1-500 | 501-749
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1           |                 a given time in his/her life is the result of the many
  2    -,     1           |            their development throughout life, there is an obvious need
  3    I,     2.  3       |              low fertility and extended life expectancy on the age distribution
  4    I,     2.  4       |             substantial inequalities in life expectancy at birth (4 to
  5    I,     2.  4       |                inequalities in 'healthy life expectancy' (number of years
  6    I,     2.  5       |            satisfying work and a better life. For others it is worrisome,
  7    I,     2.  5       |     organisation and quality of working life for the employees. The study,
  8    I,     2.  5       |              improved health status and life expectancy, reforms and
  9    I,     2.  5       |                adapt to the increase in life expectancy. With increased
 10    I,     2.  6       |      participate in social and economic life. It should be noted that
 11    I,     2.  6       |       Considering the large increase of life expectancy and the rapidly
 12    I,     2.  6       |          contexts of working and social life, the need emerges for providing
 13    I,     2.  7       |            pollution, higher quality of life and the possibility of leaving
 14    I,     2.  8       |            impacts along the production life cycle - from fuel extract
 15    I,     2.  9       |               caused advancement in the life cycles of many animal groups (
 16    I,     2. 10.  4   |       management (e.g. monitoring shelf life and automatic re-stocking).~ ~
 17    I,     2. 11       |                    EUROSTAT (2008): The life of women and men in Europe
 18    I,     3.Acr       |              International Migration~LE Life Expectancy~NMS New Member
 19    I,     3.  1       |              their first child later in life than less educated women,
 20    I,     3.  1       |               end of their reproductive life) finished below replacement
 21    I,     3.  2       |              low fertility and extended life expectancy on the age distribution
 22    I,     3.  3       |                fertility and increasing life expectancy. Young populations
 23    I,     3.  3       |               per woman) and mortality (life expectancy) in combination
 24    I,     3.  3       |                rises or declines, or if life expectancy changes.~ ~Figure
 25    I,     3.  3       |                the effect of increasing life expectancy. Migration usually
 26    I,     3.  3       |               1960s and by an increased life expectancy. In 2004, Italy
 27   II,     4.Acr       |           Acronyms~DFLE~Disability Free Life Expectancy (DFLE0 at birth;
 28   II,     4.Acr       |        Limitation Indicator~HLY~Healthy Life Years~LE~Life Expectancy (
 29   II,     4.Acr       |               HLY~Healthy Life Years~LE~Life Expectancy (LE0 at birth;
 30   II,     4.  1       |                                    4.1. Life expectancy and healthy life
 31   II,     4.  1       |             Life expectancy and healthy life years~ ~In 1980, male life
 32   II,     4.  1       |              life years~ ~In 1980, male life expectancy was around 70
 33   II,     4.  1       |               countries have much lower life expectancies, showing for
 34   II,     4.  1       |              that the sex difference in life duration is much larger
 35   II,     4.  1       |               future, a further rise in life expectancy is expected.~
 36   II,     4.  1       |              Whether the extra years of life gained during the last decade
 37   II,     4.  1       |            period of time, increases in life expectancy at birth (LE0 )
 38   II,     4.  1       |                 such as disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). These
 39   II,     4.  1       |               focus on one’s quality of life (life spent in a healthy
 40   II,     4.  1       |               on one’s quality of life (life spent in a healthy status)
 41   II,     4.  1       |            previously, on the quantity (life expectancy) by dividing
 42   II,     4.  1       |                 expectancy) by dividing life expectancy into life spent
 43   II,     4.  1       |           dividing life expectancy into life spent in various states
 44   II,     4.  1       |              under the name of “Healthy Life Years” (HLY), a health expectancy
 45   II,     4.  1       |                 that increasing Healthy Life Years is crucial in increasing
 46   II,     4.  1       |              the continued inclusion of life expectancy at birth (and
 47   II,     4.  1       |      information in terms of quality of life is provided by the ratio
 48   II,     4.  1       |              measures the proportion of life expectancy lived in good
 49   II,     4.  1       |              EU25, review the trends in life expectancy at birth and
 50   II,     4.  1       |              interrelationships between life expectancy and HLY as the
 51   II,     4.  1       |              determining whether longer life implies better health.~ ~
 52   II,     4.  1       |        available on the EHEMU website.1 Life expectancy estimates for
 53   II,     4.  1       |              estimating disability-free life expectancy from cross-sectional
 54   II,     4.  1       |                level (EU25) per gender: life expectancy (LE), Healthy
 55   II,     4.  1       |                expectancy (LE), Healthy Life Years (HLY), the expected
 56   II,     4.  1       |                 LEwSL) and the ratio of life expectancy to the Healthy
 57   II,     4.  1       |               expectancy to the Healthy Life Years expressed a percentage (
 58   II,     4.  1       |             gender gaps.~ ~Table 4.1.1. Life expectancy (LE) and Healthy
 59   II,     4.  1       |             expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (HLY) at birth, at
 60   II,     4.  1       |                   The number of Healthy Life Years (HLY) lived in 2005
 61   II,     4.  1       |                81% and 77% of the total life expectancy at birth for
 62   II,     4.  1       |                 Although in 2005 the EU life expectancy at birth ranks
 63   II,     4.  1       |       representing 62% and 57% of total life expectancy respectively.
 64   II,     4.  1       |                53% and 49% of the total life expectancy for men and women
 65   II,     4.  1       |             proportion of their shorter life expectancy free of activity
 66   II,     4.  1       |                4.1.2 gives estimates of life expectancy (LE65 ) and disability-free
 67   II,     4.  1       |              LE65 ) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE65 ) at
 68   II,     4.  1       |             ECHP survey.~ ~Table 4.1.2. Life expectancy and Disability-free
 69   II,     4.  1       |          expectancy and Disability-free life expectancy at the age of
 70   II,     4.  1       |                disability than in total life expectancy, resulting in
 71   II,     4.  1       |           decrease in the proportion of life free of disability in the
 72   II,     4.  1       |                 shows 10-year trends in life expectancy at birth (LE0 )
 73   II,     4.  1       |             within EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.3. Life expectancy at birth (LE0),
