1-500 | 501-778
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

501   II,     6.  3.  7   |        period, the overall incidence rates have ranged from 1.45 to
502   II,     6.  3.  7   |          have potentially high death rates. Transmission of the viruses
503   II,     7.  1       |       observed in standardized death rates for many causes except for
504   II,     7.  3.  2   |           unchanged injury morbidity rates. Nevertheless, ICD based
505   II,     7.  3.  2   |             Figure 7.1. Injury death rates and injury deaths per country,
506   II,     7.  3.  2   |         injuries, Standardised Death Rates (1995-2004, Index = 1995),
507   II,     7.  3.  5   |              7.2 ) In Europe suicide rates vary from about 2 per 100
508   II,     7.  4.  2   |                The highest mortality rates due to injury are reported
509   II,     7.  6       |              decreasing trend of the rates of injuries, whereby this
510   II,     8.  1.  3   |            limitations.~ ~Employment rates~ ~The age-standardized employment
511   II,     8.  1.  3   |          age-standardized employment rates of people in the age group
512   II,     8.  2.  1   |          status. For example, higher rates of obesity, mental health
513   II,     8.  2.  1   |          health disorders, and lower rates of cardiovascular fitness,
514   II,     8.  2.  1   |            has a link to poverty and rates are higher in deprived and
515   II,     9           |   demographic characteristics affect rates of perinatal mortality and
516   II,     9           |                Studies report higher rates of antepartum, intrapartum
517   II,     9           |              Mortality and morbidity rates are higher among socially
518   II,     9           |         almost 25%.~ ~Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among all Women
519   II,     9           |               In a few countries the rates for boys and girls are very
520   II,     9           |           girls and 6991% for boys. Rates are highest in some southern
521   II,     9           |         Netherlands have the highest rates of physical activity for
522   II,     9           |               Despite similar stroke rates, women are more likely than
523   II,     9           |           and age-standardized death rates from ischaemic heart disease
524   II,     9.  1.  1   |   international reporting systems on rates of death in the perinatal
525   II,     9.  1.  1   |   consideration when comparing these rates between countries and over
526   II,     9.  1.  1   |              consider when comparing rates between countries.~ ~ ~Indicator~
527   II,     9.  1.  1   |             but that fetal mortality rates be presented for infants
528   II,     9.  1.  1   |         comparing neonatal mortality rates at low gestational ages.~
529   II,     9.  1.  1   |              1.2. Births, deaths and rates of foetal, neonatal and
530   II,     9.  1.  1   |        infant and maternal mortality rates are among the most commonly
531   II,     9.  1.  1   |      population health status. These rates, derived from civil and
532   II,     9.  1.  1   |             differences in mortality rates between countries have declined
533   II,     9.  1.  1   |               Table 9.1.1.2 provides rates of foetal, neonatal and
534   II,     9.  1.  1   |             1975, neonatal mortality rates ranged from 6.4 to 22.1
535   II,     9.  1.  1   |           births. Neonatal mortality rates are about 2 per 1 000 births
536   II,     9.  1.  1   |             There are differences in rates of neonatal mortality between
537   II,     9.  1.  1   |           Member States, the highest rates of these other causes are
538   II,     9.  1.  1   |              Figure 9.1.1.3 presents rates of low birth weight in the
