1-500 | 501-778
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2       |            world. Whereas the growth rates of international arrivals
  2    I,     2.  3       |            participation/ employment rates of immigrants and their
  3    I,     2.  3       |      termination shows that abortion rates are much higher for foreign
  4    I,     2.  3       |          Africa had higher fertility rates than non-immigrants. However,
  5    I,     2.  3       |          generation, have much lower rates, mostly only slightly more
  6    I,     2.  4       |         being poor. Relative poverty rates in the EU25 range from 8%
  7    I,     2.  4       |             incidence and prevalence rates, treatment and cure rates,
  8    I,     2.  4       |            rates, treatment and cure rates, and access to health services (
  9    I,     2.  4       |       countries with available data, rates of premature mortality are
 10    I,     2.  4       |            the relative gap in death rates is generally the result
 11    I,     2.  4       |      political transition, mortality rates have changed dramatically
 12    I,     2.  4       |            available data, mortality rates have generally improved
 13    I,     2.  4       |         widening of the gap in death rates. The fact that this is not
 14    I,     2.  4       |             the case with mortality, rates of morbidity are usually
 15    I,     2.  4       |          turn lead to higher poverty rates.~ ~While healthcare systems
 16    I,     2.  5       |                    2.5. Unemployment rates and workforce ageing~ ~ ~
 17    I,     2.  5       |       limited impact.~ ~Unemployment rates. During the period 2006-
 18    I,     2.  5       |          existing among unemployment rates of different Member States
 19    I,     2.  5       |         States and that unemployment rates are for people aged less
 20    I,     2.  5       |              years old. Unemployment rates will likely increase due
 21    I,     2.  5       |          turn lead to higher poverty rates. The 15th edition of the
 22    I,     2.  5       |            participation/ employment rates of immigrants and their
 23    I,     2.  6       |            developments in enrolment rates. The number of students
 24    I,     3.  1       |       reported the highest fertility rates, while the Slovak Republic (
 25    I,     3.  1       |          Member States had fertility rates below 1.5 in 2005.~ ~The
 26    I,     3.  1       |            slightly higher fertility rates than elsewhere in the EU,
 27    I,     3.  1       |        decline in (period) fertility rates. As soon as the postponement
 28    I,     3.  1       |               the (period) fertility rates may stabilize or even rise.
 29    I,     3.  1       |       pregnancy, i.e. the conception rates outside marriage are higher
 30    I,     3.  1       |            are higher than the birth rates outside marriage.3~ ~
 31    I,     3.  1.  0(3)|           However, non-marital birth rates may not include children
 32    I,     3.  2       |              and the Netherlands the rates of natural population increase
 33    I,     3.  2       |           The ‘lowest lowfertility rates in these Member States are
 34    I,     3.  3       |              mortality and migration rates in a specific period constitute
 35    I,     3.  3       |         subsequent fall in fertility rates in the late 1960s and by
 36    I,     3.  3       |        highest average annual growth rates from 2005 to 2049. Their
 37    I,     3.  3       |     countries with the lowest growth rates are again Sweden (1%) and
 38    I,     3.  3       |        hardly changed over time. The rates slightly rose in the past
 39   II,     4.  1       |          services than to employment rates.~ ~Longevity gaps in the
 40   II,     4.  2       |      patterns of change in mortality rates. The decline in mortality
 41   II,     4.  2       |             The decline in mortality rates has not been the same for
 42   II,     4.  2       |             the decline in mortality rates at old ages has become the
 43   II,     4.  2       |              of changes in mortality rates at different ages and of
 44   II,     4.  2       |             The decline in mortality rates for the elderly has become
 45   II,     4.  2       |              the levels of mortality rates at older ages for women
 46   II,     4.  2       |              2.1. Standardized death rates in EU27 in 2005~ ~Inequalities
 47   II,     5.  2.  1   |            is experiencing declining rates of mortality from CVD, there
 48   II,     5.  2.  2   |         analyzed to obtain mortality rates (htt u, 2007).~IHD mortality
 49   II,     5.  2.  2   |         Age-specific total mortality rates for the average of the last
 50   II,     5.  2.  2   |               35-74 years) mortality rates were calculated for the
 51   II,     5.  2.  2   |        Northern Europe and mortality rates are higher compared to those
 52   II,     5.  2.  2   |         calculate hospital discharge rates for all CVD, IHD, acute
 53   II,     5.  2.  2   |       analyze temporal trends. Crude rates for all ages for the last
 54   II,     5.  2.  2   |          mean annual coronary events rates derived from 10-year surveillance (
 55   II,     5.  2.  2   |         analyzed to obtain mortality rates (htt u, 2007). Stroke mortality
 56   II,     5.  2.  2   |           Age-standardized mortality rates for the age groups 35-74
 57   II,     5.  2.  2   |          countries because mortality rates are higher compared to those
 58   II,     5.  2.  2   |             were not analyzed. Crude rates for all ages for the last
 59   II,     5.  2.  2   |          years as mean stroke attack rates derived from the last 3
 60   II,     5.  2.  3   |        report standardized mortality rates only for 35-74 age range,
 61   II,     5.  2.  3   |          project. However, mortality rates for the different age ranges (
 62   II,     5.  2.  3   |           and IHD for 15%. Mortality rates are higher in men than in
 63   II,     5.  2.  3   |           with the highest mortality rates in Baltic1, Central Eastern
 64   II,     5.  2.  3   |         recent data (2001-2003), the rates vary from 42.7 deaths per
 65   II,     5.  2.  3   |       European population) mortality rates per 100.000.~ ~Mortality
 66   II,     5.  2.  3   |          from 1994 to 2003 mortality rates in the 35-74 age range fell
 67   II,     5.  2.  3   |              2.2) for whom mortality rates fell by 40% in Central Europe
 68   II,     5.  2.  3   |           Age-standardized mortality rates per 100.000. Trends for
 69   II,     5.  2.  3   |           Age-standardized mortality rates per 100.000. Trends for
 70   II,     5.  2.  3   |             Crude hospital discharge rates (x100.000) from all CVD,
 71   II,     5.  2.  3   |             ages~ ~Revascularization rates represent another important
 72   II,     5.  2.  3   |          Europe countries have lower rates than Northern and Southern
 73   II,     5.  2.  3   |            IHD.~ ~Table 5.2.3. Crude rates per 1 million population
 74   II,     5.  2.  3   |          here we can see mean attack rates of 10-year surveillance