 74   II,     4.  1       |               10 year period 1995-2005, life expectancy at birth steadily
 75   II,     4.  1       |           Minimum and maximum values of life expectancy (LE) and Healthy
 76   II,     4.  1       |             expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (HLY), at birth, at
 77   II,     4.  1       |                  At MS level, values of life expectancy at birth in 2005
 78   II,     4.  1       |                MS.~ ~Detailed values of life expectancy at birth (LE0 )
 79   II,     4.  1       |                birth (LE0 ) and healthy life years (HLY0 ) in the Member
 80   II,     4.  1       |              and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy, broken down
 81   II,     4.  1       |                  broken down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor
 82   II,     4.  1       |               2005, Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy, broken down
 83   II,     4.  1       |                  broken down as Healthy Life Years, Years with Minor
 84   II,     4.  1       |                 quantity and quality of life (i.e. between total longevity
 85   II,     4.  1       |               and 23% for women) of the life expectancy at birth is lived
 86   II,     4.  1       |             with the highest and lowest life expectancies at birth is
 87   II,     4.  1       |             marked convergence in their life expectancy values in the
 88   II,     4.  1       |           generally increasing trend in life expectancy. However, during
 89   II,     4.  1       |               However, during the 1960s life expectancies began to diverge.
 90   II,     4.  1       |                countries, the growth in life expectancy hardly slowed
 91   II,     4.  1       |           second group, where growth in life expectancy slowed down more
 92   II,     4.  1       |            countries are found as their life expectancies ceased to follow
 93   II,     4.  1       |                also included though its life expectancy trend varied
 94   II,     4.  1       |                7 presents the values of life expectancy at birth in the
 95   II,     4.  1       |                2006).5~ ~ ~Table 4.1.5. Life expectancy at birth (LE0)
 96   II,     4.  1       |                largest increase in male life expectancy over the 10-year
 97   II,     4.  1       |           largest (to Japan) for female life expectancy.~ ~Since its
 98   II,     4.  1       |            introduction in 2004 Healthy Life Years (HLY) have featured
 99   II,     4.  1       |           related to increasing healthy life years are those aimed at
100   II,     4.  1       |            quality and years of healthy life and eliminate health disparities.
101   II,     4.  1       |               to monitor the quality of life and support active ageing
102   II,     4.  1       |               context of lengthening of life. Drawbacks present in the
103   II,     4.  1       |               demands on the quality of life of populations will come
104   II,     4.  1       |       possibility to compute comparable life tables by socio-economic
105   II,     4.  2       |                                    4.2. Life expectancy and causes of
106   II,     4.  2       |             1970, in the EU15 countries life expectancy at birth has
107   II,     4.  2       |                 and Slovakia) countries life expectancy has developed
108   II,     4.  2       |                men, but in recent years life expectancy has been increasing
109   II,     4.  2       |             overall increasing trend in life expectancy at birth there
110   II,     4.  2       |               the future development of life expectancy, one important
111   II,     4.  2       |            upper limit to the growth in life expectancy. Since in recent
112   II,     4.  2       |                cause of the increase in life expectancy, this question
113   II,     4.  2       |                may be near.~Even though life expectancy has risen in
114   II,     4.  2       |                 whether inequalities in life expectancy across European
115   II,     4.  2       |              examine whether changes in life expectancy at birth across
116   II,     4.  2       |                death to the increase in life expectancy at birth and
117   II,     4.  2       |                 decades.~ ~ ~Pattern of life expectancy changes by age
118   II,     4.  2       |                during the last decades, life expectancy at birth has
119   II,     4.  2       |           increase has risen over time. Life expectancy increased by
120   II,     4.  2       |               groups to the increase in life expectancy at birth during
121   II,     4.  2       |                 most to the increase in life expectancy at birth: for
122   II,     4.  2       |                third of the increase in life expectancy and for women
123   II,     4.  2       |                cause of the increase in life expectancy, but increasingly
124   II,     4.  2       |          contributed to the increase in life expectancy. For men, age
125   II,     4.  2       |               fourth to the increase in life expectancy at birth, and
126   II,     4.  2       |                of the total increase in life expectancy. In the 1990s,
127   II,     4.  2       |               groups to the increase in life expectancy at birth was
128   II,     4.  2       |             decomposition of changes in life expectancy, EU 15 average.~ ~
129   II,     4.  2       |                 most to the increase in life expectancy in the 1970s.
130   II,     4.  2       |           dominant cause of the rise of life expectancy. In most countries,
131   II,     4.  2       |               impact on the increase in life expectancy in the 1980s,
132   II,     4.  2       |             ages had a larger effect on life expectancy than in the other
133   II,     4.  2       |               impact on the increase in life expectancy in all EU countries.
134   II,     4.  2       |              countries, the increase in life expectancy was mainly caused
135   II,     4.  2       |         contribution to the increase in life expectancy can be attributed
136   II,     4.  2       |                In Eastern EU countries, life expectancy had developed
137   II,     4.  2       |                 and 1990s.~ ~Pattern of life expectancy changes by causes
138   II,     4.  2       |                death to the increase in life expectancy at birth in the
139   II,     4.  2       |               one fourth of the rise in life expectancy at birth. In
140   II,     4.  2       |               one fourth in the rise of life expectancy as well. Smoking
141   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative impact on life expectancy in the 1970s.
142   II,     4.  2       |           caused 40% of the increase in life expectancy. The negative
143   II,     4.  2       |                 part of the increase in life expectancy could not be
144   II,     4.  2       |                 diseases to the rise in life expectancy increased to
145   II,     4.  2       |                cause of the increase in life expectancy for men. In addition,
146   II,     4.  2       |           contribute to the increase in life expectancy. Whereas smoking
147   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative impact on life expectancy in the 1970s,
148   II,     4.  2       |           almost 60% to the increase in life expectancy in the 1990s.
149   II,     4.  2       |             decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth by cause
150   II,     4.  2       |                Arriaga decomposition of life expectancy by cause of death
151   II,     4.  2       |             decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth by cause
152   II,     4.  2       |                 most to the increase in life expectancy since the 1980s,
153   II,     4.  2       |               impact on the increase in life expectancy than circulatory
154   II,     4.  2       |                a negative impact on the life expectancy of women in the
155   II,     4.  2       |                had a positive impact on life expectancy of women in almost
156   II,     4.  2       |              not have a large effect on life expectancy in the 1980s
157   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative impact on life expectancy of men in 9 out
158   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative effect on life expectancy in the Eastern
159   II,     4.  2       |                in the cause of death on life expectancy seems to be similar.
160   II,     4.  2       |                cause of the increase in life expectancy since the 1980s
161   II,     4.  2       |                 shows by how many years life expectancy at birth increased
162   II,     4.  2       |                in the total increase in life expectancy at birth. The
163   II,     4.  2       |                 half of the increase in life expectancy; the same occurred
164   II,     4.  2       |              than the total increase in life expectancy.~ ~Table 4.2.
165   II,     4.  2       |      circulatory diseases to changes in life expectancy at birth 1980-
166   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative impact on life expectancy in the 1980s
