1-500 | 501-722
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |              on behalf of the European Commission and/or Member States nor
  2    -,     1            |             Consumers" of the European Commission (Grant Agreement n. 2005115) (
  3    -,     1            |           States and with the European Commission. Furthermore, the Report
  4    -,     1            |               homepage of the European Commission D. G. Health and Consumers (
  5    I,     2.  2        |        Enlarged Communityupdates the Commission’s first analysis of the
  6    I,     2.  4        |             Social Inclusion (European Commission, 2008), social and economic
  7    I,     2.  4        |                 Moreover, the European Commission also released the Communication
  8    I,     2.  5        |                  In 2004, the European Commission, DG Employment and Social
  9    I,     2.  5        |                edition of the European Commission’s Employment in Europe report,
 10    I,     2.  5        |           According to recent European Commission’s figures, there are three
 11    I,     2.  6        |            percentage points (European Commission, 2006).~While education
 12    I,     2.  6        |               at lower level (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Considering the
 13    I,     2. 10.  3    |              another Member State. The Commission intends to support a common
 14    I,     2. 10.  3    |             relevant. In parallel, the Commission intends to set up European-wide
 15    I,     2. 10.  3    |               On-line health services. Commission and Member States will ensure
 16    I,     2. 10.  3    |               the e-TEN programme. The Commission will monitor actions taken
 17    I,     2. 10.  4(14)|              EU Border 2006”, European Commission, May 2007.~
 18    I,     2. 11        |           accessed 21.11.06).~European Commission (2006): European Economy.
 19    I,     2. 11        |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2008): Joint Report on
 20    I,     3.Acr        |              EUROSTAT data~GCIM Global Commission on International Migration~
 21    I,     3.  2        |            Integration of the European Commission points out that migrations
 22    I,     3.  4        |            Available at: htt ~ ~Global Commission on International Migration (
 23   II,     4.  1        |              50% by 2010, the European Commission introduced in 2004, under
 24   II,     4.  1        |           Spring European Council, the Commission emphasised that increasing
 25   II,     4.  1        |                people into employment (Commission of the European Communities,
 26   II,     4.  1        |            across other sectors in the Commission. It is also worth noting
 27   II,     4.  1        |                Several services of the Commission (DG Heath and Consumers
 28   II,     4.  3        |           Report 45(11-Sup 2): 1-80.~ ~Commission of the European Communities (
 29   II,     4.  3        |               Communities (2005): 2005 Commission Communication to the Spring
 30   II,     5.  2.  5    |               called upon the European Commission as well as the Member States
 31   II,     5.  2.  5    |                support of the European Commission, the World Health Organization (
 32   II,     5.  3.  2    |              addresses to the European Commission Network of Competent Authorities
 33   II,     5.  3.  2    |              is funded by the European Commission to address inequalities
 34   II,     5.  3.  2    |             subsidized by the European Commission and started in 2005, involves
 35   II,     5.  3.  7    |               calls on the Council and Commission to formulate a comprehensive
 36   II,     5.  3.  7    |        committee has now called on the Commission to set up a EU Cancer Task
 37   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 funded by the European Commission, has delivered a short-list
 38   II,     5.  4.  6    |          health policies.~The European Commission, through this program, has
 39   II,     5.  4.  6    |               2006, urged the European Commission and the European Council
 40   II,     5.  4.  6    |            future work of the European Commission.~· The Council of the European
 41   II,     5.  4.  6    |       professionals.~ ~To the European Commission:~ ~· Identifying diabetes
 42   II,     5.  4.  7    |        projects funded by the European Commission. In the field of diabetes,
 43   II,     5.  5.Int    |               health problem (European Commission 2003), which range from
