1-500 | 501-731
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4    |              smaller among women than among men; and~· inequalities in mortality
  2    I,     2.  4    |                   birth (4 to 6 years among men, 2 to 4 years among women).
  3    I,     2.  4    |                   all countries, both among men and women. Among men, the
  4    I,     2.  4    |                  among men and women. Among men, the excess mortality ranged
  5    I,     2.  4    |                Estonia), particularly among men. This is probably due to
  6    I,     2.  5    |                 type of jobs carried out by men and women, the type of employment
  7    I,     2.  5    |                    factors. More women than men work in jobs where the demands
  8    I,     2.  6    |                   There are more women than men enrolled in ISCED in 5 level
  9    I,     2.  6    |                markedly (EUROSTAT, 2008).~ ~Men represent the majority of
 10    I,     2.  6    |                under 40%. Women outnumbered men, however, in the three Southern
 11    I,     2.  6    |                    6 programmes compared to men increased in nearly all
 12    I,     2.  6    |                 where women still outnumber men (EUROSTAT, 2008).~ ~In 2004,
 13    I,     2.  6    |                 enrolments. More women than men graduated in 2004 in all
 14    I,     2.  6    |               completing their studies were men. Men also outnumbered women
 15    I,     2.  6    |                     their studies were men. Men also outnumbered women in
 16    I,     2.  6    |                  and Bulgaria. The share of men among graduates at this
 17    I,     2.  6    |                education in which women and men successfully complete the
 18    I,     2.  6    |                 ISCED level 5, outnumbering men by more than three to one
 19    I,     2. 11    |                       The life of women and men in Europe 2008 edition.
 20    I,     3.  1    |                level of 15% or over.~ ~More men than women remain without
 21    I,     3.  1    |                     ever-marriage-rates for men than for women (Toulemon,
 22   II,     4.  1    |                    these quantities between men and women, the gender gaps.~ ~
 23   II,     4.  1    |                 EU25 reached 61.1 years for men and 63.0 years for women.
 24   II,     4.  1    |                     expectancy at birth for men and women, respectively (
 25   II,     4.  1    |                      at almost 76 years for men and 82 years for women (
 26   II,     4.  1    |          limitations, close to 15 years for men and 19 years for women including
 27   II,     4.  1    |                 average 6 years longer than men but most of these additional
 28   II,     4.  1    |                     at 50 is 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for women
 29   II,     4.  1    |                      women live longer than men, 4.9 years on average, but
 30   II,     4.  1    |                 still reaches 8.8 years for men and 9.9 years for women,
 31   II,     4.  1    |                   total life expectancy for men and women respectively.
 32   II,     4.  1    |                     and women respectively. Men in the EU25 spend a greater
 33   II,     4.  1    |                     among all countries for men and women. If we consider
 34   II,     4.  1    |                  signify expansion then for men, Austria, Belgium, Finland,
 35   II,     4.  1    |                     showing compression for men and women and the Netherlands
 36   II,     4.  1    |                 older women more than older men) (Robine and Michel, 2004).~ ~
 37   II,     4.  1    |                    the EU27, by 3 years for men and by 2 years for women,
 38   II,     4.  1    |                  years (13.2 years gap) for men and from 76.5 years to 84.
 39   II,     4.  1    |                  years (20.5 years gap) for men and from 52.2 years to 70.
 40   II,     4.  1    |                  years (14.5 years gap) for men and from 10.4 years to 24.
 41   II,     4.  1    |                   Union in 2005 (EU25), for men and women, in the different
 42   II,     4.  1    |                Severe Limitations, in 2005, Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy,