167   II,     4.  2       |                had a negative impact on life expectancy in 12 of the
168   II,     4.  2       |              smoking related cancers on life expectancy at birth, selected
169   II,     4.  2       |                cause of the increase in life expectancy at birth since
170   II,     4.  2       |            upper limit to the growth in life expectancy, which will manifest
171   II,     4.  2       |             shows the average change in life expectancy at 65 for selected
172   II,     4.  2       |               was data on the change in life expectancy at 65 during
173   II,     4.  2       |                Average annual change in life expectancy at 65, selected
174   II,     4.  2       |               countries the increase in life expectancy at 65 for men
175   II,     4.  2       |              countries, the increase in life expectancy for the elderly
176   II,     4.  2       |                most other EU countries, life expectancy has increased
177   II,     4.  2       |                Average annual change in life expectancy at the age of
178   II,     4.  2       |           approaching an upper limit of life expectancy as there is no
179   II,     4.  2       |               in 2005~ ~Inequalities in life expectancy. One important
180   II,     4.  2       |               for making projections of life expectancy for European
181   II,     4.  2       |       persistent. If in countries where life expectancy used to be rather
182   II,     4.  2       |                 than in countries where life expectancy has been relatively
183   II,     4.  2       |               one compares the level of life expectancy at birth across
184   II,     4.  2       |              average annual increase in life expectancy since 1970 it
185   II,     4.  2       |       relationship between the level of life expectancy in 1970 and the
186   II,     4.  2       |              020, which implies that if life expectancy in 1970 is one
187   II,     4.  2       |       Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970
188   II,     4.  2       |       Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970
189   II,     4.  2       |       relationship between the level of life expectancy in 1970 and the
190   II,     4.  2       |       Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970
191   II,     4.  2       |       Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970
192   II,     4.  2       |              been a converging trend in life expectancy at birth since
193   II,     4.  3       |              EHEMU Team (2005): Healthy life expectancy in the EU 15.
194   II,     4.  3       |                Welfare (2006): Abridged Life Tables for Japan 2005. Tokyo,
195   II,     4.  3       |                  Jagger (2007): Healthy life expectancy in the UN-European
196   II,     4.  3       |                  2001): Disability-free life expectancies in the European
197   II,     4.  3       |               et al. (2005): Changes in life expectancy in the European
198   II,     5.  1.  1   |              manifests itself in middle life and older age, after many
199   II,     5.  1.  1   |              the events of reproductive life and lifestyle factors (diet,
200   II,     5.  1.  1   |        inadequacy or lack of control in life, depression, anxiety, anger,
201   II,     5.  1.  2   |          interfere with many aspects of life, work, family life, leisure
202   II,     5.  1.  2   |           aspects of life, work, family life, leisure pursuits and close
203   II,     5.  1.  3   |                improve their quality of life. There are a growing number
204   II,     5.  1.  3   |               about the patient’s daily life and psychosocial environment,
205   II,     5.  1.  3   |            patient and to his/her daily life. It is part of the long-term
206   II,     5.  1.  3   |                 or improving quality of life. Its main purpose is to
207   II,     5.  2.  1   |       disability and reduced quality of life.~ ~Although EU is experiencing
208   II,     5.  2.  1   |          substantial loss of quality of life, disability, and life long
209   II,     5.  2.  1   |                of life, disability, and life long dependence on health
210   II,     5.  2.  1   |             loss of years of productive life.~In most European countries
211   II,     5.  2.  2   |              manifests itself in middle life and older age, after many
212   II,     5.  2.  4   |            thrifty genotype). Unhealthy life style includes a diet too
213   II,     5.  2.  4   |         favourable level throughout our life.~ ~Although the role of
214   II,     5.  2.  5   |                 have resulted in longer life spans; however, it has been
215   II,     5.  2.  5   |       expenditures in the last years of life (Daviglus et al, 2005).
216   II,     5.  2.  5   |           favourable level during their life. Therefore, the ‘population
217   II,     5.  2.  5   |              and improve the quality of life in the European population
218   II,     5.  2.  6   |                and food safety in early life, ensuring a safe, healthy
219   II,     5.  2.  7   |                 risk profile earlier in life and Medicare costs in the
220   II,     5.  2.  7   |               costs in the last year of life. Arch Intern Med 165:1028-
221   II,     5.  3.Acr   |           Classification of Diseases~LE~Life Expectancy~MOSES~Medical
222   II,     5.  3.  1   |               and also due to increased life expectancy at birth (LE).
223   II,     5.  3.  2   |                on treatment, quality of life, hospitalisation or cost
224   II,     5.  3.  2   |                 on patientsquality of life. For all of the above, a
225   II,     5.  3.  4   |              the events of reproductive life and lifestyle factors (
226   II,     5.  3.  7   |                 survival and quality of life for cancer patients. This
227   II,     5.  3.  7   |             thus improve the quality of life. The basic approach is an
228   II,     5.  3.  7   |               perspective on the entire life cycle of any new drug, including
229   II,     5.  3.  7   |           adequate treatment and end of life care. Organising and delivering
230   II,     5.  3.  7   |              specific needs in terms of life and psychosocial issues
231   II,     5.  3.  8   |            because European increase of life expectancy makes cancer
232   II,     5.  3.  9   |          EUROCARE Working Group (2003): Life expectancy and cancer survival
233   II,     5.  4.  1   |           improvement of the quality of life and patients' outcomes on
234   II,     5.  4.  6   |             This causes inequalities in life expectancy, health status
235   II,     5.  5.Int   |               limitation in their daily life activities. More appropriate
236   II,     5.  5.Int   |             brings a loss of quality of life for those affected and their
237   II,     5.  5.  1   |            significantly the quality of life to an extent comparable
238   II,     5.  5.  1   |        impairment in social and working life, causing loss of productivity.
239   II,     5.  5.  1   |           causes decrease in quality of life and loss of productivity.~ ~
240   II,     5.  5.  1   |                important contributor to life years lost because it frequently
241   II,     5.  5.  1   |               through premature loss of life. One study estimated that
242   II,     5.  5.  1   |        mortality and potential years of life lost from external cause,
243   II,     5.  5.  1   |        mortality and potential years of life lost from mental and behavioural
244   II,     5.  5.  1   |               health-related quality of life, use of treatment and healthcare
245   II,     5.  5.  1   |                1997-99): Early years of life have a significant impact
246   II,     5.  5.  1   |             mental health through one’s life. The project developed strategies
247   II,     5.  5.  1   |               eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/pubs_mental_
248   II,     5.  5.  1   |               health-related quality of life: a general population survey
249   II,     5.  5.  1   |               using 15D and EQ-5D. Qual Life Res 15(8):1403-14.~ ~Schmidtke
250   II,     5.  5.  2   |              ability to carry out daily life activities such as washing,
251   II,     5.  5.  2   |              try to maintain quality of life. Measures must also be taken
252   II,     5.  5.  2   |                 and well-being in later life, Chapter 6, available at: htt m (
253   II,     5.  5.  3   |        inadequacy or lack of control in life, depression, anxiety, anger,
254   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 normal and well-ordered life and development.~The influence