 44   II,     5.  5.Int(8) |                               European Commission (2004): The State of Mental
 45   II,     5.  5.Int    |          Organisation and the European Commission. One in four people suffer
 46   II,     5.  5.Int(20)|                               European Commission (2004): Action for Mental
 47   II,     5.  5.Int    |       Conference on Mental Health. The Commission was invited to support the
 48   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  In 2005, the European Commission launched a Green Paper on '
 49   II,     5.  5.Int    |             December 2006 the European Commission issued a report on the responses
 50   II,     5.  5.  1    |                prepared in 2004 by the Commission. The expert group identified
 51   II,     5.  5.  1    |                of depression (European Commission, 2004a)~ ~The most recent
 52   II,     5.  5.  1    |          mental health activity of the Commission was the introduction of
 53   II,     5.  5.  1    |             combating stigma (European Commission, 2008). The next steps of
 54   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  The next steps of the Commission will be based on both these
 55   II,     5.  5.  1    |       disorders and suicides (European Commission, 2004b):~ ~Mental health
 56   II,     5.  5.  1    |              co-funded by the European Commission Public Health Programmes~·
 57   II,     5.  5.  1    |               31(2):247-69.~ ~European Commission (2008). European Pact for
 58   II,     5.  5.  1    |             Health. Brussels: European Commission, 2008. Available at: htt ~ ~
 59   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2004a). Action for Mental
 60   II,     5.  5.  1    |               STAKES, 2004.~ ~European Commission (2004b). Actions against
 61   II,     5.  5.  2(24)|               financed by the European Commission with additional funding
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the future, the European Commission should support activities
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the Green paper (European Commission, 2005) and the WHO Helsinki
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |        available by the WHO and the EU Commission. The papers reflected the
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |              country stories (European Commission, 2006a)~· Mental Health
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 7-8):196-206.~European Commission (2005): Green Paper. Improving
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |        accessed Dec 13, 2007.~European Commission (2006): Report and Recommendations
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |        accessed Dec 13, 2007.~European Commission (2006a): Mental health promotion
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Declaration in which it urged the Commission to fully support any effort
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |                project approved by the Commission the previous year began
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Task Forces of the European Commission, and although some conditions
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |             antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)(Commission, 1993). Epilepsy in remission
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the time of ascertainment (Commission, 1993). These cases add
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |              more unprovoked seizures (Commission, 1993). An unprovoked seizure
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of treatment with AEDs (Commission, 1993). Intractable epilepsy
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |             classification categories (Commission, 1989). Special syndromes (
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Committee.~The Public Education Commission of the IBE produced a policy
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2003). The ILAE Employment Commission recommends a non-discriminatory
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Neurosurg Psychiatry 58:570-576.~Commission on Classification and Terminology
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |       syndromes. Epilepsia 30:389-399.~Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis,
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Sclerosis funded by the European Commission (Confavreux et al, 1992;
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |           governments and the European Commission to an independent monitoring