 43   II,     4.  1    |                     of disability), between men and women and between Member
 44   II,     4.  1    |                   2005. Around 20% (19% for men and 23% for women) of the
 45   II,     4.  1    |                   to live 6 years more than men. They will also live 4 years
 46   II,     4.  1    |                still reaches 17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for women,
 47   II,     4.  1    |                  birth is over 13 years for men and over 7 years for women.
 48   II,     4.  1    |                    wider: over 20 years for men and 18 years for women in
 49   II,     4.  1    |                   gaps reach 14.5 years for men and 13.7 years for women,
 50   II,     4.  1    |                     is almost identical for men in the USA and in EU27 but
 51   II,     4.  2    |                favourably, particularly for men, but in recent years life
 52   II,     4.  2    |                    been differences between men and women, and the underlying
 53   II,     4.  2    |                   years per decade for both men and women. However, the
 54   II,     4.  2    |                differed for both sexes. For men, the rate of increase has
 55   II,     4.  2    |                    years), but similarly to men the highest increase was
 56   II,     4.  2    |                  the EU15 average. For both men and women during the 1970s
 57   II,     4.  2    |                    expectancy at birth: for men one third of the increase
 58   II,     4.  2    |                     in life expectancy. For men, age groups 65-74 contributed
 59   II,     4.  2    |                   fifth of the increase for men was caused by the decline
 60   II,     4.  2    |            mortality decline was larger for men in their sixties and for
 61   II,     4.  2    |             expectancy can be attributed to men in their sixties and seventies
 62   II,     4.  2    |                 countries, particularly for men. In several Eastern countries
 63   II,     4.  2    |              Eastern countries mortality of men in their fifties and sixties
 64   II,     4.  2    |                since 1970. In the 1970s for men the decline in mortality
 65   II,     4.  2    |               considerably smaller than for men. A considerable part of
 66   II,     4.  2    |                   increased to 50% for both men and women. Whereas for men
 67   II,     4.  2    |                  men and women. Whereas for men the decrease in mortality
 68   II,     4.  2    |             increase in life expectancy for men. In addition, in the 1990s
 69   II,     4.  2    |                  addition, in the 1990s for men the decline in mortality
 70   II,     4.  2    |                decline in the percentage of men smoking since the 1970s,
 71   II,     4.  2    |                  for women in contrast with men, due to the fact that number
 72   II,     4.  2    |                 level), while the one among men decreased.~ ~Table 4.2.2.
 73   II,     4.  2    |                impact on life expectancy of men in 9 out of the 13 countries.
 74   II,     4.  2    |             negative effect on mortality of men in their thirties and forties.
 75   II,     4.  2    |            accidents decreased strongly for men in Greece and Portugal.
 76   II,     4.  2    |               accidents on the mortality of men is larger than that on women.
 77   II,     4.  2    |                mortality due to cancer, for men more than for women, and
 78   II,     4.  2    |                     than for women, and for men earlier than for women.
 79   II,     4.  2    |                    The table shows that for men in 7 out of the 13 selected
 80   II,     4.  2    |                    13 countries. For Polish men and Dutch women the effect
 81   II,     4.  2    |                 expectancy in the 1980s for men in 8 out of the 13 selected
 82   II,     4.  2    |                 effect was smaller than for men. As in most countries men
 83   II,     4.  2    |                   men. As in most countries men started to smoke less in
 84   II,     4.  2    |                 started to smoke later than men, the negative effect of
 85   II,     4.  2    |                     occurred later than for men. For women in the 1990s,
 86   II,     4.  2    |                   life expectancy at 65 for men in the 1990s was higher
 87   II,     4.  2    |                    Eastern EU countries for men there is no indication at
 88   II,     4.  2    |                  1990s was smaller than for men, whereas in all countries
 89   II,     4.  2    |                   1980s was higher than for men. Also after 2000 the increase
 90   II,     4.  2    |              appears to be smaller than for men. Thus there seems to be
 91   II,     4.  2    |                 considerably lower than for men, but in recent years the
 92   II,     4.  2    |               recent years the increase for men is larger than that for
 93   II,     4.  2    |               hardly any difference between men and women.~ ~Table 4.2.7.
 94   II,     4.  2    |                     since 1970, women~ ~For men there appears to be no significant
 95   II,     4.  2    |                development in mortality for men in Eastern European countries.~ ~
 96   II,     4.  2    |                average increase since 1970, men.~ ~If Eastern European countries
 97   II,     4.  2    |                 Eastern European Countries, men.~ ~If we exclude Eastern
 98   II,     4.  2    |              convergence will continue, for men it will take some 40 years
 99   II,     5.  1.  1|              average (2001-2003), EU27B) Men.~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.1.1. Risk
100   II,     5.  1.  1|                     of alcoholic drinks (in men), body fatness and abdominal
101   II,     5.  1.  1|                    of smoking as compare to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although