255   II,     5.  5.  3   |               be integrated in people’s life in order to influence lifestyle
256   II,     5.  5.  3   |                and also promote healthy life as well as lifestyle changes.
257   II,     5.  5.  3   |              DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) and YLDs (Years Lived
258   II,     5.  5.  3   |           causes of disability adjusted life years for the 15 to 44 age
259   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 morbidity risk over the life span of 1% of the population.~ ~
260   II,     5.  5.  3   |              community and have a lower life expectancy. Despite improvements
261   II,     5.  5.  3   |            cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in the WHO
262   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 participate in the work life. Therefore, schizophrenia
263   II,     5.  5.  3   |             reflected in the quality of life assessment which differs
264   II,     5.  5.  3   |        decreasing subjective quality of life, substantial loss of occupational
265   II,     5.  5.  3   |          working environment and social life in general, as major factors
266   II,     5.  5.  3   |             major factors of quality of life.~ ~
267   II,     5.  5.  3   |               eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/green_paper/
268   II,     5.  5.  3   |               eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/green_paper/
269   II,     5.  5.  3   |               DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DDD~Defined Daily
270   II,     5.  5.  3   |                of having an independent life.~· Fragile X Syndrome is
271   II,     5.  5.  3   |             attributed to the increased life expectancy (followed by
272   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 driving and other daily life activities. However, psychosocial
273   II,     5.  5.  3   |               several aspects of social life. This issue is further complicated
274   II,     5.  5.  3   |         interfere with their quality of life and productivity (Freal
275   II,     5.  5.  3   |          structure, generally increased life expectancy and previous
276   II,     5.  5.  3   |                  with a 15-year shorter life expectancy than the general
277   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) is one of
278   II,     5.  5.  3   |           premature mortality (years of life lost, YLLs) and of lifetime
279   II,     5.  5.  3   |           physical disability (years of life with disability, YLDs) (
280   II,     5.  5.  3   |            rates, age at disease onset, life expectancy at disease onset,
281   II,     5.  5.  3   |             those countries with higher life expectancy are found to
282   II,     5.  5.  3   |        hypothesised to operate early in life. Later influences may act
283   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 and sun exposure, early life infections including infectious
284   II,     5.  5.  3   |            factors also acting early in life, such as smoking.~ ~
285   II,     5.  5.  3   |         interferons with the quality of life and productivity of MS patients’ .
286   II,     5.  5.  3   |            often occurs at the prime of life, when people have significant
287   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the Rights and Quality of Life of People Affected by MS~ ~
288   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the health and Quality of Life of People affected by MS.~·
289   II,     5.  5.  3   |               to promote the quality of life of people with MS (Trisolini
290   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the rights and quality of life of people affected by MS.
291   II,     5.  5.  3   |               the rights and quality of life of people affected by MS,
292   II,     5.  5.  3   |          presenting disability adjusted life years (DALYs): in cost-effectiveness
293   II,     5.  5.  3   |               to promote the quality of life of people with MS (International
294   II,     5.  5.  3   |                DALY~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DMSR~Danish Multiple
295   II,     5.  5.  3   |               Health-related quality of life~ICD~International Classification
296   II,     5.  5.  3   |               Organization~YLD~Years Of Life With Disability~YLL~Years
297   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 Disability~YLL~Years Of Life Lost~ ~ ~ ~
298   II,     5.  5.  3   |                the patient’s quality of life and leads to a substantial
299   II,     5.  5.  3   |               health-related quality of life in those patients (Global
300   II,     5.  5.  3   |               health-related quality of life and patient utilities of
301   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Gullaksen E (1995): Quality of life and care in Parkinson’s
302   II,     5.  5.  3   |               health-related quality of life and economic impact of Parkinson’
303   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 impacting on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease:
304   II,     5.  5.  3   |                2005): The role of early life environmental risk factors
305   II,     5.  6.Acr   |               DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~HRT~Hormone Replacement