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Parliament, the European Commission and the German Health Minister
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Agency (EMEA), the European Commission’s Health Policy Forum, and
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |         forward by WHO or the European Commission for people with Parkinson’
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |         project funded by the European Commission, 2001-2004 (htt . EuroPa
 87   II,     5.  6.  2    |           Joint Decade, 2003 (European Commission (2003): Indicators for Monitoring
 88   II,     5.  6.  2    |            Decade, Lund 2005 (European Commission (2004): European Action
 89   II,     5.  6.  3    |                participation (European Commission (2004): European Action
 90   II,     5.  6.  3    |              this disability (European Commission (2004): European Action
 91   II,     5.  6.  3    |            1987 ACR criteria (European Commission (2003): Indicators for Monitoring
 92   II,     5.  6.  3    |              this disability (European Commission (2004): European Action
 93   II,     5.  6.  4    |                Norway, 1994. (European Commission (2003): Indicators for Monitoring
 94   II,     5.  6.  4    |               Table 5.6.12). (European Commission (2003): Indicators for Monitoring
 95   II,     5.  6.  5    |       Musculoskeletal Health (European Commission (2004): European Action
 96   II,     5.  6.  6    |                at URL: htt fm~European Commission (1998): Report on Osteoporosis
 97   II,     5.  6.  6    |                at URL: htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): Indicators for Monitoring
 98   II,     5.  6.  6    |                at URL: htt ~ ~European Commission (2004): European Action
 99   II,     5.  6.  6    |                at URL: htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): Health in the European
100   II,     5.  7.  5    |              to a Parliamentary Health Commission. Unfortunately, the plan
101   II,     5.  7.  5    |            systems. The NHS Healthcare Commission monitors quality improvement
102   II,     5.  7.  5    |              co-funded by the European Commission whose aim is to give assistance
103   II,     5.  7.  6    |              Programme of the European Commission, will help making these
104   II,     5.  9.  2    |         Network funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme
105   II,     5.  9.  5    |                 funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme
106   II,     5. 10.Acr    |               Acronyms~ ~ ~EC~European Commission~ECRHS~European Community
107   II,     5. 10.  2    |              funding from the European Commission (Communicating about Food
108   II,     5. 10.  2    |              consultations between the Commission and Member States of the
109   II,     5. 10.  2    |           study funded by the European Commission (EC) aimed to compare the
110   II,     5. 10.  2    |        Allergies on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation
111   II,     5. 10.  5    |         Directive 2000/13/EC (European Commission, 2000) setting the general
112   II,     5. 10.  5    |               consumer, was amended by Commission Directive 2003/89/EC (European
113   II,     5. 10.  5    |         Directive 2003/89/EC (European Commission, 2003) as regards the indication
114   II,     5. 10.  5    |         Directive 2000/13/EC (European Commission, 2000), which meant that
115   II,     5. 10.  5    |                addition, Annex IIIa of Commission Directive 2003/89/EC (European
116   II,     5. 10.  5    |         Directive 2003/89/EC (European Commission, 2003) specifies a list
117   II,     5. 10.  5    |             risk for allergic peoples, Commission Directive 2003/89/EC establishes,
118   II,     5. 10.  5    |             ingredients or substances. Commission Directive 2005/26/EC establishing
119   II,     5. 10.  5    |            exempted was adopted by the Commission on 21st March 2005, following
120   II,     5. 10.  5    |            result of this process, the Commission has recently adopted Directive
121   II,     5. 10.  7    |               61,1336-1343.~ ~European Commission (2000): Directive 2000/13/
122   II,     5. 10.  7    |                 2942.~htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): Directive 2003/89/
123   II,     5. 10.  7    |                 1518.~htt ~ ~European Commission (2005): Commission Directive