102   II,     5.  1.  1|                   first cancer diagnosed in men in Eastern and Southern
103   II,     5.  2.  1|                   EU. In the EU, one in six men and one in seven women currently
104   II,     5.  2.  1|                disease (IHD) and one in ten men and one in eight women die
105   II,     5.  2.  1|                     an increasing number of men and women living with CVD.
106   II,     5.  2.  1|                   all-cause mortality) than men (43% of all-cause mortality) (
107   II,     5.  2.  1|               deaths every year (one in six men and over one in seven women).
108   II,     5.  2.  1|                     year: around one in ten men and one in eight women die
109   II,     5.  2.  3|               deaths every year: one in six men and one in seven women die
110   II,     5.  2.  3|                  IHD mortality is higher in men than in women but still
111   II,     5.  2.  3|               Mortality rates are higher in men than in women and percentages
112   II,     5.  2.  3|               almost eight times higher (in men 72 deaths per 100.000 in
113   II,     5.  2.  3|                 Mortality trends for IHD in men are shown in Figure 5.2.
114   II,     5.  2.  3|               diseases (codes ICD-9 410-14) Men aged 35-74 years~ ~Figure
115   II,     5.  2.  3|                     discharge diagnoses for men and women of all ages combined
116   II,     5.  2.  3|    revascularization procedures – All ages. Men and women combined (year
117   II,     5.  2.  3|                    28-day case fatality for men and women aged 35-64 years.
118   II,     5.  2.  3|              Southern Europe countries; for men living in Warsaw it was
119   II,     5.  2.  3|                     10-year registration in men and women aged 35-64 years;
120   II,     5.  2.  3|                   rates are much higher for men than for women; mortality
121   II,     5.  2.  3|                     been falling faster for men than for women. Faster declining
122   II,     5.  2.  3|               declining mortality rates for men have narrowed the gap with
123   II,     5.  2.  3|                     year. Around one in ten men and one in eight women die
124   II,     5.  2.  3|               Stroke mortality is higher in men than in women in most countries
125   II,     5.  2.  3|                 mortality rates per 100.000 men and women aged 35-74 and
126   II,     5.  2.  3|                   84 - 3 years average~ ~In men, mortality rate varies from
127   II,     5.  2.  3|                stroke events double in both men and women: this demonstrates
128   II,     5.  2.  3|              Mortality trends for stroke in men are shown in Figure 5.2.
129   II,     5.  2.  3|              disease (codes ICD-9 430-38) - Men aged 35-84 years~ ~Similar
130   II,     5.  2.  3|                hospital discharge rates for men and women of all ages combined
131   II,     5.  2.  3|                    28-day case fatality for men and women aged 35-64 are
132   II,     5.  2.  3|                    10- year surveillance in men and women aged 35-64; 28-
133   II,     5.  2.  3|                     in stroke mortality for men and women in Eastern Europe.
134   II,     5.  2.  4|                     higher in women than in men. These data have been collected
135   II,     5.  2.  4|                  this trend is changing. In men, smoking is generally higher
136   II,     5.  2.  4|              prevalence of hypertension for men and women of different age
137   II,     5.  2.  4| hypercholesterolemia in 27 EU countries for men and women of different age
138   II,     5.  2.  4|                habit in 27 EU countries for men and women of different age
139   II,     5.  2.  4|                      in 27 EU countries for men and women of different age
140   II,     5.  2.  4|              alcohol intake (20-30 g/day in men and 10-20 g/day in women)
141   II,     5.  2.  4|                    mmol/L) and BMI (Kg/m2 ) men and women aged 35-64 years~ ~
142   II,     5.  2.  5|                     CVD mortality rates for men aged 35-64 had dropped by
143   II,     5.  2.  6|                     to reduce smoking among men and prevent increase among
144   II,     5.  2.  6|             association is observed both in men and in women, at any age,
145   II,     5.  2.  6|                 disease: characteristics of men aged 40-59 in seven countries.
146   II,     5.  2.  6|                    and mortality in elderly men (the Zutphen Elderly Study).
147   II,     5.  2.  7|               stroke incidence in women and men: findings on 12 Italian
148   II,     5.  2.  7|              disease incidence in women and men: results from the Progetto
149   II,     5.  3.  3|               incidence estimates trends in men and women separated by broad
150   II,     5.  3.  3|                  Cancer mortality trends in men and women separately by
151   II,     5.  3.  3|                  year relative survival for men and women. This indicator
152   II,     5.  3.  4|                     of alcoholic drinks (in men), body fatness and abdominal
153   II,     5.  3.  4|             patterns of smoking compared to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although
154   II,     5.  3.  4|                   first cancer diagnosed in men in Eastern and Southern
155   II,     5.  3.  5|                    estimated in Hungary for men (599 new cases per 100,000)
156   II,     5.  3.  5|                    estimated in Hungary for men (364 deaths per 100,000)
157   II,     5.  3.  5|                  were in Western Europe for men (482 new cases per 100,000,
158   II,     5.  3.  5|              reported in Eastern Europe for men (287 deaths per 100,000,
159   II,     5.  3.  5|                rates are increasing both in men and in women for all macro-areas.
160   II,     5.  3.  5|                 mortality is decreasing for men with the exception of Eastern
161   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.1b. All cancer (
162   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.2b. Trends of
163   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.3b. All cancer (
164   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.4b. Trends of
165   II,     5.  3.  5|                  estimated in Macedonia for men (37 new cases per 100,000)
166   II,     5.  3.  5|                  estimated in Lithuania for men (29 deaths per 100,000)
167   II,     5.  3.  5|                   with GDP levels, both for men and women (Figures 5.3.5
168   II,     5.  3.  5|                     are decreasing both for men and women in all macro-areas
169   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.5b. Stomach cancer (
170   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.6b. Trends of
171   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.7b. Stomach cancer (
172   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.8b. Trends of
173   II,     5.  3.  5|                    estimated in Hungary for men (106 new cases per 100,000)
174   II,     5.  3.  5|                 other macro-areas) both for men and women (Figures 5.3.10) (
175   II,     5.  3.  5|                    5.3.10) (65 new cases in men and 41 new cases per 100,
176   II,     5.  3.  5|                     rest of Europe both for men (over 40 deaths per 100,
177   II,     5.  3.  5|                   Eastern Europe mainly for men (Figure 5.3.10a). Male mortality
178   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.9b. Colorectal
179   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.10b. Trends of
180   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.11b. Colorectal
181   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.12b. Trends of
182   II,     5.  3.  5|                   the most common cancer of men, while in women incidence
183   II,     5.  3.  5|                    the worst performance in men (119 new cases and 110 deaths
184   II,     5.  3.  5|                   of other macro-areas) for men in 2006 (92 new cases and
185   II,     5.  3.  5|                     lung cancer epidemic in men, although incidence and
186   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.13b. Lung cancer (
187   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.14b. Trends of
188   II,     5.  3.  5|                 standard) by sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.15b. Lung cancer (
189   II,     5.  3.  5|                European standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.16b. Trends of
190   II,     5.  3.  6|                    had better survival than men. Countries with 5-year relative
191   II,     5.  3.  6|                survival higher then 40% for men and 55% for women were Northern
192   II,     5.  3.  6|                   with similar GDP both for men and women. Lower levels
193   II,     5.  3.  6|                    to 31st December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.29b. All cancers (
194   II,     5.  3.  6|                    survival groups both for men and women: on the one hand,
195   II,     5.  3.  6|                     higher in women than in men in most countries.~Data
196   II,     5.  3.  6|                    to 31st December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.30b. Stomach
197   II,     5.  3.  6|                   31) was over than 48% for men and 50% for women in Finland,
198   II,     5.  3.  6|             Slovakia and Slovenia) both for men and women. Survival in the
199   II,     5.  3.  6|                 1994, improving equally for men and women, younger and older
200   II,     5.  3.  6|                    to 31st December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.31b. Colorectal