306   II,     5.  6.  3   |               disability and quality of life; health care utilization;
307   II,     5.  6.  3   |               Disability and quality of life~ ~Musculoskeletal conditions
308   II,     5.  6.  3   |             with the poorest quality of life if compared to other chronic
309   II,     5.  6.  3   |             that at some point in their life they have experienced chronic
310   II,     5.  6.  3   |            cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and years
311   II,     5.  6.  3   |                2001 measured as healthy life lost as a result of disability (
312   II,     5.  6.  3   |              age and obesity, extending life expectancy will result in
313   II,     5.  6.  3   |                is associated to reduced life expectancy. Mortality is
314   II,     5.  6.  3   |                affects one’s quality of life with limitation of activities
315   II,     5.  6.  3   |                impairment of quality of life which worsens with each
316   II,     5.  6.  3   |                the impact on quality of life and increased mortality (
317   II,     5.  6.  4   |                 limitations in everyday life, work disability is a major
318   II,     5.  6.  6   |              their impact on quality of life. Am J Med 103:12S-17S~Cooper
319   II,     5.  6.  6   |     Musculoskeletal pain and quality of life in patients with noninflammatory
320   II,     5.  6.  6   |               Health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women
321   II,     5.  6.  6   |             better or poorer quality of life? J Clin Epidemiol 53:895-
322   II,     5.  7.  1   |           mortality and poor quality of life engendered by CKD and ESRD
323   II,     5.  7.  5   |             renal failure on quality of life, especially in dialysis
324   II,     5.  7.  6   |                 survival and quality of life of those patients for whom
325   II,     5.  7.  6   |                 health, as well as long life, are enjoyed by all. In
326   II,     5.  7.  6   |                 survival and quality of life are higher in transplant
327   II,     5.  7.  7   |               Health-related quality of life and estimates of utility
328   II,     5.  7.  7   |             Patel SS (2006): Quality of life in patients with chronic
329   II,     5.  7.  7   |             Geary DF (2006): Quality of life in children with chronic
330   II,     5.  8.  1   |             loss of disability adjusted life years (Mannino and Buist,
331   II,     5.  8.  1   |               which would prolong their life but cause great suffering
332   II,     5.  8.  3   |               health related quality of life (HRQoL) as shown in a Spanish
333   II,     5.  8.  6   |              and improve the quality of life should be implemented in
334   II,     5.  8.  6   |                in the last 12 months of life, decedents with COPD were
335   II,     5.  8.  7   |                in the last 12 months of life. Respir Med 102:885-891~ ~
336   II,     5.  9.Acr   |             Environments~QoL~Quality of Life~SAPALDIA~Air Pollution and
337   II,     5.  9. FB   |            handicap in their day to day life. Different expressions of
338   II,     5.  9. FB   |                of atopy appear early in life, persist over years or decades
339   II,     5.  9. FB   |                the patientsquality of life and have a considerable
340   II,     5.  9. FB   |             have to be applied early in life, most probably in early
341   II,     5.  9. FB   |               to food proteins early in life.~ ~Since children with a
342   II,     5.  9. FB   |                impact on the quality of life of affected people, besides
343   II,     5.  9.  1   |               functioning in day-to-day life affecting sleep and emotions,
344   II,     5.  9.  1   |                 to a reduced quality of life (QoL) of both patients and
345   II,     5.  9.  1   |                negative impact on daily life (Baiardini et al, 2006).~ ~
346   II,     5.  9.  2   |              journals;~- The Quality of life and management of human
347   II,     5.  9.  3   |         Allergies impair the quality of life over a long period, resulting
348   II,     5.  9.  3   |               the individual quality of life and long-term reduction
349   II,     5.  9.  4   |            keeping in the first year of life, particularly, dog keeping,
350   II,     5.  9.  4   |             bedroom in initial years of life (OR = 0.6); attending day
351   II,     5.  9.  4   |                 in the first 2 years of life. The strength of the associations
352   II,     5.  9.  4   |             more allergy-prone in later life than those brought up in
353   II,     5.  9.  5   |               Research~ ~The Quality of life and management of human
354   II,     5.  9.  5   |           improvement on the quality of life.~ ~More studies are needed
355   II,     5.  9.  6   |     productivity but also of quality of life impairment. Asthmatic symptoms
356   II,     5.  9.  6   |               Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) has become a fundamental
357   II,     5.  9.  6   |                et al, 1990). Quality of life research has demonstrated
358   II,     5.  9.  6   |                improving the quality of life in asthmatic patients: measures
359   II,     5.  9.  7   |              their impact on quality of life. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.
