per year
395   II,     6.  3.  3    |               since the late 1990s. Of the 6 977 cases reported in 2005
396   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                            6.3.4. Respiratory tract infections~ ~
397   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                            6.3.4.1. Influenza~ ~Seasonal
398   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                            6.3.4.2. Tuberculosis~ ~TB
399   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  in all countries.~ ~Annex 6.1. Selected tables and figures
400   II,     6.  3.  4    |                Annual Report~ ~ ~ ~ ~Table 6.A1.1 Number of cases of
401   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  tubercolosis~ ~ ~ ~Figure 6.A1.1 TB cases per 100,000
402   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 countries and EU 25~Figure 6.A1.2 Tubercolosis cases
403   II,     6.  3.  4    |                    and gender~ ~ ~ ~Figure 6.A1.3 Combined MDR in 2005~ ~ ~ ~ ~
404   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 MDR in 2005~ ~ ~ ~ ~Figure 6.A1.4 New culture positive
405   II,     6.  3.  4    |                    Sweden smear)~ ~ ~Table 6.A1.2 Cases of TB between
406   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  1995 and 2004~ ~ ~ ~Table 6.A1.3 Cases of TB by age
407   II,     6.  3.  4    |               Estonia and Latvia, reaching 6.4% and 3.5%, respectively
408   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                            6.3.4.3. Legionnairesdisease (
409   II,     6.  3.  4    |           especially among elderly (figure 6.4) and immuno-compromised
410   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 with antibiotics.~ ~Figure 6.4. Trends of legionellosis
411   II,     6.  3.  4    |                                            6.3.4.4. Severe acute respiratory
412   II,     6.  3.  5    |                                            6.3.5. Vaccine-preventable
413   II,     6.  3.  5    |                   EU Member States (figure 6.5).~ ~Figure 6.5. Measles (
414   II,     6.  3.  5    |              States (figure 6.5).~ ~Figure 6.5. Measles (MCV1) vaccine
415   II,     6.  3.  5    |                                            6.3.5.1. Bacterial infections~ ~
416   II,     6.  3.  5    |                                            6.3.5.2. Viral infections~ ~
417   II,     6.  3.  5    |                    year after 1998 (Figure 6.6).~ ~Figure 6.6. Measles
418   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  year after 1998 (Figure 6.6).~ ~Figure 6.6. Measles
419   II,     6.  3.  5    |                1998 (Figure 6.6).~ ~Figure 6.6. Measles trend in Europe
420   II,     6.  3.  5    |                    Figure 6.6).~ ~Figure 6.6. Measles trend in Europe
421   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                            6.3.6. Food and waterborne
422   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                        6.3.6. Food and waterborne infections~ ~
423   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                            6.3.6.1. Bacterial infections~ ~
424   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                        6.3.6.1. Bacterial infections~ ~
425   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   better reporting (Figure 6.7). The most affected age
426   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 and tetracycline.~ ~Figure 6.7. Campylobacteriosis trends
427   II,     6.  3.  6    |               Italy between 1995 and 2004 (6 440 cases). In 2005, a total
428   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                            6.3.6.2. Viral infections~ ~
429   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                        6.3.6.2. Viral infections~ ~Hepatitis
430   II,     6.  3.  6    |                stable since then. In 2005, 6 695 cases were reported
431   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   per 100 000) and Latvia (6.29 per 100 000) are the
432   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                            6.3.6.3. Parasitic infections~ ~
433   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                        6.3.6.3. Parasitic infections~ ~
434   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 countries, with Lithuania (6.86 per 100 000), followed
435   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                            6.3.6.4. Prion diseases~ ~
436   II,     6.  3.  6    |                                        6.3.6.4. Prion diseases~ ~Variant
437   II,     6.  3.  7    |                                            6.3.7. Other diseases of zoonotic
438   II,     6.  3.  7    |                                            6.3.7.1. Summary~ ~This is
439   II,     6.  3.  7    |                                            6.3.7.2. Diseases present
440   II,     6.  3.  7    |                                            6.3.7.3. Mainly imported diseases~ ~
441   II,     6.  3.  7    |                decrease since 2000 (Figure 6.8).~ ~Figure 6.8. Malaria
442   II,     6.  3.  7    |                2000 (Figure 6.8).~ ~Figure 6.8. Malaria trends in Europe~ ~
443   II,     6.  4        |                                            6.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