 75   II,     5.  2.  3   |        Trends for age-adjusted event rates are also reported (Tunstall-Pedoe
 76   II,     5.  2.  3   |          Mean annual coronary events rates (fatal and non fatal in
 77   II,     5.  2.  3   |             decline in IHD mortality rates has been greater for countries
 78   II,     5.  2.  3   |           with the highest mortality rates. Not surprisingly, mortality
 79   II,     5.  2.  3   |              surprisingly, mortality rates are much higher for men
 80   II,     5.  2.  3   |            than for women; mortality rates have been falling faster
 81   II,     5.  2.  3   |           Faster declining mortality rates for men have narrowed the
 82   II,     5.  2.  3   |        report standardized mortality rates only for the 35-84 age range,
 83   II,     5.  2.  3   |            cerebrovascular mortality rates per 100.000 men and women
 84   II,     5.  2.  3   |          from 1994 to 2003 mortality rates in the age range 35-84 fell
 85   II,     5.  2.  3   |             000). In 2003, mortality rates in Central Europe countries
 86   II,     5.  2.  3   |           with the highest mortality rates in Baltic Europe and Eastern
 87   II,     5.  2.  3   |       European population) mortality rates per 100.000 Cerebrovascular
 88   II,     5.  2.  3   |             2.4) for which mortality rates fell by 39% in Central Europe (
 89   II,     5.  2.  3   |              per 100.000). Mortality rates increased by 21% in Eastern
 90   II,     5.  2.  3   |             000). In 2003, mortality rates in Southern Europe were
 91   II,     5.  2.  3   |       European population) mortality rates per 100.000 Cerebrovascular
 92   II,     5.  2.  3   |            stroke hospital discharge rates for men and women of all
 93   II,     5.  2.  3   |              5.2.6: here mean attack rates of the last 3 years of surveillance
 94   II,     5.  2.  3   |             attack and case fatality rates with changes in mortality
 95   II,     5.  2.  3   |            with changes in mortality rates revealed that two thirds
 96   II,     5.  2.  3   |             in countries with higher rates. The decline would be only
 97   II,     5.  2.  5   |            et al, 2005).~The falling rates have resulted in longer
 98   II,     5.  2.  5   |               By 1992, CVD mortality rates for men aged 35-64 had dropped
 99   II,     5.  2.  7   |             trends in coronary event rates across the WHO MONICA Project
100   II,     5.  2.  7   |              changes in stroke event rates or case fatality?. Stroke
101   II,     5.  2.  7   |        mortality from heart disease: rates and trends. Int J Epidemiol
102   II,     5.  2.  7   |       explain trends in Stroke event rates? Comparisons of 15 populations
103   II,     5.  2.  7   |          survival and coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart
104   II,     5.  2.  7   |            improving survival, event rates, and coronary heart disease
105   II,     5.  3.  1   |          Mortality: cancer mortality rates show the number of deaths
106   II,     5.  3.  2   |             lymphoma and oral cancer rates are higher in ethnic minorities;~-
107   II,     5.  3.  2   |       differences in cancer survival rates across Europe. A further
108   II,     5.  3.  5   |             2007). Maximum incidence rates (Figures 5.3.1) were estimated
109   II,     5.  3.  5   |              000). Maximum mortality rates (Figures 5.3.3) were estimated
110   II,     5.  3.  5   |                The highest incidence rates in 2006 were in Western
111   II,     5.  3.  5   |          while the highest mortality rates were reported in Eastern
112   II,     5.  3.  5   |              3.2 show that incidence rates are increasing both in men
113   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
114   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
115   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
116   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
117   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
118   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
119   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
120   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
121   II,     5.  3.  5   |          maximum levels of incidence rates (Figures 5.3.5) were estimated
122   II,     5.  3.  5   |          maximum levels of mortality rates (Figures 5.3.7) were estimated
123   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
124   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
125   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
126   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
127   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
128   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
129   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
130   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
131   II,     5.  3.  5   |          show that maximum incidence rates were estimated in Hungary
132   II,     5.  3.  5   |        levels of incidence estimated rates (in respect with all the
133   II,     5.  3.  5   |        Slovakia had higher mortality rates than the rest of Europe
134   II,     5.  3.  5   |          Colorectal cancer incidence rates are increasing rather rapidly
135   II,     5.  3.  5   |             5.3.10a). Male mortality rates (Figure 5.3.12a) are declining
136   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
137   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
138   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
139   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
140   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
141   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
142   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
143   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
144   II,     5.  3.  5   |             while in women incidence rates are lower.~Figures 5.3.13a
145   II,     5.  3.  5   |          against Sweden with minimum rates (29 new cases and 29 deaths
146   II,     5.  3.  5   |           mortality (Figure 5.3.16a) rates (in respect of other macro-areas)
147   II,     5.  3.  5   |           mortality (Figure 5.3.16b) rates for women (31 new cases
148   II,     5.  3.  5   |              incidence and mortality rates are now declining for all
149   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
150   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
151   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
152   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex
153   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
154   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
155   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
156   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex
157   II,     5.  3.  5   |            2007). The high incidence rates in recent years in the more
158   II,     5.  3.  5   |         shows that in 2007 mortality rates varied by 17 deaths (in
159   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2006~
160   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized incidence rates (European standard)~Figure