360   II,     5.  9.  7   |                lung function into adult life. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008
361   II,     5.  9.  7   |           Olweny CLM (1990): Quality of life studies: definitions and
362   II,     5.  9.  7   |           Spilker B Editors. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in
363   II,     5. 10.  1   |            deteriorate one’s quality of life (Mills et al, 2007). On
364   II,     5. 10.  6   |               and the quality of social life of food allergic individuals (
365   II,     5. 10.  7   |                 1142-1143~International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) (
366   II,     5. 10.  7   |                 Brussels: International Life Sciences Institute.~ ~International
367   II,     5. 11.  1   |              most skin diseases are not life threatening. Relatively
368   II,     5. 11.  3   |                are directly and acutely life threatening; included in
369   II,     5. 11.  3   |                impact on the quality of life for children, as well as
370   II,     5. 11.  3   |           within the first few weeks of life (AA Fisher, 1991).~ ~Once
371   II,     5. 11.  3   |                  it generally lasts for life. An individual who has become
372   II,     5. 11.  3   |                 may occur for an entire life, the chronic exposure to
373   II,     5. 11.  4   |                 associated with reduced life expectancy: collagen vascular
374   II,     5. 11.  4   |                  Indeed, the quality of life scores for people with skin
375   II,     5. 11.  4   |         Although skin disease is rarely life threatening, the moderate
376   II,     5. 11.  4   |               effects on the quality of life and the opportunity costs
377   II,     5. 11.  6   |                influence the quality of life of affected people and that
378   II,     5. 13       |               during the early years of life. Childhood obesity is an
379   II,     5. 13       |                 the problem is early in life. Moreover, a systematic
380   II,     5. 13       |          problems and poorer quality of life (intangible costs) (Branca
381   II,     5. 14.  1   |           replaced several times during life; each time, additional tooth
382   II,     5. 14.  2   |          morbidity rates and quality of life of the population. The prevalence
383   II,     5. 14.  3   |       additional maintenance throughout life. As retention of teeth in
384   II,     5. 14.  3   |               health related quality of life. Dissatisfaction with the
385   II,     5. 14.  3   |          profoundly affect one’s social life, make people avoid getting
386   II,     5. 14.  5   |           influential stage in people’s life for the development of a
387   II,     5. 14.  5   |               life-style and quality of life behaviour in relation to
388   II,     5. 14.  5   |               health related quality of life.~ ~Oral health systems play
389   II,     5. 14.  5   |        expressed in terms of quality of life improvements, reduction
390   II,     5. 14.  5   |             care, or in terms of social life involvement of entire groups
391   II,     5. 14.  5   |                 affecting their quality life (Petersen and Yamamoto,
392   II,     5. 14.  7   |                  The overall quality of life of any individual particularly
393   II,     5. 15.  3   |          studied diseases do not affect life expectancy. For 39% of the
394   II,     5. 15.  3   |                 39% of the diseases the life expectancy is rather short.
395   II,     6.  3.  3   |                improving the quality of life and delaying the onset of
396   II,     7.Acr       |                DALY~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DG Sanco~European
397   II,     7.Acr       |             Forum~QALY~Quality Adjusted Life Years~SDR~Standardised Death
398   II,     7.Acr       |                 PYLL~Years of Potential Life Lost~ ~Project/ Programme
399   II,     7.  4       |          leading to an enormous loss of life years in good health.~•
400   II,     7.  4       |       calculation of Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL), Quality Adjusted
401   II,     7.  4       |                 PYLL), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), and Disability
402   II,     7.  4       |                 and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) .~ ~In order
403   II,     7.  4.  6   |           family history of suicide);~· life events (loss of a loved
404   II,     8.  1.  1   |          leading to an enormous loss of life years in good health.~