444   II,     6.  4.  1    |                                            6.4.1. Surveillance~ ~Commission
445   II,     6.  4.  2    |                                            6.4.2. Early warning~ ~The
446   II,     6.  4.  3    |                                            6.4.3. Pandemic preparedness~ ~
447   II,     6.  4.  4    |                                            6.4.4. EU-wide coordination –
448   II,     6.  4.  5    |                                            6.4.5. Antimicrobial resistance.~ ~
449   II,     7.  2.  6    |                                        7.2.6. EU Injury Database (IDB)~ ~
450   II,     7.  3.  4    |                injury prevention (Figure 7.6).~ ~Figure 7.6. Unintentional
451   II,     7.  3.  4    |                    Figure 7.6).~ ~Figure 7.6. Unintentional fatal injuries
452   II,     7.  3.  4    |            EuroStat and the WHO, more than 6 000 work place fatalities
453   II,     7.  3.  4    |                   are described in Chapter 6.2. Figure 7.12. Non-fatal
454   II,     7.  3.  4    |                  see also “IDB” in Chapter 6.2).~ ~
455   II,     7.  4.  3    |              Additionally, approximately 1.6 million pedestrians were
456   II,     7.  4.  4    |                Eurobarometer survey, about 6 out 10 European citizens
457   II,     7.  4.  6    |                                        7.4.6. Prevention of self-harm~ ~
458   II,     7.  6        |                                          7.6. Future perspectives~ ~Generally
459   II,     8.  1.  2    |                  or disability (LSHPD) for 6 months or more or expected
460   II,     8.  1.  2    |                   more or expected to last 6 months or more. The indicator
461   II,     8.  1.  6    |                                        8.1.6. References~ ~APPLICA &
462   II,     8.  2.  1    |              between 71 and 85) equal to 0.6%, 0.6% and 1.4%, respectively.
463   II,     8.  2.  1    |                   and 85) equal to 0.6%, 0.6% and 1.4%, respectively.
464   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                      8.2.1.6. Future developments~ ~More
465   II,     8.  2.  1    |                  of Public Health 13S: 101-6.~Lennox N, Beange H, Davis
466   II,     8.  2.  1    |                   Disability Research, 51, 6, 427-434.~van Schrojenstein
467   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 visual acuity of less than 6/18, but equal to or better
468   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    visual acuity less than 6/18 but equal to or better
469   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    equal to or better than 6/60) and severe visual impairment (
470   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    visual acuity less than 6/60 but equal to or better
471   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 visual acuity of less that 6/18 in the better eye, which
472   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    to equal or better than 6/18 by refraction or pinhole.~ ~
473   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 for people aged 5 to 39, 1.6% for people aged 40-49 and
474   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    people aged 40-49 and 3.6% for people aged 50 or more.~ ~
475   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 for people aged 5 to 39, 1.6% for people aged 40-49 and
476   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    people aged 40-49 and 3.6% for people aged 50 or more.~ ~
477   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                      8.2.2.6. References~ ~Donnelly UM,
478   II,     8.  2.  2    |                    Ophthalmic Epidemiology 6:73-82.~Kocur I (2004): Fifteen
479   II,     8.  2.  3    |                   to amount, in 2001, to 4.6 YLD/1000 (males) and 4.3
480   II,     8.  2.  3    |                    Journal of Audiology 31(6):409-46.~ ~Johansson MSK,
481   II,     8.  2.  3    |                    Journal of Audiology~33(6):395-402.~ ~Mathers C, Smith
482   II,     9.  1.  1    |                early neonatal deaths (at 0-6 days after live birth) and
483   II,     9.  1.  1    |                mortality rates ranged from 6.4 to 22.1 per 1 000 total
484   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   2004, they ranged from 1.6 to 9.5 per 1 000 births.
485   II,     9.  1.  1    |                     however, was higher at 6.9 per 1 000 births.~ ~F ~ ~
486   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   between countries from 1.6 or 1.7 (Portugal, Spain,
487   II,     9.  1.  1    |                    As shown in Table 9.1.1.6, this rate varies per country
488   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   al, 2007).~ ~Table 9.1.1.6. CP rates among VLBW babies
489   II,     9.  1.  1    |            outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res 2004;6 Suppl 2:S125-40.~Cnattingius
490   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   Epidemiol 2001;15(3):315-6.~ ~Glinianaia SV, Pharoah
491   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Reprod Med 2004;49(10):812-6.~Maher J, Macfarlane A (
492   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   Gynaecol 1994;101(4):301-6.~Reddy UM, Ko CW, Willinger
493   II,     9.  1.  1    |               Group. N Engl J Med 2000;343(6):378-84.~ ~Zeitlin J, Blondel
494   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    EU-NMS countries and 25.6% of EU-27. In addition to
495   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   most common subgroup, at 6.4 per 1 000 births, followed
496   II,     9.  1.  2    |                followed by limb defects (3.6 per 1 000), urinary system (
497   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   is recorded in France (5.6 and 5.8 per 1 000 births
498   II,     9.  1.  2    |                congenital heart disease is 6.1 per 1 000 births (Table
499   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    rates between 1.3 and 1.6 per 1 000 for 2000-2004 (
500   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    2007), while rates of 0.6 per 1 000 or below were