124   II,     5. 10.  7    |            European Commission (2005): Commission Directive 2005/26/EC of
125   II,     5. 10.  7    |                 3334.~htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): Commission Directive
126   II,     5. 10.  7    |            European Commission (2007): Commission Directive 2007/68/EC of
127   II,     5. 10.  7    |        Allergies on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation
128   II,     5. 11.  5    |            Health Plan of the European Commission that puts a lot of emphasis
129   II,     5. 11.  5    |                 Moreover, the European Commission has launched an information
130   II,     5. 11.  5    |              information campaign, the Commission is also seeking to remind
131   II,     5. 13        |             and diet culture (European Commission, 2003).~ ~Excess body weight
132   II,     5. 13        |               the European Union (EU) (Commission of the European Communities,
133   II,     5. 13        |             the rising obesity trends (Commission of the European Communities,
134   II,     5. 14.  5    |             surveillance. The European Commission Health Monitoring Programme
135   II,     5. 14.  5    |             recent years, the European Commission has supported the development
136   II,     5. 15.  1    |             recognised by the European Commission as well as by several countries;
137   II,     5. 15.  3    |                condition. The European Commission's DG Enterprise and Industry
138   II,     5. 15.  4    |                diagnose rare diseases. Commission Regulation No 847/2000 of
139   II,     5. 15.  4    |           medicinal products (European Commission, 2007), amending Directive
140   II,     5. 15.  4    |            published in 2006 (European Commission, 2006). This second publication
141   II,     5. 15.  4    |             advising and assisting the Commission in discussions on orphan
142   II,     5. 15.  4    |            November 2008, the European Commission also adopted a Communication
143   II,     5. 15.  4    |            Communication, the European Commission prepared a proposal for
144   II,     5. 15.  4    |        indicated above.~ ~The European Commission issued in November 2008
145   II,     5. 15.  6    |            Winter;23(1):36-42~European Commission (2006): Inventory of Community
146   II,     5. 15.  6    |                12.05.2007).~ ~European Commission (2007): Regulation (EC)
147   II,     6.  3.  6    |             besides the ECDC, also the Commission, EFSA and WHO EURO are important
148   II,     6.  4.  1    |                  6.4.1. Surveillance~ ~Commission Decision 2000/96/EC specifies
149   II,     6.  4.  2    |               in Member States and the Commission on outbreaks with greater
150   II,     6.  4.  2    |                action may be required (Commission Decision 2000/57/EC).~ ~
151   II,     6.  4.  2    |             communicable diseases, the Commission has put in place an early
152   II,     6.  4.  2    |           web-based system linking the Commission, the public health authorities
153   II,     6.  4.  2    |               also been supporting the Commission by operating the IT tool.~
154   II,     6.  4.  2    |             Member States an important Commission decision was taken on 19
155   II,     6.  4.  3    |          during the SARS epidemic, the Commission has made several attempts
156   II,     6.  4.  3    |             the EU Member States~ ~The Commission has addressed pandemic preparedness
157   II,     6.  4.  3    |                anti-viral drugs.~ ~The Commission also supports a number of
158   II,     6.  4.  3    |             Agency.~ ~Furthermore, the Commission organised in 2005 two scenario
159   II,     6.  4.  4    |          Control. The ECDC assists the Commission in running the operation
160   II,     7.Acr        |                Years~DG Sanco~European Commission Directorate General for
161   II,     7.Acr        |             Consumers~DG Tren~European Commission Directorate-General for
162   II,     7.Acr        |              and Transport~EC~European Commission~ECHI~European Community
163   II,     7.  1        |               a Communication from the Commission of 2006. In order to assist
164   II,     7.  2.  5    |                DG-TREN of the European Commission. The objective of the project
165   II,     7.  4.  4    |            well as within the European Commission strategy for health promotion.
166   II,     7.  4.  5    |               Community-wide (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Valuable information