539   II,     9.  1.  1   |              babies have the highest rates of long-term health problems,
540   II,     9.  1.  1   |              monitoring trends in CP rates and providing a framework
541   II,     9.  1.  1   |              9.1.1.4. Cerebral palsy rates per 1 000 live births in
542   II,     9.  1.  1   |           2007).~ ~Table 9.1.1.6. CP rates among VLBW babies in 9 European
543   II,     9.  1.  1   |            countries with the lowest rates, the number of neonatal
544   II,     9.  1.  1   |             Cesarean (1992): section rates in Italy by hospital payment
545   II,     9.  1.  1   |             2002): Neonatal survival rates in 860 singleton live births
546   II,     9.  1.  1   |           2001): Perinatal mortality rates can no longer be used for
547   II,     9.  1.  1   |         Socioeconomic differences in rates of cesarean section. N Engl
548   II,     9.  1.  1   |         factors in cesarean delivery rates: policy and research implications.
549   II,     9.  1.  1   |        Breart G (2007): Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe:
550   II,     9.  1.  2   |             termination of pregnancy rates affecting live-birth prevalence.
551   II,     9.  1.  2   |           Table 9.1.2.3). The lowest rates are recorded in Italy (0.
552   II,     9.  1.  2   |        underascertained. The highest rates of perinatal mortality associated
553   II,     9.  1.  2   |              2.0 per 1 000 (the high rates being in Ireland and Malta).~ ~
554   II,     9.  1.  2   |              a strong decline in the rates of neural tube defects occurred
555   II,     9.  1.  2   |             the British Isles, where rates have always traditionally
556   II,     9.  1.  2   |             in live birth prevalence rates, from 0.1 per 1 000 in France
557   II,     9.  1.  2   |       European countries have higher rates, for example Germany, the
558   II,     9.  1.  2   |          Netherlands and Denmark had rates between 1.3 and 1.6 per
559   II,     9.  1.  2   |          2004 (EUROCAT, 2007), while rates of 0.6 per 1 000 or below
560   II,     9.  1.  2   |             world. Particularly high rates and increases have been
561   II,     9.  1.  2   |          which is associated to high rates of teenage pregnancy (Loane
562   II,     9.  1.  2   |             2007). In Italy however, rates are lower and an increase
563   II,     9.  1.  2   |         registries report prevalence rates up to 2.5 per 1 000 in the
564   II,     9.  1.  2   |   demographic characteristics affect rates of perinatal mortality and
565   II,     9.  1.  2   |                Studies report higher rates of antepartum, intrapartum
566   II,     9.  1.  2   |              Mortality and morbidity rates are higher among socially
567   II,     9.  1.  2   |         almost 25%.~ ~Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among all Women
568   II,     9.  1.  2   |              with prenatal diagnosis rates are particularly high for
569   II,     9.  2.  2   |         valuable analysis of suicide rates in Europe has 15-24 as its
570   II,     9.  2.  2   |              on marriage and divorce rates.~ ~Children are not miniature
571   II,     9.  2.  3   |           Age-standardised mortality rates by cancer in children aged
572   II,     9.  2.  3   |           Age-standardised mortality rates by cancer in children aged
573   II,     9.  2.  3   |           WHO 2005b), the prevalence rates of “ self-reported asthma
574   II,     9.  2.  3   |        explain why much lower asthma rates are reported for UK by other
575   II,     9.  2.  3   |              GINA), gives prevalence rates of clinical asthma2 in 13-
576   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|              the reported prevalence rates for "clinical asthma" represent