161   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) in 2006~
162   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~Cervical
163   II,     5.  3.  5   |            Cervical cancer incidence rates can be influenced by screening
164   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2002~
165   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard)~Figure
166   II,     5.  3.  5   |        cancer standardized mortality rates (European standard) in the
167   II,     5.  3.  5   |        cancer standardized mortality rates (European standard) in the
168   II,     5.  3.  5   |        Comparison of prostate cancer rates in European populations
169   II,     5.  3.  5   |            the increase of incidence rates in Western, Northern and
170   II,     5.  3.  5   |            test diffusion. Mortality rates by years (Figure 5.3.28)
171   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2006~
172   II,     5.  3.  5   |     standardized incidence estimated rates (European standard)~Figure
173   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard) in 2006~
174   II,     5.  3.  5   |               standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~
175   II,     5.  3.  6   |          countries, but at different rates (data not showed). Improvements
176   II,     5.  3.  6   |            countries, where survival rates were already high for patients
177   II,     5.  3.  6   |            of breast cancer survival rates between the Nordic countries
178   II,     5.  3.  6   |             5-year relative survival rates for prostate cancer differed
179   II,     5.  3.  7   |     Estimating the range of survival rates allows the identification
180   II,     5.  3.  8   |              In Europe the incidence rates for most cancer types are
181   II,     5.  4.  1   |             regions with the highest rates are the Eastern Mediterranean
182   II,     5.  4.  1   |          have the largest prevalence rates with 11.8% and 11.1%, while
183   II,     5.  4.  1   |        general experience prevalence rates above 10%. Diabetes mellitus
184   II,     5.  4.  2   |          lower extremity amputations rates, annual eye examination
185   II,     5.  4.  2   |           Lower extremity amputation rates~Kidney disease in persons
186   II,     5.  4.  2   | significantly to define estimates of rates of complications that are
187   II,     5.  4.  2   |              information on fatality rates, but they can also hide
188   II,     5.  4.  2   |             To obtain unbiased event rates after hospital interventions
189   II,     5.  4.  3   |          over centres and sexes, the rates of increase were 6.3% (4.
190   II,     5.  4.  4   |         found in dialysis. Mortality rates are extremely important,
191   II,     5.  4.  6   |    experience the highest prevalence rates in Europe, and will rank
192   II,     5.  5.Int   |              this can result in high rates of anxiety and depression,
193   II,     5.  5.Int   |              et al18, the prevalence rates in Western countries for
194   II,     5.  5.Int   |             affect older people, but rates increase with age, doubling
195   II,     5.  5.Int   |            After the age of 85 years rates of Alzheimer’s Disease (
196   II,     5.  5.Int   |          studies also noted that the rates of AD were higher among
197   II,     5.  5.  1   |              considerably in suicide rates. Seven of the 27 EU Member
198   II,     5.  5.  1   |            countries in male suicide rates, and five in female suicide
199   II,     5.  5.  1   |           and five in female suicide rates (WHO, most recent year available
200   II,     5.  5.  1   |            the highest total suicide rates (standardised death rate)
201   II,     5.  5.  1   |          most Member States, suicide rates are higher for people over
202   II,     5.  5.  1   |              for determining suicide rates. ~ ~Routinely collected
203   II,     5.  5.  1   |          based on hospital discharge rates do not reflect the reality
204   II,     5.  5.  1   |       standardisation delivers death rates which represent what the
205   II,     5.  5.  1   |        absolute numbers, crude death rates and standardised death rates.
206   II,     5.  5.  1   |         rates and standardised death rates. Data is available in principle
207   II,     5.  5.  1   |    comparison of absolute prevalence rates. Reports of access to care
208   II,     5.  5.  1   |              and 12 month prevalence rates (%) for mood and anxiety
209   II,     5.  5.  1   |             Suicides~ ~The mortality rates for suicides and intentional
210   II,     5.  5.  1   |           that the highest mortality rates of suicide and intentional
211   II,     5.  5.  1   |              Respectively the lowest rates have been observed in Cyprus,
212   II,     5.  5.  1   |        annual age adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self
213   II,     5.  5.  1   |      Annually age adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self
214   II,     5.  5.  1   |               Age adjusted mortality rates and trends due to suicide
215   II,     5.  5.  1   |            in age-adjusted mortality rates in Belgium, Ireland, Spain,
216   II,     5.  5.  1   |           Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates were considerably low and
217   II,     5.  5.  1   |             group the lowest suicide rates were found in Greece, Malta
218   II,     5.  5.  1   |            65+ age group the highest rates were reported in Hungary,
219   II,     5.  5.  1   |           whereas the lowest suicide rates were in Greece, United Kingdom
220   II,     5.  5.  1   |        yearly age adjusted mortality rates (SMR) of the last 3 available
221   II,     5.  5.  1   |              lower suicide mortality rates compared to men.~ ~Mortality
222   II,     5.  5.  1   |         compared to men.~ ~Mortality rates for suicide are higher in
223   II,     5.  5.  2   |             with a set of prevalence rates for men and women in 9 different
224   II,     5.  5.  2   |             the resulting prevalence rates for other countries where
225   II,     5.  5.  2   |             only used the prevalence rates for Western Europe (Region
226   II,     5.  5.  2   |             the resulting prevalence rates. In the EURODEM study, for
227   II,     5.  5.  2   |       calculated separate prevalence rates per 5 year age groups up
228   II,     5.  5.  2   |          Prevalence~ ~The prevalence rates for the EURODEM and Ferri
229   II,     5.  5.  2   |              2.1. EURODEM prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence
230   II,     5.  5.  2   |            Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates reported by Ferri et al (
231   II,     5.  5.  2   |               Using these prevalence rates and the population statistics
232   II,     5.  5.  2   |        depending on which prevalence rates are used). This represents