167   II,     7.  4.  6    |             October 2005, the European Commission published a Green Paper
168   II,     7.  4.  6    |        foreseen in this area (European Commission, 2006).~ ~In the general
169   II,     7.  4.  7    |        conditions in society (European Commission, 2006).~ ~No single factor
170   II,     7.  5        |          health response, the European Commission has developed a strategic
171   II,     7.  5        |                 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament
172   II,     7.  5        |                Member States (European Commission, 2006). The Communication
173   II,     7.  5        |           advisors.~ ~Accordingly, the Commission is requested to support
174   II,     7.  5        |                series of projects, the Commission has developed the outlines
175   II,     7.  5        |           Member States and within the Commission, (e.g. Transport, Employment,
176   II,     7.  5        |            their data questions.~ ~The Commission assists these developments
177   II,     7.  5        |              and with support from the Commission, e.g. by means of the Public
178   II,     7.  7        |                32007H0718).~ ~European Commission (2006): Communication from
179   II,     7.  7        |                 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament
180   II,     8.  1.  5    |               disability strategy2 the Commission promotes initiatives at
181   II,     8.  1.  5    |             disabilities.~The European Commission along with 22 Member States
182   II,     8.  1.  5    |             disabilities.~The European Commission adopted on 30th of October
183   II,     8.  1.  5    |             consolidating the European Commission's analytical capacity to
184   II,     9            |             educated mothers (European Commission, 2003). Poor health behaviour
185   II,     9            |               for both sexes (European Commission, 2003). In conducting the
186   II,     9            |             more days a week (European Commission, 2005b). Across all countries
187   II,     9.  1.  2    |                comes from the European Commission’s Directorate General for
188   II,     9.  2.  1    |              within which the European Commission can promote its own declared
189   II,     9.  2.  2    |             the year 2000 the European commission funded the public health
190   II,     9.  2.  2    |                health for the European Commission and the World Health Organisation,
191   II,     9.  2.  2    |         progressed. Prior to that, the Commission had produced in 2000 a Report
192   II,     9.  2.  2    |       important. (see:~www ~ ~European Commission: The Commission has an interest
193   II,     9.  2.  2    |               European Commission: The Commission has an interest in children
194   II,     9.  2.  2    |               health impacts. Such DGs commission and publish periodic reports
195   II,     9.  2.  2    |              to assess public views on Commission services, it can now be
196   II,     9.  2.  2    |             More recently the European Commission has collaborated with the
197   II,     9.  2.  2    |              adulthood.~ ~The European Commission has sponsored important
198   II,     9.  2.  3    |                and within the European Commission the DAPHNE programme is
199   II,     9.  2.  3    |               except Finland (European Commission, 2003), although in November
200   II,     9.  2.  3    |              year by 400 000 (European Commission, 2006d). Recent estimates
201   II,     9.  2.  3    |        societal significance (European Commission, 2005a). It is also important
202   II,     9.  2.  3    |             time of need. The European Commission has now published a Green
203   II,     9.  2.  3    |               long way to go (European Commission, 2006c).~ ~Feelings of wellbeing
204   II,     9.  2.  4    |             educated mothers (European Commission, 2003). Poor health behaviour
205   II,     9.  2.  4    |               for both sexes (European Commission, 2003). In conducting the
206   II,     9.  2.  4    |             more days a week (European Commission, 2005b). Across all countries
207   II,     9.  2.  5    |          context in which the European Commission is able to provide scientific
208   II,     9.  2.  5    |              by children. The European Commission acknowledges this and notes
209   II,     9.  2.  5    |              and malaria. The European Commission has recently adopted the
210   II,     9.  2.  5    |             young people, the European Commission issued a Communication “Tow ” (
211   II,     9.  2.  5    |         Communication “Tow ” (European Commission, 2006a). The Communication
212   II,     9.  2.  5    |           products.~ ~In addition, the Commission provides funding through
213   II,     9.  2.  5    |              education.~ ~In 2000, the Commission reported on the health status
214   II,     9.  2.  5    |              of young people (European Commission, 2000), but only those over
215   II,     9.  2.  5    |                over the age of 15. The Commission’s 2005 Public Health Work
216   II,     9.  2.  5    |               HIV/AIDS.~ ~The European Commission's Communication on the Rights
217   II,     9.  2.  5    |          Rights of the Child (European Commission, 2006a) represents a formalised
218   II,     9.  2.  5    |            formalised framework of the Commission's future work to protect
219   II,     9.  2.  5    |               of obesity, the European Commission launched the EU Platform
220   II,     9.  2.  5    |           Europe-wide action (European Commission, 2006b). A White Paper on
221   II,     9.  2.  5    |         address these issues (European Commission, 2007) An assessment of