405   II,     8.  1.  5   |         participation in all aspects of life. The EU strategy is built
406   II,     8.  1.  5(7)|                and participation in the life of the community"~
407   II,     8.  2.  1   |                 indicator of quality of life (AAMR, 2002).~ ~Persons
408   II,     8.  2.  1   |               have made marked gains in life expectancy in recent decades (
409   II,     8.  2.  1   |         environments. Experts endorse a life course approach to health promotion
410   II,     8.  2.  1   |             when they get help early in life. Fetal alcohol syndrome
411   II,     8.  2.  1   |               the health and quality of life of family carers should
412   II,     8.  2.  1   |                to grow in importance as life expectancy increases (Walsh
413   II,     8.  2.  2   |                 the impaired quality of life, pain, suffering and premature
414   II,     9           |             women bear children late in life in the new member states,
415   II,     9           |           rather than the first year of life. Special surveys are therefore
416   II,     9           |                studies demonstrate that life expectancy and ‘positive
417   II,     9           |               factors relating to adult life style. Inactivity and smoking,
418   II,     9           |                including those in later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic
419   II,     9           |              the result of an unhealthy life style. WHO’s 1996 ‘The Global
420   II,     9           |           capacity more likely in later life. In some countries, people
421   II,     9           |             clearly linked to a shorter life span and poorer health in
422   II,     9.  1.  1   |             deaths in the first year of life.~ ~Table 9.1.1.3. Infant
423   II,     9.  1.  2   |                impact on the quality of life of affected children and
424   II,     9.  1.  2   |              loss of potential years of life and emotional costs to the
425   II,     9.  1.  2   |            participation and quality of life of affected individuals
426   II,     9.  1.  2   |                within the first year of life are the focus of epidemiological
427   II,     9.  1.  2   |                the first three years of life are accessed (Dolk et al,
428   II,     9.  1.  2   |             women bear children late in life in the new member states,
429   II,     9.  1.  2   |           rather than the first year of life. Special surveys are therefore
430   II,     9.  1.  2   |         survival, morbidity, quality of life and participation. Longitudinal
431   II,     9.  1.  2   |             terms of health, quality of life and participation.~ ~
432   II,     9.  2.  1   |               of the importance of this life stage of childhood. Thus,
433   II,     9.  2.  1   |                 the first five years of life, while social and behavioural
434   II,     9.  2.  2   |              Child Health Indicators of Life and Development (CHILD),
435   II,     9.  2.  6   |           renewed outbreaks.~ ~In later life, the health and development
436   II,     9.  2.  7   |               eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/nutrition/platform/
437   II,     9.  2.  7   |                 Toward A Child-Centered Life Course Perspective On Family
438   II,     9.  2.  7   |           Structures: Multi-State Early Life Tables Using FFS Data. Population
439   II,     9.  3.  1   |                years of age, the gap in life expectancy, as compared
440   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 for this male to female life expectancy gap occurs in
441   II,     9.  3.  1   |             determinants of the shorter life expectancy in men are most
442   II,     9.  3.  1   |               women, men have a reduced life expectancy coupled with
443   II,     9.  3.  1   |                a decrease in quality of life and an increase in the risk
444   II,     9.  3.  1   |        Menopause is a time in a woman’s life when the primary healthcare
445   II,     9.  3.  1   |      climacteric or presenting later in life are attributable to menopause
446   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 to 60 years, the gap in life expectancy, as compared
447   II,     9.  3.  1   |             brings a loss of quality of life for those affected and their
448   II,     9.  3.  1   |                important contributor to life years lost when it occurs
449   II,     9.  3.  1   |              There is a suggestion that life expectancy without disability
450   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  suggest that increased life expectancy does not bring