233   II,     5.  5.  2   |              to 1.25% (using EURODEM rates). This is currently the
234   II,     5.  5.  2   |            based on their prevalence rates and UN population estimates
235   II,     5.  5.  2   |            new consensual prevalence rates for dementia. A database
236   II,     5.  5.  2   |             of consensual prevalence rates, guidelines on diagnosis,
237   II,     5.  5.  3   |              the service utilization rates as reported in community-based
238   II,     5.  5.  3   |              remarkable unemployment rates and disability pensions,
239   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and incidence rates for mental disorders as
240   II,     5.  5.  3   |            In most studies incidence rates are based on data of first
241   II,     5.  5.  3   |             reliability of incidence rates. The renaming of “Schizophrenia”
242   II,     5.  5.  3   |            data concerning morbidity rates (European Hospital Morbidity
243   II,     5.  5.  3   |             on discharges, admission rates and lengths of hospital
244   II,     5.  5.  3   |             countries. WHO mortality rates are available for schizophrenia (
245   II,     5.  5.  3   |          burden of disease are death rates due to the diagnosis of
246   II,     5.  5.  3   |         interest, hospital admission rates as indicators for prevalence -
247   II,     5.  5.  3   |        Mortality~The crude F20-death rates per 100 000 inhabitants
248   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Database show very high rates in Hungary and especially
249   II,     5.  5.  3   |    difference between reported death rates in statistics and expected
250   II,     5.  5.  3   |    statistics and expected mortality rates according to literature.~
251   II,     5.  5.  3   |              The projected mortality rates for schizophrenia according
252   II,     5.  5.  3   |   schizophrenia-attributed mortality rates stated in literature (Saha,
253   II,     5.  5.  3   |              unnatural deaths. Death rates caused by schizophrenia
254   II,     5.  5.  3   |         assignment.~Lifetime suicide rates for schizophrenia of 10%
255   II,     5.  5.  3   |              a comparison of suicide rates from the pre-community care
256   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Hospital-Morbidity~Admission rates according to EDMD show some
257   II,     5.  5.  3   |              incidence or prevalence rates in these countries. Some
258   II,     5.  5.  3   |    standardized in-patient admission rates per 1000; Main diagnosis:
259   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Figure 5.5.3.2.3. Admission rates trend over time~The trend
260   II,     5.  5.  3   |         trend over time of admission rates reflects the tendency of
261   II,     5.  5.  3   |        hospital in-patient admission rates, average length of stay
262   II,     5.  5.  3   |              difference in discharge rates from psychiatric hospitals
263   II,     5.  5.  3   |            due to schizophrenia~DALY rates for schizophrenia are especially
264   II,     5.  5.  3   |              high schizophrenia DALY rates estimated from data of 2002
265   II,     5.  5.  3   |         typical community prevalence rates (25-30%), the rate of nicotine
266   II,     5.  5.  3   |           rate compared to community rates (Coodin, 2001; Silverstone,
267   II,     5.  5.  3   |    calculated on service utilization rates in these surveys, population
268   II,     5.  5.  3   |      population size, and prevalence rates was as follows:~Mini survey
269   II,     5.  5.  3   |              in increased disability rates.~The efficacy-effectiveness
270   II,     5.  5.  3   |              findings suggest higher rates compared to many other countries (
271   II,     5.  5.  3   |    medication. Median non-compliance rates are 50%, thus being similar
272   II,     5.  5.  3   |            and somatic diseases. The rates vary widely depending on
273   II,     5.  5.  3   |             incidence and prevalence rates, risk factors etc is most
274   II,     5.  5.  3   |              2006): Lifetime suicide rates in treated schizophrenia:
275   II,     5.  5.  3   |          ICD-10 code. Elevated death rates are due to several causes,
276   II,     5.  5.  3   |       variability in reported autism rates comes from incomplete ascertainment
277   II,     5.  5.  3   |        multiple surveys. ~Prevalence rates have been estimated in different
278   II,     5.  5.  3   |         developed in 2000, found ASD rates ranged from one in 222 children
279   II,     5.  5.  3   |             The 2002 study found ASD rates ranging from one in 303
280   II,     5.  5.  3   |         results of surveys reporting rates at variance with those of
281   II,     5.  5.  3   |               age-specific incidence rates of epilepsy tended to decrease
282   II,     5.  5.  3   |     statistics give annual mortality rates at 1-2 per 100,000 (Massey
283   II,     5.  5.  3   |        cohorts (Jallon, 2004).~These rates were not significantly different
284   II,     5.  5.  3   |      available.~Differient mortality rates have been found for different
285   II,     5.  5.  3   |               The wide difference in rates may be mostly explained
286   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Barraclough, 1987). Suicide rates may be even higher (SMR
287   II,     5.  5.  3   |     Unemployment and underemployment rates are generally higher in
288   II,     5.  5.  3   |              under- and unemployment rates and the unnecessary job
289   II,     5.  5.  3   |            In addition, unemployment rates are fairly low (15%) in
290   II,     5.  5.  3   |            is associated with higher rates of unemployment (Smeets
291   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Europe, where unemployment rates are even greater than those
292   II,     5.  5.  3   |              the fairly low accident rates in people with epilepsy (
293   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and mortality rates are expected in these countries.
294   II,     5.  5.  3   |               age-specific incidence rates of epilepsy in the younger
295   II,     5.  5.  3   |           trends in first attendance rates, prevalence, and prognosis.
296   II,     5.  5.  3   |     population, and age-standardised rates were reported.~The distribution
297   II,     5.  5.  3   |             to level off. Scotland’s rates are at least twice those
298   II,     5.  5.  3   |       regions. The higher prevalence rates of MS reported in some regions
299   II,     5.  5.  3   |         areas. Mean annual incidence rates have increased significantly
300   II,     5.  5.  3   |             period, with the highest rates reported in the western
301   II,     5.  5.  3   |              Seinäjoki, intermediate rates in central Finland and coastal
302   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Vaasa and relatively lower rates in Uusimaa in the south.