201   II,     5.  3.  6|                   relative survival ~10% in men and women (Figures 5.3.32).
202   II,     5.  3.  6|               Europe increased from 7.5% in men diagnosed in 19831985 to
203   II,     5.  3.  6|                    to 31st December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.32b. Lung cancer (
204   II,     5.  3.  7|                    3 years of interval) and men and women aged 50 to 74
205   II,     5.  4.  1|                   average, more than 30% of men with diabetes report erectile
206   II,     5.  4.  2|           cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.25 mmol/l for women
207   II,     5.  4.  2|                   cholesterol below 1.0 for men and 1.25 mmol/l for women.~
208   II,     5.  4.  3|           cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.25 mmol/l for women.
209   II,     5.  4.  3|                  The percentage is lower in men than in women. The influence
210   II,     5.  5.Int|                     twice as susceptible as men8. Disadvantaged groups face
211   II,     5.  5.Int|            experiencing domestic abuse than men; this can result in high
212   II,     5.  5.Int|             depression in women compared to men, even when before similar
213   II,     5.  5.Int|                altering psychotropic drugs. Men are more likely to seek
214   II,     5.  5.Int|                 depression in women than in men in almost all studies15.~ ~
215   II,     5.  5.Int|                increase in women but not in men19. The EURODEM studies also
216   II,     5.  5.Int|                  significant risk factor in men.~ ~Schizophrenia in the
217   II,     5.  5.  1|                  prevalence is 9% for adult men and 17% for adult women (
218   II,     5.  5.  1|                     59 000 citizens, 45 000 men and 14 000 women committed
219   II,     5.  5.  1|               higher in women (20%) than in men (13%) and increased with
220   II,     5.  5.  1|                     common in women than in men. This was particularly the
221   II,     5.  5.  1|                     women with reference to men, by country of residence.~ ~
222   II,     5.  5.  1|                 mortality rates compared to men.~ ~Mortality rates for suicide
223   II,     5.  5.  1|                     higher in EU27 for both men and female in Lithuania;
224   II,     5.  5.  1|                   Lithuania; for Lithuanian men the rate is the highest
225   II,     5.  5.  2|                     of prevalence rates for men and women in 9 different
226   II,     5.  5.  2|                      WHO) world region, for men and women combined, in five
227   II,     5.  5.  2|                     30-59 age group and for men and women separately, whereas
228   II,     5.  5.  2|                statistics were obtained for men and women separately from
229   II,     5.  5.  3|                incidence rate for women and men older than 25 remains low (
230   II,     5.  5.  3|             year-old females. 0.1% of young men are bulimic although the
231   II,     5.  5.  3|                 eating-related outcomes for men and women separately and
232   II,     5.  5.  3|                     conditions in women and men with schizophrenia compared
233   II,     5.  5.  3|                    comorbidity in women and men with schizophrenia: a population-based
234   II,     5.  5.  3|                    reported to be higher in men than in women, although
235   II,     5.  5.  3|                 distribution of epilepsy in men and women can be mostly
236   II,     5.  5.  3|                epilepsy tends to prevail in men. However, this finding is
237   II,     5.  5.  3|                     Mortality is greater in men than in women, as shown
238   II,     5.  5.  3|                PP-MS and among women versus men. A fluctuating incidence
239   II,     5.  5.  3|                   10 and 123 per 100 000 in men, with female:male ratios
240   II,     5.  5.  3|                     a higher prevalence for men: some studies found a 1.
241   II,     5.  5.  3|                two-fold higher incidence in men. ILSA Working Group. Italian
242   II,     5.  6.  3|           self-reported chronic sickness in men and women from 16 to 74
243   II,     5.  6.  3|                cause of disability for both men and women, as well as for
244   II,     5.  6.  3|                    Lawrence et al, 1998).~ ~Men are affected more often
245   II,     5.  6.  3|                   radiographic OA by age A) Men~Figure 5.6.4b. Prevalence
246   II,     5.  6.  3|                     Trauma, particularly in men, is associated with development
247   II,     5.  6.  3|                 range from 1-6 per 1000 for men and 3-12 per 1000 for women.
248   II,     5.  6.  3|                     is higher in women than men (the ratio varied from 1.
249   II,     5.  6.  3|                       Prevalence~ ~For both men and women there appears
250   II,     5.  6.  3|                     the prevalence of RA in men in Finland is reported as
251   II,     5.  6.  3|               increasingly recognized among men.~ ~Incidence~ ~The incidence
252   II,     5.  6.  3|                    and older, with rates in men of 4 and 1909 respectively (
253   II,     5.  6.  3|                     more elderly women than men). In Europe it has been
254   II,     5.  6.  3|                  hip fractures sustained by men over 50, and 711.223 by
255   II,     5.  6.  3|           incidences of 9 and 37 per 10 000 men and women respectively,
256   II,     5.  6.  3|                    greater in women than in men. About 80% of proximal humeral
257   II,     5.  6.  3|                     present in one in eight men and women aged over 50 in
258   II,     5.  6.  3|                    Vertebral deformities in men at the earlier ages may
259   II,     5.  6.  3|                     and 0.6% per year among men from the European Prospective
260   II,     5.  6.  3|                    the age of 85, whilst in men the comparable figures are
261   II,     5.  6.  3|             fractures occur after a fall in men or women with reduced bone
262   II,     5.  6.  3|             hospitalisation rates of 23% of men and 19% of women (ONeill
263   II,     5.  6.  3|                     25% in women and 35% in men (Cooper, 1997; Sernbo and
264   II,     5.  6.  3|                  people per year, affecting men a little more than women,
265   II,     5.  6.  6|                    osteoporotic fracture in men and women: an observational
266   II,     5.  6.  6|                 forearm fracture in British men and women. Osteoporos Int
267   II,     5.  7.  3|                    of ESRD statistics where men are disproportionally affected (
268   II,     5.  7.  3|                    of ESRD statistics where men are disproportionally affected (
269   II,     5.  7.  7|                    mortality in middle-aged men and women from the general
270   II,     5.  8.  3|                      Among 1711 middle-aged men of two rural Finnish cohorts,
271   II,     5.  8.  3|                   Copenhagen, Denmark, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 with
272   II,     5.  8.  3|             significant differences between men and women.~ ~Prevalence
273   II,     5.  8.  3|                   VC) % <88th percentile in men, <89th percentile in women)
274   II,     5.  8.  3|                  prevalence of GOLD-COPD in men and women respectively to:
275   II,     5.  8.  3|                    10.1% overall, 11.8% for men, and 8.5% for women (Buist
276   II,     5.  8.  3|                  with age and is greater in men than in women. Moreover,
277   II,     5.  8.  4|                      Among 1711 middle-aged men of two rural Finnish cohorts,
278   II,     5.  8.  4|                   Copenhagen, Denmark, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 with