451   II,     9.  3.  1   |               rate for the remainder of life. The mechanism of how loss
452   II,     9.  3.  1   |         approximately 10 years later in life than their female counterparts.
453   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 osteoporosis throughout life. Avoidance of tobacco use
454   II,     9.  3.  1   |           change over time during adult life. Changes that represent
455   II,     9.  3.  1   |               brain function throughout life, but there is little evidence
456   II,     9.  3.  1   |               disability and quality of life which result in a significant
457   II,     9.  3.  1   |               repercussions on everyday life, such as sexual difficulties,
458   II,     9.  3.  1   |                studies demonstrate that life expectancy and ‘positive
459   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 at European level.~ ~As life expectancy continues to
460   II,     9.  3.  1   |              and improve the quality of life in women as they age through
461   II,     9.  3.  1   |           conflict on the gender gap in life expectancy. International
462   II,     9.  3.  3   |                 fulfilling and safe sex life is central to achievements
463   II,     9.  3.  3   |                 most frequently at this life stage.~ ~Sexual behaviour
464   II,     9.  3.  3   |                 sexual partner in their life so far (Layte et al, 2006),
465   II,     9.  3.  3   |               or more partners in their life so far, compared to 21%
466   II,     9.  3.  3   |               risky behaviours in adult life (Signorelli et al, 2006).~ ~
467   II,     9.  3.  3   |              satisfying and safe sexual life, which is positively enriching
468   II,     9.  4.  1   |              ageing on one’s quality of life and the increased longevity
469   II,     9.  4.  1   |            experience a high quality of life in the years to come.~ ~
470   II,     9.  4.  1   |                 60% of which are women. Life expectancy for women in
471   II,     9.  4.  1   |                 the experience of later life. It is important for perceptions
472   II,     9.  4.  3   |               influences the quality of life. Men are more likely to
473   II,     9.  4.  3   |               limitation in their daily life activities.~ ~Depression
474   II,     9.  4.  3   |         consequence of illness in later life. A reduction of in-hospital
475   II,     9.  4.  3   |                estimate disability-free life expectancy. The most recent
476   II,     9.  4.  3   |         disability (WHO, 1999). Data on life expectancy without disability
477   II,     9.  4.  3   |               limited, but suggest that life expectancy without disability
478   II,     9.  4.  3   |                 suggests that increased life expectancy is not accompanied
479   II,     9.  4.  4   |               factors relating to adult life style. Inactivity and smoking,
480   II,     9.  4.  4   |                including those in later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic
481   II,     9.  4.  4   |              the result of an unhealthy life style. WHO’s 1996 ‘The Global
482   II,     9.  4.  4   |           capacity more likely in later life. In some countries, people
483   II,     9.  4.  4   |             clearly linked to a shorter life span and poorer health in
484   II,     9.  4.  5   |              often complicated in later life by other pathologies and
485   II,     9.  4.  5   |             typical female advantage in life expectancy over males ranges
486   II,     9.  4.  5   |                Playing a part in family life and being a member of a
487   II,     9.  4.  5   |            positive effect on community life and the quality of life
488   II,     9.  4.  5   |                 life and the quality of life of the more vulnerable members
489   II,     9.  4.  5   |              later years of their adult life. In some societies, social
490   II,     9.  4.  5   |               Important inequalities in life expectancy and overall health
491   II,     9.  4.  5   |                The gender difference in life expectancy is also smaller
492   II,     9.  4.  5   |                the stages of a person’s life. People of all ages with
493   II,     9.  4.  5   |         healthier and higher quality of life for a longer time. At present,
494   II,     9.  4.  6   |              led to a steep increase in life expectancy for both men
495   II,     9.  4.  6   |               However, this increase in life expectancy has also led
496   II,     9.  4.  6   |          economic as well as quality of life related consequences not
497   II,     9.  4.  6   |            EuropeFocus on quality of life initiatives that support
498   II,     9.  5.  1   |               than men although women’s life expectancy is higher. As
499   II,     9.  5.  1   |               between men’s and women’s life expectancy is low by historical
500   II,     9.  5.  1   |               necessities for a healthy life. The overwhelming majority