303   II,     5.  5.  3   |            data). Similar prevalence rates were found in the Netherlands,
304   II,     5.  5.  3   |             the Czech Republic, with rates up to 160 in three small
305   II,     5.  5.  3   |      districts, and in Hungary, with rates up to 79 in Fejer County.~
306   II,     5.  5.  3   |      prevalence but not to incidence rates, indicating a focal distribution
307   II,     5.  5.  3   |       central Spain found prevalence rates of 3258 and mean annual
308   II,     5.  5.  3   |            and mean annual incidence rates from 24 in the 1990s. Prevalence
309   II,     5.  5.  3   |             Prevalence and incidence rates in the island of Sardinia
310   II,     5.  5.  3   |        higher than the national mean rates and showed a significantly
311   II,     5.  5.  3   |       account for underestimation of rates in these areas.~In brief,
312   II,     5.  5.  3   |             to 190 per 100 000. Mean rates are higher in northern countries,
313   II,     5.  5.  3   |            variability in prevalence rates among and within Countries
314   II,     5.  5.  3   |             countries~ ~MS mortality rates and survival time in Europe~
315   II,     5.  5.  3   |          2002 (WHO, 2004a). However, rates up to 3.6 per 100 000 are
316   II,     5.  5.  3   |             An overview of mortality rates in Europe is reported in
317   II,     5.  5.  3   |         women. The highest mortality rates from MS in Austria were
318   II,     5.  5.  3   |              age-specific prevalence rates, on the distribution of
319   II,     5.  5.  3   |             course, and on incidence rates lacks for nearly two thirds
320   II,     5.  5.  3   |             incidence and prevalence rates between studies.~A decreasing
321   II,     5.  5.  3   |        distribution of MS prevalence rates across Europe has been observed.
322   II,     5.  5.  3   |            cannot be ruled out. Mean rates tend to be higher in countries
323   II,     5.  5.  3   |            variability in prevalence rates among and within countries
324   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and incidence rates where multiple assessments
325   II,     5.  5.  3   |            found if crude prevalence rates were considered (Zivadinov
326   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and incidence rates age-adjusted to the European (
327   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and incidence rates, age at disease onset, life