577   II,     9.  2.  3   |              have very low reporting rates (or may be under-reporting
578   II,     9.  2.  3   |            or may be under-reporting rates of infection).~ ~HIV/AIDS:
579   II,     9.  2.  3   |              immunisation protection rates, have been compromised.~ ~
580   II,     9.  2.  3   |            fat. However, the highest rates of dieting among girls of
581   II,     9.  2.  3   |            and can lead to increased rates of non-communicable disease
582   II,     9.  2.  3   |         Wales have among the highest rates of overweight in Europe.
583   II,     9.  2.  3   |           social phenomenon. Suicide rates among people under 20 years
584   II,     9.  2.  3   |            under–reporting, the true rates of suicide are difficult
585   II,     9.  2.  4   |               In a few countries the rates for boys and girls are very
586   II,     9.  2.  4   |           girls and 6991% for boys. Rates are highest in some southern
587   II,     9.  2.  4   |         Netherlands have the highest rates of physical activity for
588   II,     9.  3.  1   |               there are closer death rates between boys and girls.
589   II,     9.  3.  1   |            than men, leading to high rates of depression and anxiety,
590   II,     9.  3.  1   |             and at 15-19 (25.9). The rates are consistently lower for
591   II,     9.  3.  1   |           groups (EUROSTAT). Suicide rates are generally higher among
592   II,     9.  3.  1   |            men than among women, but rates of suicide attempts are
593   II,     9.  3.  1   |             also have lower survival rates for cancer (Verdecchia et
594   II,     9.  3.  1   |     differences observed in reported rates in France and Greece (European
595   II,     9.  3.  1   |             of the lowest prevalence rates of diabetes (3.7%) and the
596   II,     9.  3.  1   |            no difference in survival rates (UNAIDS et al, 2004).~ ~
597   II,     9.  3.  1   |              have very low reporting rates. Gonorrhea and syphilis
598   II,     9.  3.  1   |             with age, with incidence rates higher in Scandinavia than
599   II,     9.  3.  1   |        increases with age. Incidence rates are higher amongst women
600   II,     9.  3.  1   |           expected to double by 2025.Rates of osteoporosis and related
601   II,     9.  3.  1   |             with age, with incidence rates increasing within older
602   II,     9.  3.  1   |               Despite similar stroke rates, women are more likely than
603   II,     9.  3.  1   |           and age-standardized death rates from ischaemic heart disease
604   II,     9.  3.  2   |            the higher multiple birth rates caused by more common use
605   II,     9.  3.  2   |           some countries have higher rates of obstetrical interventions,
606   II,     9.  3.  2   |           turn have an impact on the rates of pre-term and post-term
607   II,     9.  3.  2   |      increasing trend towards higher rates of caesarean section for
608   II,     9.  3.  2   |             Cesarean (1992): section rates in Italy by hospital payment
609   II,     9.  3.  2   |             2002): Neonatal survival rates in 860 singleton live births
610   II,     9.  3.  2   |           2001): Perinatal mortality rates can no longer be used for
611   II,     9.  3.  2   |         Socioeconomic differences in rates of cesarean section. N Engl
612   II,     9.  3.  2   |         factors in cesarean delivery rates: policy and research implications.
613   II,     9.  3.  2   |        Breart G (2007): Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe:
614   II,     9.  3.  3   |       relatively high and concordant rates of condom use; however,
615   II,     9.  4.  1   |            combined with lower birth rates, gender, the impact of ageing
616   II,     9.  4.  3   |        suicide in elderly Europeans. Rates of suicide and self harm
617   II,     9.  4.  3   |       Commission, 2003). The highest rates of suicide are found among
618   II,     9.  4.  3   |              over. The highest death rates occur in Estonia (2,305
619   II,     9.  4.  3   |             women), while the lowest rates are observed in France (
620   II,     9.  4.  3   |            2006). Age specific death rates demonstrate that the risk
621   II,     9.  4.  3   |     difference in age specific death rates between Denmark and Portugal.
622   II,     9.  4.  3   |            median age specific death rates for men are compared with
623   II,     9.  4.  3   |            and Scotland, show higher rates in the least deprived populations,
624   II,     9.  4.  3   |          Transmitted Infections. The rates of gonorrhoea and syphilis
625   II,     9.  4.  3   |             aged 45 to 64 in the UK, rates of chlamydia rose by 177%,
626   II,     9.  4.  3   |        affect older people, although rates increase with age, doubling
627   II,     9.  4.  3   |             65. After the age of 85, rates of Alzheimer’s Disease (
628   II,     9.  4.  3   |          studies also noted that the rates of AD were higher among
629   II,     9.  5.  1   |             smoking, women’s smoking rates continue to rise in some