279   II,     5.  8.  4|             significant differences between men and women. The risk of developing
280   II,     5.  8.  7|              follow-up in middle-aged rural men. Chest 2006; 130: 1129-1137.~ ~
281   II,     5.  8.  7|                 diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK. Thorax 2000;
282   II,     5.  9.  3|                    6% in women and 49.5% in men, P 001). Asthmatic patients
283   II,     5. 11.  3|                    15% of women and 2-5% of men in Europe are nickel-sensitised,
284   II,     5. 11.  3|                 occupational hand eczema in men and women in the 40 to 60
285   II,     5. 11.  3|                 2005). The disease afflicts men and women equally and is
286   II,     5. 11.  3|                   SCC was equally common in men and women, BCC were nearly
287   II,     5. 11.  3|                three times more frequent in men (Ceylan et al, 2003).~In
288   II,     5. 11.  3|                     cancer reported in both men and women. Its incidence
289   II,     5. 11.  3|                  increased substantially in men (by 42%) and in women (by
290   II,     5. 11.  3|                    cases of NMSC (19 600 in men and 19 029 in women). During
291   II,     5. 11.  3|                   BCC increased by 70.4% in men and 65% in women, while
292   II,     5. 11.  3|                   SCC increased by 13.5% in men and 18.8% in women. Head
293   II,     5. 11.  3|                   the~trunk for BCC (17% in men and 11% in women) and upper
294   II,     5. 11.  3|                 upper limbs for SCC (12% in men and 12.5% in women) (Plesko
295   II,     5. 11.  3|                     The rates are higher in men and women in Southern European
296   II,     5. 11.  3|                     mortality was higher in men in eastern and southern
297   II,     5. 12.  1|                 rates (around 30-40/100,000 men and 10-16/100,000 women)
298   II,     5. 12.  1|               lowest ones (below 10/100,000 men and 5/100,000 women) were
299   II,     5. 12.  1|              reaching rates over 58/100,000 men and 22/100,000 women in
300   II,     5. 12.  3|                     cirrhosis mortality for men and women since the 1970’
301   II,     5. 12.  3|                     rates from cirrhosis in men at all ages and at 35 to
302   II,     5. 12.  3|                  from cirrhosis per 100,000 men at all ages and at 35-64
303   II,     5. 12.  3|                    in rates.~ ~For European men, the highest rates in the
304   II,     5. 12.  3|                   were around 10-13/100,000 men in the early 1980s and around
305   II,     5. 12.  3|                   remained around 5/100,000 men throughout all the calendar
306   II,     5. 12.  3|                  2000-02 were 31-35/100,000 men. Eight European countries
307   II,     5. 12.  3|             cirrhosis mortality in European men: Denmark whose rates increased
308   II,     5. 12.  3|                  from cirrhosis in European men, although the pattern had
309   II,     5. 12.  3|                   of age) from cirrhosis in men were similar to those observed
310   II,     5. 12.  3|                rates reaching 172.2/100,000 men in Hungary and 106.1 in
311   II,     5. 12.  3|                    cirrhosis in middle-aged men (around 75/100,000).~Mortality
312   II,     5. 12.  3|                    were similar to those of men, with substantial declines
313   II,     5. 12.  3|           throughout Southern Europe. As in men, rises were observed in
314   II,     5. 12.  3|                   given in Table 5.12.3 for men and in Table 5.12.4 for
315   II,     5. 12.  3|                recent years particularly in men, with an APC between -4
316   II,     5. 12.  3|                   with an APC around +7% in men and +3% in women from England
317   II,     5. 12.  3|                    and Wales, around +9% in men and +7% in women from Scotland
318   II,     5. 12.  3|                  Scotland and around +9% in men and +4% in women from Ireland.~ ~
319   II,     5. 12.  3|                cirrhosis mortality rates in men from selected EUGLOREH countries,
320   II,     5. 13    |                countries for both women and men. According to WHO estimates,
321   II,     5. 13    |                differences can vary between men and women and in accordance
322   II,     6.  3.  3|                Europe. The HIV diagnoses in men who have sex with men declined
323   II,     6.  3.  3|                    in men who have sex with men declined until around the
324   II,     6.  3.  3|                 i.e. a rise in diagnoses in men who have sex with men and
325   II,     6.  3.  3|                    in men who have sex with men and people infected through
326   II,     6.  3.  3|                     epidemic across Europe, men who have sex with men is
327   II,     6.  3.  3|               Europe, men who have sex with men is the largest transmission
328   II,     6.  3.  3|                  national effort is needed; men who have sex with men, where
329   II,     6.  3.  3|               needed; men who have sex with men, where new methods are needed
330   II,     6.  3.  3|                 more often in women than in men (female to male ratio, 1.
331   II,     6.  3.  3|                 large European cities among men who have sex with men.~ ~ ~
332   II,     6.  3.  3|                 among men who have sex with men.~ ~ ~Gonorrhoea~ ~Gonorrhoea
333   II,     6.  3.  3|                     was 4.5 times higher in men than in women.~ ~Figure