328   II,     5.  5.  3   |        decreasing trend of mortality rates over time reported for many
329   II,     5.  5.  3   |               Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS. Int
330   II,     5.  5.  3   |             incidence and prevalence rates in Denmark 194864 based
331   II,     5.  5.  3   |             incidence and prevalence rates in epidemiological studies
332   II,     5.  5.  3   |         EUGLOREH countries~Incidence rates for PD in different studies
333   II,     5.  5.  3   |        Estimates of crude prevalence rates varied considerably, from
334   II,     5.  5.  3   |              age-specific prevalence rates were not provided in all
335   II,     5.  5.  3   |             prevalence and incidence rates for PD in the general population
336   II,     5.  5.  3   |            years) were included, the rates of prevalence and incidence
337   II,     5.  5.  3   |         large observed variations in rates (65.6 to 12,500/100,000)
338   II,     5.  5.  3   |             also influence estimated rates (Anderson et al, 1998);
339   II,     5.  5.  3   |        relative level of disability. Rates stratified by HY could be
340   II,     5.  5.  3   |              the different incidence rates observed; these methodological
341   II,     5.  5.  3   |              1973 (Singer 1973). The rates of patients not working
342   II,     5.  6.  3   |             Incidence and Prevalence Rates~ ~Musculoskeletal Pain and
343   II,     5.  6.  3   |          cost. Total hip replacement rates, usually for OA, vary in
344   II,     5.  6.  3   |         alone. Spontaneous remission rates are only 5-7% with a median
345   II,     5.  6.  3   |         inpatient care and admission rates which vary within and between
346   II,     5.  6.  3   |             increases with age, with rates of 2/100,000 person-years
347   II,     5.  6.  3   |         years of age and older, with rates in men of 4 and 1909 respectively (
348   II,     5.  6.  3   |                The highest incidence rates have been reported from
349   II,     5.  6.  3   |   respectively, with hospitalization rates of 23% and 19% respectively (
350   II,     5.  6.  3   |          osteoporosis. The incidence rates of proximal humeral, pelvic
351   II,     5.  6.  3   |          aged over 50 in Europe. The rates vary between populations
352   II,     5.  6.  3   |           and sex-adjusted incidence rates for vertebral deformity
353   II,     5.  6.  3   |           results in hospitalisation rates of 23% of men and 19% of
354   II,     5.  6.  6   |     musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic associations
355   II,     5.  6.  6   |         Variation in Hip Replacement Rates. Ann Rheum Dis 62(3):222-
356   II,     5.  7.  3   |        contrasts with ESRD incidence rates which are three times higher
357   II,     5.  7.  3   |                In 2005 the incidence rates of RRT for ESRD ranged from
358   II,     5.  7.  3   |              7.3). Whereas incidence rates in Canada (160 pmp in 2005)
359   II,     5.  7.  3   |           those in Europe, incidence rates in US whites (286 pmp in
360   II,     5.  7.  3   |    differences in absolute incidence rates of RRT for ESRD across countries,
361   II,     5.  7.  3   |     consistent increase in incidence rates in virtually all Member
362   II,     5.  7.  3   |            increase in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic and
363   II,     5.  7.  3   |            After 2002, the incidence rates have tended to stabilize.
364   II,     5.  7.  3   |             The increasing incidence rates together with improvements
365   II,     5.  7.  3   |            high. Five-year mortality rates in incident RRT patients
366   II,     5.  7.  3   |              and five-year mortality rates in incident RRT patients
367   II,     5.  7.  3   |    differences in absolute incidence rates of RRT for ESRD across countries,
368   II,     5.  7.  3   |     consistent increase in incidence rates in virtually all Member
369   II,     5.  7.  3   |            increase in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic and
370   II,     5.  7.  3   |             After 2002 the incidence rates have tended to stabilize.
371   II,     5.  7.  3   |             The increasing incidence rates together with improvements
372   II,     5.  7.  3   |            increasing organ donation rates.~ ~
373   II,     5.  7.  4   |         differences in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic ESRD
374   II,     5.  7.  4   |             in the overall incidence rates of RRT between Member States
375   II,     5.  7.  6   |              increase organ donation rates. Some countries (Spain,
376   II,     5.  7.  6   |             ensure superior donation rates. Legislation and the development
377   II,     5.  7.  6   |             improving organ donation rates ( see also the Chapter 9.
378   II,     5.  8.  3   |        reported cumulative incidence rates of GOLD-defined COPD of
379   II,     5.  8.  3   |            variability of prevalence rates according to different diagnostic
380   II,     5.  8.  3   |         underlined: a study reported rates ranging from 0.23 to 18.
381   II,     5.  8.  3   |        Northern Italy, AO prevalence rates ranged from 11.0% with the
382   II,     5.  8.  3   |              the trends in mortality rates over time provide some important
383   II,     5.  8.  3   |            in age-standardized death rates for the six leading causes
384   II,     5.  8.  3   |             reported with prevalence rates reaching 47% . Moreover,
385   II,     5.  8.  4   |              Figure 5.8.3. Incidence rates of COPD and smoking habit