630   II,     9.  5.  1   |            important for men. Higher rates of accidents (traffic accidents,
631   II,     9.  5.  1   |       children have lower employment rates than those without. Women
632   II,     9.  5.  3   |       children have lower employment rates than those without (European
633   II,     9.  5.  3   |       studies~ ~Table 9.5.3. Suicide Rates~ ~Gender differences are
634   II,     9.  5.  3   |              relatively high poverty rates; Finland and Sweden now
635   II,     9.  5.  3   |              poverty levels. Poverty rates rise with both age and changes
636   II,     9.  5.  3   |            depressed.~ ~In 2002, the rates of regular daily smokers
637   II,     9.  5.  3   |                WHO, 2002a). Overall, rates appear to have been on a
638   II,     9.  5.  3   |          earlier than girls, smoking rates for girls are overtaking
639   II,     9.  5.  3   |               21.7%) had the highest rates. Education and retirement
640   II,     9.  5.  3   |        explain the higher inactivity rates observed at either end of
641  III,    10.  1.  1   |           satisfaction is higher and rates of depression are lower
642  III,    10.  2.  1   |           highest smoking prevalence rates in the world.~ ~The patterns
643  III,    10.  2.  1   |           the two sexes show similar rates.~ ~Figures 10.2.1.1.2. 10.
644  III,    10.  2.  1   |        general mortality, with death rates twice as high for men as
645  III,    10.  2.  1   |          reverse. The female smoking rates in some countries reached
646  III,    10.  2.  1   |            at lower levels than male rates, while in some countries
647  III,    10.  2.  1   |            the difference in smoking rates between boys and girls is
648  III,    10.  2.  1   |         becomes increasingly common. Rates among men peak at 50%-80%
649  III,    10.  2.  1   |               In stage 3, prevalence rates among men decrease to about
650  III,    10.  2.  1   |             of this stage also their rates start to decline;~· In stage
651  III,    10.  2.  1   |               In stage 4, prevalence rates keep declining slowly for
652  III,    10.  2.  1   |        products;~· the structure and rates of excise duty applied on
653  III,    10.  2.  1   |         measures that reduce smoking rates. The report also reveals
654  III,    10.  2.  1   |          populationfemale smoking rates are still relatively high
655  III,    10.  2.  1   |          advertising and its smoking rates exceed those of their peers
656  III,    10.  2.  1   |             2.1.2.2. Change in death rates, by cause, from a 1 litre
657  III,    10.  2.  1   |        alcohol consumption and death rates from a number of conditions,
658  III,    10.  2.  1   |            consumption and cirrhosis rates in southern Europe~ ~Alcohol
659  III,    10.  2.  1   |           liver cirrhosis, mortality rates from traffic accidents and
660  III,    10.  2.  1   |        traffic accidents and reduced rates of crime, including assault,
661  III,    10.  2.  1   |              the average alcohol tax rates, which relate very closely
662  III,    10.  2.  1   |            associated with increased rates of domestic violence and
663  III,    10.  2.  1   |           into account as employment rates and housing conditions are
664  III,    10.  2.  1   |                   Overall prevalence rates for other illicit drug use
665  III,    10.  2.  1   |        significant differences, with rates varying from under 10% to
666  III,    10.  2.  1   |             elevated adult mortality rates and cardiovascular disease,
667  III,    10.  2.  1   |         collection methods, response rates, age ranges, years of collection
668  III,    10.  2.  1   |    Development, 2005) had the lowest rates. Among women, the highest
669  III,    10.  2.  1   |             at particularly alarming rates among children and adolescents (
670  III,    10.  2.  1   |        concerns about the increasing rates of overweight and obesity
671  III,    10.  2.  1   |           mean values and prevalence rates from telephone and examination
672  III,    10.  3.  1   |          further increasing apparent rates.~ ~Ozone depletion in the
673  III,    10.  3.  1   |         European countries incidence rates have stabilized over more
674  III,    10.  3.  1   |             comparisons of annoyance rates are hampered by differences
675  III,    10.  3.  3   |              highest crude incidence rates in the EU (Chlamydia infection
676  III,    10.  3.  3   |             had the lowest incidence rates and also show decreasing
677  III,    10.  3.  3   |              with high case fatality rates, especially among elderly
678  III,    10.  3.  4   |         problems including increased rates of anxiety and depression
679  III,    10.  3.  4   |            measures. Thus, mortality rates are very low, and mainly
680  III,    10.  4.  1   |             that have led to reduced rates of air exchange in homes,
681  III,    10.  4.  2   |              pyrethroids, with lower rates of application, increased
682  III,    10.  4.  3   |             The under-five mortality rates from diarrhoeal diseases
683  III,    10.  4.  3   |             than in the EU 15, where rates over the same period dropped