334   II,     6.  3.  3|                   in large cities involving men who have sex with men. In
335   II,     6.  3.  3|             involving men who have sex with men. In the Baltic States (Estonia,
336   II,     6.  3.  3|                     Incidence was higher in men than in women (male to female
337   II,     6.  3.  3|                     Incidence was higher in men than women (male to female
338   II,     6.  3.  6|                     sexual contacts between men who have sex with men.~The
339   II,     6.  3.  6|               between men who have sex with men.~The incidence has been
340   II,     6.  3.  6|                   sexual transmission among men who have sex with men has
341   II,     6.  3.  6|                 among men who have sex with men has been described. A very
342   II,     7.  3.  5|                   harm in the EU27~ ~ ~More men than women commit suicide
343   II,     7.  3.  5|                     sex or age groups. More men than women are victims of
344   II,     8.  1.  3|                 estimated that about 16% of men and women aged 16-64 in
345   II,     8.  1.  3|                   are experienced by 10% of men and women aged 16-64.~ ~
346   II,     8.  1.  3|                    Slightly more women than men result limited in their
347   II,     8.  1.  3|                  more evident in women than men with considerable limitations.~ ~
348   II,     8.  1.  3|           limitations. The wage gap between men and women is also apparent
349   II,     8.  1.  3|                  apparent here: earnings of men with strong limitations
350   II,     8.  1.  3|                   In 2003 the proportion of men in working age (16-64 years)
351   II,     8.  1.  3|                     11% of women and 10% of men, who were not limited and
352   II,     8.  1.  6|                CESEP & ALPHAMETRICS (2007): Men and women with disabilities
353   II,     8.  2.  2|                 women seem more likely than men to suffer from visual impairment.
354   II,     8.  2.  2|                 women seem more likely than men to suffer from visual impairment.
355   II,     8.  2.  2|                Conditions (EU-SILC) (2007): Men and women with disabilities
356   II,     8.  2.  3|             increased prevalence in Italian men associated with manual occupations
357   II,     8.  2.  3|                     loss was more marked in men (Odd Ratios males/females
358   II,     8.  2.  3|                Conditions (EU-SILC) (2007): Men and women with disabilities
359   II,     9        |            teenagers. In Northern countries men and women have their first
360   II,     9        |                    are similar in women and men and include dyslipidemia,
361   II,     9        |               events in women as well as in men. For some of these therapies,
362   II,     9        |                     be similar in women and men. For example, meta-analysis
363   II,     9        |               percent reduction observed in men. At present, prevention
364   II,     9        |                  women are more likely than men to die of stroke. The main
365   II,     9        |                   25% of mortality in young men (as compared to 10% in women).
366   II,     9        |           considerable proportions of older men and women could be at risk
367   II,     9.  2.  3|             significantly younger ages than men. Girls are more likely than
368   II,     9.  2.  4|            teenagers. In Northern countries men and women have their first
369   II,     9.  3.  1|                     1.1. Introduction~ ~For men who survive up to 60 years
370   II,     9.  3.  1|              overall rate is much higher in men (White & Holmes, 2006).
371   II,     9.  3.  1|                     of the excess deaths in men to account for this male
372   II,     9.  3.  1|               conditions that should affect men and women equally.~ ~The
373   II,     9.  3.  1|                  only partially account for men’s increased susceptibility
374   II,     9.  3.  1|                  country variations seen in men’s health or the effect of
375   II,     9.  3.  1|                  shorter life expectancy in men are most certainly not biological,
376   II,     9.  3.  1|         differentially the health status of men and women is provided in
377   II,     9.  3.  1|                       As compared to women, men have a reduced life expectancy
378   II,     9.  3.  1|                 between countries and among men of different socio-economic
379   II,     9.  3.  1|            socio-economic status. Moreover, men have an increased risk of
380   II,     9.  3.  1|                  and premature mortality in men, as compared to women, underlying
381   II,     9.  3.  1|                    research work focused on men and their health much before
382   II,     9.  3.  1|                 study made on the status of men’s health across Europe (
383   II,     9.  3.  1|                 been no EU funded report on men’s health. To date the only
384   II,     9.  3.  1|                    study that has looked at men’s health across Europe was
385   II,     9.  3.  1|                commissioned by the European Men’s Health Forum (White &
386   II,     9.  3.  1|                   ten women and four in ten men die before becoming 65 years
387   II,     9.  3.  1|              poisoning (Table 9.3.1.1). For men who survive up to 60 years,
388   II,     9.  3.  1|                      In the 15-64 age group men have four times the rate
389   II,     9.  3.  1|                   EU about 20 billion Euro. Men have more accidents than