386   II,     5.  8.  4   |            of 20-45, with prevalence rates of 11.8% for the pre-clinical
387   II,     5.  9. FB   |           that occurs when infection rates decline.~ ~Obesity also
388   II,     5.  9.  3   |              Prevalence~ ~Prevalence rates~ ~ISAAC showed a more than
389   II,     5.  9.  3   |          that the highest prevalence rates of asthmatic symptoms in
390   II,     5.  9.  3   |            is concerned, the highest rates have been declared by Portugal,
391   II,     5.  9.  3   |                 Trends in prevalence rates~A substantial increase in
392   II,     5.  9.  3   |           low and Standardized Death Rates (per 100,000 people) in
393   II,     5.  9.  7   |              sex specific prevalence rates for childhood asthma, eczema,
394   II,     5. 10.  2   |           collect data on prevalence rates of self-perceived FHS using
395   II,     5. 10.  3   |       allergy/intolerance prevalence rates and 95% Confidence Intervals
396   II,     5. 11.  3   |            all children. The highest rates (around 20%) are observed
397   II,     5. 11.  3   |            and UK, whilst the lowest rates of around 5% are found in
398   II,     5. 11.  3   |            et al, 1994a) with higher rates in socio-economically advantaged
399   II,     5. 11.  3   |            differences in prevalence rates were seen in a community
400   II,     5. 11.  3   |              and region, with higher rates in the South East and industrialized
401   II,     5. 11.  3   |    industrialized Midlands and lower rates in Wales and Scotland.~ ~
402   II,     5. 11.  3   |         simplex. Detailed prevalence rates for the various endogenous
403   II,     5. 11.  3   |            allergy, with the highest rates in those with pierced ears (
404   II,     5. 11.  3   |              Europeans overall, with rates as high as 6% in France
405   II,     5. 11.  3   |             5.11.3. Age-standardized rates of non melanoma skin cancer
406   II,     5. 11.  3   |              et al, 2001). Incidence rates increased substantially
407   II,     5. 11.  3   |        During this period, incidence rates of BCC increased by 70.4%
408   II,     5. 11.  3   |            in women, while incidence rates of SCC increased by 13.5%
409   II,     5. 11.  3   |           picture than melanoma. The rates are higher in men and women
410   II,     5. 11.  3   |          during the 1990s, incidence rates were higher in northern
411   II,     5. 11.  3   |           southern Europe. Mortality rates have been rising steadily
412   II,     5. 11.  3   |           the early 1980s. Mortality rates have also leveled off in
413   II,     5. 11.  3   |              that melanoma mortality rates in the mid-1990s (19931997)
414   II,     5. 11.  7   |          2001): Increasing incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma
415   II,     5. 12.  1   |          highest cirrhosis mortality rates (around 30-40/100,000 men
416   II,     5. 12.  1   |              Eastern Europe reaching rates over 58/100,000 men and
417   II,     5. 12.  2   |            populations, age-specific rates for each five-year age group
418   II,     5. 12.  2   |           computed. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 population,
419   II,     5. 12.  2   |             natural logarithm of the rates using calendar year as a
420   II,     5. 12.  2   |            to represent the observed rates. Joinpoint regression models
421   II,     5. 12.  3   | age-standardized death certification rates from cirrhosis in men at
422   II,     5. 12.  3   |          world population) mortality rates from cirrhosis per 100,000
423   II,     5. 12.  3   |              corresponding change in rates.~ ~For European men, the
424   II,     5. 12.  3   |            European men, the highest rates in the early 1980s were
425   II,     5. 12.  3   |          France, Italy and Spain had rates between 12 and 15/100,000,
426   II,     5. 12.  3   |              Malta and Sweden, where rates were around 10-13/100,000
427   II,     5. 12.  3   |        Netherlands and Norway, whose rates remained around 5/100,000
428   II,     5. 12.  3   |            the Czech Republic, whose rates declined from 27-34 in 1980-
429   II,     5. 12.  3   |         Slovakia and Slovenia, whose rates in 2000-02 were 31-35/100,
430   II,     5. 12.  3   |          European men: Denmark whose rates increased from 11.3 in 1980-
431   II,     5. 12.  3   |      European countries in truncated rates (35-64 years of age) from
432   II,     5. 12.  3   |            those observed in overall rates. However, the rises were
433   II,     5. 12.  3   |            countries, with truncated rates reaching 172.2/100,000 men
434   II,     5. 12.  3   |             extremely high mortality rates from cirrhosis in middle-aged
435   II,     5. 12.  3   |        around 75/100,000).~Mortality rates from cirrhosis were lower
436   II,     5. 12.  3   |          European women, the highest rates in 2000-02 were 22.6/100,
437   II,     5. 12.  3   |              consideration truncated rates (35-64 years of age), in
438   II,     5. 12.  3   |             high truncated mortality rates from cirrhosis (around 24-
439   II,     5. 12.  3   |          world population) mortality rates from cirrhosis per 100,000
440   II,     5. 12.  3   |              corresponding change in rates.~ ~The main findings from
441   II,     5. 12.  3   |      analysis of cirrhosis mortality rates over the 1970-2002 period
442   II,     5. 12.  3   |          analysis indicates that the rates have been steadily declining
443   II,     5. 12.  3   |           decade only). In contrast, rates have been rising in Eastern