684  III,    10.  4.  5   |         Strategy.~ ~Waste generation rates vary strongly between sectors
685  III,    10.  5.  1   |            system improved detection rates. While during the voluntary
686  III,    10.  5.  1   |              showing higher survival rates and better mental health (
687  III,    10.  5.  1   |              WHO, 2006).~With rising rates of obesity and decreasing
688  III,    10.  5.  1   |       air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention
689  III,    10.  5.  2   |            therefore, the dependency rates (the ratio of the elderly
690  III,    10.  5.  2   |             have increased mortality rates in rural areas and decreased
691  III,    10.  5.  2   |              and decreased mortality rates in urban areas. For females,
692  III,    10.  5.  2   |       between age-adjusted mortality rates with urban and rural settlements,
693  III,    10.  5.  2   |             health status. Mortality rates were about 22% higher in
694  III,    10.  5.  2   |    rural areas. Differences in death rates between rural and city areas
695  III,    10.  5.  2   |             indicated that mortality rates are considerably higher
696  III,    10.  5.  2   |           Figure 10.5.2.8. Mortality rates in urban and rural settings
697  III,    10.  5.  2   |          rural settings, and suicide rates have increased (Wood, 2004).~ ~
698  III,    10.  5.  2   |             rural disease prevalence rates could also be related to
699  III,    10.  5.  3   |         numbers as well as incidence rates are provided for fatal and
700  III,    10.  5.  3   | manufacturing follows with incidence rates still two times above the
701  III,    10.  5.  3   |              times above the average rates of app. 60 per 100,000.~ ~
702  III,    10.  5.  3   |           construction with incident rates two-fold above average.
703  III,    10.  5.  3   |              in reverse. The highest rates for shift work were found
704  III,    10.  6.  1   |              networks have increased rates of premature death and poorer
705  III,    10.  6.  1   |        Ireland (about 300). Response rates varied from 23% (Great Britain)
706  III,    10.  6.  1   |              highly varying response rates between countries. People
707  III,    10.  6.  1   |              and Italy reported high rates of poor social support:
708  III,    10.  6.  1   |       naturally related to the crime rates and the risk for victimization (
709  III,    10.  6.  2   |       countries with available data, rates of premature mortality are
710  III,    10.  6.  2   |            the relative gap in death rates is generally the result
711  III,    10.  6.  2   |            the relative gap in death rates is generally the result
712  III,    10.  6.  2   |      political transition, mortality rates have changed dramatically
713  III,    10.  6.  2   |            available data, mortality rates have generally improved
714  III,    10.  6.  2   |        similar widening gap in death rates. The fact this is not seen
715  III,    10.  6.  2   |        Morbidity~ ~As for mortality, rates of morbidity are usually
716  III,    10.  6.  2   |          turn lead to higher poverty rates.~ ~Accessibility of health
717  III,    10.  6.  2   |             incidence and prevalence rates, treatment and cure rates,
718  III,    10.  6.  2   |            rates, treatment and cure rates, and access to health services.~ ~
719  III,    10.  6.  2   |       reducing school non-attendance rates due to illness. Pupils who
720  III,    10.  6.  3   |       thereby deflating the national rates. The measures, then, need
721  III,    10.  6.  3   |            previous ICVS sweeps, the rates have been calculated only
722  III,    10.  6.  3   |          Margins of error around the rates for sexual offences are
723  III,    10.  6.  3   |         reported higher than average rates (4% and above). The lowest
724  III,    10.  6.  3   |             10.6.3.1. shows national rates.~ ~Figure 10.6.3.1. Prevalence
725  III,    10.  6.  3   |          Figure 10.6.3.1. Prevalence rates for robbery, sexual offences
726  III,    10.  6.  3   |           naturally related to crime rates and the risk for victimization.
727   IV,    11.  1.  3   |          decreasing infant mortality rates – but it is to be acknowledged
728   IV,    11.  1.  3   |           declining infant mortality rates and improved numbers of
729   IV,    11.  1.  5   |      countries, it appears that high rates of mammography (greater
730   IV,    11.  1.  5   |           cervical cancer screening, rates are lower than for mammography,
731   IV,    11.  1.  5   |           and Sweden, and with lower rates (less than 50%) in the Czech Republic,
732   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             These may be vaccination rates or specific disease treatments (
733   IV,    11.  1.  6   |           e.g. costs and utilization rates (Figueras et al, 2004).
734   IV,    11.  1.  6   |           been used include survival rates, waiting times, patient
735   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             and longer-term survival rates for myocardial infarction.