390   II,     9.  3.  1|                mental health experienced by men and women. Depression and
391   II,     9.  3.  1|                     twice as susceptible as men (European Commission, 2004b).
392   II,     9.  3.  1|                 depression in women than in men in almost all studies.~ ~
393   II,     9.  3.  1|            experiencing domestic abuse than men, leading to high rates of
394   II,     9.  3.  1|             depression in women compared to men, even when they have similar
395   II,     9.  3.  1|                altering psychotropic drugs. Men are more likely to seek
396   II,     9.  3.  1|                  There is a suggestion that men suffering from emotional
397   II,     9.  3.  1|                 2004) and helps explain why men show a greater tendency
398   II,     9.  3.  1|               coupled with the problem that men are less likely than women
399   II,     9.  3.  1|                  are generally higher among men than among women, but rates
400   II,     9.  3.  1|                      There are overall more men registered with cancer than
401   II,     9.  3.  1|       gender-specific cancers are excluded, men develop cancer earlier and
402   II,     9.  3.  1|                women. It is also noted that men also have lower survival
403   II,     9.  3.  1|                 presumed that the causes of men’s increased risk are lifestyle
404   II,     9.  3.  1|                    cause of cancer death in men and the third most common
405   II,     9.  3.  1|            cardiovascular disease (European Men’s Health Forum, 2005). CVD
406   II,     9.  3.  1|                  about ten years later than men, as women are protected
407   II,     9.  3.  1|             suggested that fewer women than men with suspected acute heart
408   II,     9.  3.  1|                 tests, and fewer women than men who test positive for heart
409   II,     9.  3.  1|                  later age in women than in men, women are more likely to
410   II,     9.  3.  1|                cardiovascular disease among men increased from the 15-24
411   II,     9.  3.  1|             inter-country differences among men: in Europe, per 100 000
412   II,     9.  3.  1|                 reported causes of death in men aged 15-34 as deaths due
413   II,     9.  3.  1|                  highest mortality for both men and women, while Dutch males
414   II,     9.  3.  1|                    7 000 deaths per year in men and women in England and
415   II,     9.  3.  1|                     a greater prevalence in men, the condition is easily
416   II,     9.  3.  1|                     screening programme for men aged 65 will be implemented
417   II,     9.  3.  1|                years.~ ~Diabetes~ ~For both men and women, the proportion
418   II,     9.  3.  1|               result of a growing number of men and women with abdominal
419   II,     9.  3.  1|               diseases (CHD) mortality than men with diabetes. Of subjects
420   II,     9.  3.  1|                  blood pressure compared to men (Duggirala et al, 2005).
421   II,     9.  3.  1|                     obesity is an issue for men, with a distinction being
422   II,     9.  3.  1|                   with the recognition that men have on average twice the
423   II,     9.  3.  1|                      2002) also states that men are at ‘specific risk’ (
424   II,     9.  3.  1|            vulnerable to HIV infection than men. Thirteen per cent of cases
425   II,     9.  3.  1|             significantly younger ages than men. While both young girls
426   II,     9.  3.  1|                    UNAIDS has observed that men and women living with AIDS,
427   II,     9.  3.  1|                    and 4.4. times higher in men than women. Up to 80% of
428   II,     9.  3.  1|                     80% of women and 10% of men affected by gonorrhea are
429   II,     9.  3.  1|                three women and one in eight men over the age of 50 are affected
430   II,     9.  3.  1|                  the world. More women than men are affected. The overall
431   II,     9.  3.  1|                     Worldwide for women and men, about 1.26 million hip
432   II,     9.  3.  1|                      Though more women than men develop osteoporosis, men
433   II,     9.  3.  1|                   men develop osteoporosis, men appear to be at a much greater
434   II,     9.  3.  1|                contributing to the problem. Men, tend to have larger accrual
435   II,     9.  3.  1|                  puberty; as a consequence, men tend to suffer bone fractures
436   II,     9.  3.  1|                  their female counterparts. Men's clinical condition at
437   II,     9.  3.  1|                     year mortality rate for men following hip fracture is
438   II,     9.  3.  1|                   are more older women than men falling, men have a higher
439   II,     9.  3.  1|                     women than men falling, men have a higher mortality
440   II,     9.  3.  1|                    age related condition in men with the condition found
441   II,     9.  3.  1|                 with the condition found in men undergoing glucocorticoid
442   II,     9.  3.  1|             prostate cancer, which for many men involves androgen ablation
443   II,     9.  3.  1|             significance of osteoporosis in men is that, as it tends to
444   II,     9.  3.  1|                    for menopausal women and men with osteoporosis. Now there
445   II,     9.  3.  1|                   extent of incontinence in men is unknown but is less common