444   II,     5. 12.  3   | age-standardized cirrhosis mortality rates in men from selected EUGLOREH
445   II,     5. 12.  3   | age-standardized cirrhosis mortality rates in women from selected EUGLOREH
446   II,     5. 12.  3   |               with a history of high rates. Conversely, persisting
447   II,     5. 12.  3   |        factors on national mortality rates is difficult to quantify
448   II,     5. 12.  4   |          2001). The exceedingly high rates in the countries of Central
449   II,     5. 12.  7   |          with applications to cancer rates. (Erratum in: Stat Med 2001;
450   II,     5. 12.  7   |            Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain, 1950 to 2002.
451   II,     5. 13       |             elevated adult mortality rates and cardiovascular disease,
452   II,     5. 14.  1   |        households have higher caries rates and more unmet dental treatment
453   II,     5. 14.  2   |             Providers~The number and rates (per 100,000 population)
454   II,     5. 14.  2   |             factors on the morbidity rates and quality of life of the
455   II,     5. 14.  3   |        households have higher caries rates and more unmet dental treatment
456   II,     6.  3.  1   |              highest crude incidence rates in the EU (Chlamydia infection
457   II,     6.  3.  1   |             had the lowest incidence rates and also showed decreasing
458   II,     6.  3.  2   |        hospitals, whereby individual rates are compared to those of
459   II,     6.  3.  2   |              risk-adjusted infection rates. Since the latter requires
460   II,     6.  3.  3   |             mature, with the highest rates found in Portugal. Among
461   II,     6.  3.  3   | inappropriate. The highest incidence rates were observed in the 15–
462   II,     6.  3.  3   |     countries. The highest incidence rates were still recorded in Latvia (
463   II,     6.  3.  3   |     countries, the highest incidence rates were reported by Iceland (
464   II,     6.  3.  3   |     countries. The highest incidence rates per 100 000 per year were
465   II,     6.  3.  4   |             The highest consultation rates were generally observed
466   II,     6.  3.  4   |           all, the peak consultation rates due to influenza-like illness
467   II,     6.  3.  4   |             in their TB notification rates. Subsequently, rates declined
468   II,     6.  3.  4   |    notification rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most countries
469   II,     6.  3.  4   |    elimination. In the Baltic States rates increased in the late 1990s,
470   II,     6.  3.  4   |            Kingdom, however, overall rates increased substantially
471   II,     6.  3.  4   |        Hungary, Poland and Portugal, rates have remained below 20 per
472   II,     6.  3.  4   |       Westernised economies where TB rates are low and disease increasingly
473   II,     6.  3.  4   |             characterised by high TB rates, low migrant TB and high
474   II,     6.  3.  4   |             the EU in 2004, where TB rates are moderate, cases of foreign
475   II,     6.  3.  4   |           the indigenous population, rates increase slowly with age
476   II,     6.  3.  4   |        countries with higher overall rates, the proportion of foreigners
477   II,     6.  3.  4   |              with high case fatality rates, especially among elderly (
478   II,     6.  3.  5   |         States, and reported tetanus rates are around one per million
479   II,     6.  3.  5   |            meningococcal infections. Rates for invasive pneumococcal
480   II,     6.  3.  5   |             public attention. Annual rates remain relatively stable
481   II,     6.  3.  5   |       reported the highest incidence rates. Incidence rates were the
482   II,     6.  3.  5   |           incidence rates. Incidence rates were the highest in the
483   II,     6.  3.  5   |          years of age, the incidence rates increased with age.~ ~ ~
484   II,     6.  3.  5   |       reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~Invasive infection caused
485   II,     6.  3.  5   |              and 2003. The incidence rates were always below 0.2 per
486   II,     6.  3.  5   |            States, tetanus incidence rates were below 0.35 per 100
487   II,     6.  3.  5   |            and the highest incidence rates were in Malta (0.25 per
488   II,     6.  3.  5   |             per year and the highest rates per 100 000 were reported
489   II,     6.  3.  5   |       reported the highest incidence rates (77.24 and 28.95 per 100
490   II,     6.  3.  5   |           000) reporting the highest rates. The age and sex distribution
491   II,     6.  3.  6   |           highest national incidence rates. As shigellosis is highly
492   II,     6.  3.  6   |      reporting the highest incidence rates. The overall incidence in
493   II,     6.  3.  6   |       reported the highest incidence rates. More than half the reported
494   II,     6.  3.  6   |       reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~Botulism~ ~Botulism is
495   II,     6.  3.  6   |       reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~Cryptosporidiosis~ ~Cryptosporidiosis
496   II,     6.  3.  6   |      reporting the highest incidence rates. Most cases occurred in
497   II,     6.  3.  6   |       reported the highest incidence rates. The real number of cases
498   II,     6.  3.  6   |       reported the highest incidence rates. The two most affected age
499   II,     6.  3.  7   |       reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~ ~Puumala haemorrhagic
500   II,     6.  3.  7   |       reported the highest incidence rates (0.49 per 100 000 and 0.