736   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             al, 2006). Reimbursement rates are calculated on the basis
737   IV,    11.  1.  6   |            Calculating reimbursement rates also requires decisions
738   IV,    11.  2.  1   |            gender-specific mortality rates, overall levels of premature
739   IV,    11.  2.  1   |  coordination. While lower mortality rates are associated to a greater
740   IV,    11.  2.  1   |          countries reveals very high rates of day surgery for some
741   IV,    11.  2.  1   |              Canada) with much lower rates in Portugal, France, Scotland
742   IV,    11.  2.  1   |      apparently have relatively high rates of hospital utilization,
743   IV,    11.  2.  1   |            reduce hospital admission rates (Mattke et al 2007). As
744   IV,    11.  3.  2   |             in 2006. However, growth rates of all other regions, except
745   IV,    11.  5.  1   |            nations with yearly donor rates over 20 per million population (
746   IV,    11.  5.  1   |             of countries with yearly rates between 10 and 19 pmp;~·
747   IV,    11.  5.  1   |            few, whose deceased donor rates fall below 10 pmp.~ ~Two
748   IV,    11.  5.  4   |              a transplant. Mortality rates while waiting for a heart,
749   IV,    11.  5.  4   |              faster than organ donor rates.~There are different reasons
750   IV,    11.  5.  4   |              their donor pool. Donor rates vary widely in different
751   IV,    11.  5.  4   |              final national donation rates do not always correlate
752   IV,    11.  5.  5   |              differences in donation rates. Accessibility means to
753   IV,    11.  5.  5   |             growth of organ donation rates and disseminate reliable
754   IV,    11.  5.  5   |       therapy by increasing donation rates.~- To train Health Care
755   IV,    11.  5.  5   |             improving organ Donation Rates.~ ~EUROCET (E-Ten):~To create
756   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               are progressive if tax rates are higher for those with
757   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          situations where income tax rates vary geographically, some
758   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          inequities can arise if tax rates vary across regions, or
759   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              Greece set contribution rates centrally, though from 2009
760   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            user fees or face reduced rates for certain services or
761   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              services. These special rates typically relate to one
762   IV,    11.  6.  3   |            depends on the number and rates of marginal tax bands, where
763   IV,    11.  6.  3   |           bands and low marginal tax rates will create a regressive
764   IV,    11.  6.  3   |            ceilings for contribution rates; payments are progressive
765   IV,    11.  6.  5   |              determine reimbursement rates for diagnosis related groups (
766   IV,    12.  2       |               By 1992, CVD mortality rates for men aged 35-64 years
767   IV,    12.  2       |        products;~· the structure and rates of excise duty applied on
768   IV,    12.  2       |         measures that reduce smoking rates. The report also reveals
769   IV,    12.  2       |            liver cirrhosis, fatality rates from traffic crashes, and
770   IV,    12.  2       |         traffic crashes, and reduced rates of crime, including assault,
771   IV,    12.  2       |              the average alcohol tax rates, which relate very closely
772   IV,    12.  2       |            associated with increased rates of domestic violence and
773   IV,    12. 10       |      population attributable smoking rates by several national surveys:
774   IV,    13.  1       |             13.1. Standardised Death Rates for selected non-communicable
775   IV,    13.  2.  1   |             information on mortality rates and incidences/prevalences/
776   IV,    13.  5       |              is true that disability rates are higher among the elderly,
777   IV,    13.  5       |              a decline in disability rates especially in the 65-80
778   IV,    13.  6.  2   |             and immunisation, uptake rates are, however, a good outcome