446   II,     9.  3.  1|                   is less common in younger men though of a greater incidence
447   II,     9.  3.  1|                  greater incidence in older men than previously thought (
448   II,     9.  3.  1|               affects women more often than men. Some observational studies
449   II,     9.  3.  1|                  over the actual numbers of men who do suffer from ED, it
450   II,     9.  3.  1|                    a 2.3% incidence rate in men aged 30-39, 9.5% aged 40-
451   II,     9.  3.  1|             predicted that that 152 million men suffer from erectile dysfunction
452   II,     9.  3.  1|                    clear starting point, in men the same process of reduced
453   II,     9.  3.  1|                signs of deficiency. In most men, androgen deficiency is
454   II,     9.  3.  1|              secretion occurring in elderly men. More recently, Late Onset
455   II,     9.  3.  1|                     to identify those older men who are candidates for androgen
456   II,     9.  3.  1|               because they live longer than men, women are more likely to
457   II,     9.  3.  1|                     affects more women than men, older age and female gender
458   II,     9.  3.  1|             affected (75-80% of cases) than men. The disease has significant
459   II,     9.  3.  1|                    are similar in women and men and include dyslipidemia,
460   II,     9.  3.  1|               events in women as well as in men. For some of these therapies,
461   II,     9.  3.  1|                     be similar in women and men. For example, meta-analysis
462   II,     9.  3.  1|               percent reduction observed in men. At present, prevention
463   II,     9.  3.  1|                  women are more likely than men to die of stroke. The main
464   II,     9.  3.  1|                   25% of mortality in young men (as compared to 10% in women).
465   II,     9.  3.  1|                   dont cry: depression and men. Advances in Psychiatric
466   II,     9.  3.  1|                build': hidden depression in men. Australian and New Zealand
467   II,     9.  3.  1|                  Equality between Women and Men. Brussels~ ~European Community/
468   II,     9.  3.  1|                      2004): Osteoporosis in Men. In Kirby, R.S Carson, CC,
469   II,     9.  3.  1|                       Farah, RN, (Editors), Men's Health 2nd Ed. London:
470   II,     9.  3.  1|               General Medicine; 6: 3: 49.~ ~Men and Gender Equality Policy.
471   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Barriers to help-seeking by men: a review of sociocultural
472   II,     9.  3.  1|               Screening for Osteoporosis in Men: A Clinical Practice Guideline
473   II,     9.  3.  1|                   48-52.~ ~White AK (2006): Men and mental wellbeing: encouraging
474   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Cash K (2003): The state of men’s health across 17 European
475   II,     9.  3.  1|                      Brussels, The European Men’s Health Forum ISBN 1 –
476   II,     9.  3.  1|                   across 44 Countries among men and women aged 15-44. Journal
477   II,     9.  3.  1|                women aged 15-44. Journal of Men’s Health & Gender 3(2):
478   II,     9.  3.  1|                     the Expert Symposium on Men and Cancer. The Men’s Health
479   II,     9.  3.  1|            Symposium on Men and Cancer. The Men’s Health Forum: London,~ ~
480   II,     9.  3.  3|              behaviour surveys include both men and women. Some surveys
481   II,     9.  3.  3|                     of partners reported by men greatly exceeds that reported
482   II,     9.  3.  3|                   women under-report and/or men over report and many other
483   II,     9.  3.  3|                    activity begins for most men and women at around 15-19
484   II,     9.  3.  3|                  but age variations between men and women in different countries
485   II,     9.  3.  3|                 cohorts. The median age for men currently aged 60 to 64
486   II,     9.  3.  3|                     among women compared to men, especially in Southern
487   II,     9.  3.  3|                  earlier for women than for men in the youngest cohorts (
488   II,     9.  3.  3|              remains close to 20, while for men it is around 18. Men were
489   II,     9.  3.  3|                    for men it is around 18. Men were more than twice as
490   II,     9.  3.  3|                 2008).~ ~ ~All over Europe, men and women graduates have
491   II,     9.  3.  3|                  and among Dutch and German men. In Portugal, graduates
492   II,     9.  3.  3|                 period became six years for men and four for women in the
493   II,     9.  3.  3|                    on average, one in three men in the 20-24 age group had
494   II,     9.  3.  3|                  Ireland, around a third of men and over a half of women
495   II,     9.  3.  3|                   2006), while a quarter of men and 6% of women have had
496   II,     9.  3.  3|                     about 11 to about 9 for men and has slightly increased
497   II,     9.  3.  3|            prevalence of multiple partners, men also report casual sex contacts
498   II,     9.  3.  3|                  sex among women than among men.~ ~Condom use~ ~The proportion
499   II,     9.  3.  3|                   intercourse is higher for men than for women~ ~According
500   II,     9.  3.  3|                noted that the percentage of men and women making use of