222   II,     9.  2.  5    |              plan 2007-2010” (European Commission, 2004)~ ~
223   II,     9.  2.  6    |             Hence, the recent European Commission thrust towards considering
224   II,     9.  2.  6    |               suggested priorities for Commission action:~ ~· Measuring and
225   II,     9.  2.  7    |          Directorate-General, European Commission, Luxembourg (in press):~ ~
226   II,     9.  2.  7    |              Status. Eurostat/European Commission, Brussels~ ~European Agency
227   II,     9.  2.  7    |                OpenDocument~ ~European Commission (2000): Report on the state
228   II,     9.  2.  7    |             health in the EU. European Commission Services Working Paper.
229   II,     9.  2.  7    |               February 2000~ ~European Commission (2003): The Health Status
230   II,     9.  2.  7    |     Communities, Luxembourg~ ~European Commission (2004): Communication from
231   II,     9.  2.  7    |                 Communication from the Commission “The European Environment &
232   II,     9.  2.  7    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2005a): Improving the mental
233   II,     9.  2.  7    |             Union. Brussels~ ~European Commission (2005b): Green Paper - Promoting
234   II,     9.  2.  7    |          diseases. Brussels~ ~European Commission (2006a): Communication from
235   II,     9.  2.  7    |                 Communication from the Commission “Towards an EU Strategy
236   II,     9.  2.  7    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2006b): EU Platform on
237   II,     9.  2.  7    |          accessed 26.11.06)~ ~European Commission (2006c): Green Paper - Improving
238   II,     9.  2.  7    |                 Luxembourg.~ ~European Commission (2006d): Health and Food,
239   II,     9.  2.  7    |              November, 2006~ ~European Commission (2007): White Paper on A
240   II,     9.  2.  7    |               data on health. European Commission, Luxembourg~ ~HBSC (2004):
241   II,     9.  3.  1    |           working days lost) (European Commission, 2003). These accidents
242   II,     9.  3.  1    |              disorders.~ ~The European Commission (European Commission 2004a)
243   II,     9.  3.  1    |          European Commission (European Commission 2004a) found that between
244   II,     9.  3.  1    |           susceptible as men (European Commission, 2004b). The impact on the
245   II,     9.  3.  1    |               million people (European Commission 2003). The disease usually
246   II,     9.  3.  1    |              2003 report, the European Commission suggested that although
247   II,     9.  3.  1    |                be around 20% (European Commission, 2003). Hypertension is
248   II,     9.  3.  1    |                the age of 65 (European Commission, 2003). For both sexes of
249   II,     9.  3.  1    |       mortality respectively (European Commission, 2003).~ ~Peripheral vascular
250   II,     9.  3.  1    |            France and Greece (European Commission, 2003). The Netherlands
251   II,     9.  3.  1    |        transplants in Europe (European Commission, 2003). The two main transmission
252   II,     9.  3.  1    |            rather than AIDS) (European Commission, 2003), but 24,184 newly
253   II,     9.  3.  1    |            severe disability (European Commission, 2003).~ ~Menopause~ ~Climateric.
254   II,     9.  3.  1    |              Status. Eurostat/European Commission~ ~Doyal LA (1998): Draft
255   II,     9.  3.  1    |                October 1998~ ~European Commission (2004a): The State of Mental
256   II,     9.  3.  1    |          Directorate General, European Commission.~ ~EuroHIV (2006) : HIV/AIDS
257   II,     9.  3.  1    |             accessed 08.07)~ ~European Commission (2003): The Health Status
258   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Gap. Luxembourg~ ~European Commission (2004b): Expert Report ‘
259   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  Luxembourg~ ~European Commission (2006): Report on Equality
260   II,     9.  3.  1    |           Office for Europe & European Commission (2002): Health status overview
261   II,     9.  3.  3    |                United Nations Economic Commission for Europe~UNFPA~United
262   II,     9.  4.  1    |            highlighted by the European Commission; accessibility, quality
263   II,     9.  4.  1    |               sustainability (European Commission, 2003). Research stresses
264   II,     9.  4.  3    |               mortality rate (European Commission, 2003). The ‘elderly index’ (
265   II,     9.  4.  3    |              chronic disease (European Commission, 2003). The most common
266   II,     9.  4.  3    |              and Luxembourg) (European Commission, 2003). The highest rates
267   II,     9.  4.  5    |               after children (European Commission, 2003).~ ~Acute Geriatric
268   II,     9.  4.  5    |            communication issued by the Commission in 1999 on ‘A Concerted
269   II,     9.  4.  5    |             This report was based on a Commission Communication of December
270   II,     9.  4.  5    |           European Council invited the Commission and the Council to examine
271   II,     9.  4.  5    |          States. A joint report by the Commission and the Council on supporting
272   II,     9.  4.  5    |                June 2007, the European Commission announced that it is going
273   II,     9.  4.  5    |               in 2010, as the European Commission intends to extend this voluntary
274   II,     9.  4.  7    |          Accessed 09.07.07]~ ~European Commission (2003): The Health Status
275   II,     9.  4.  7    |             Gap. Luxembourg~ ~European Commission (2004): The State of Mental
276   II,     9.  5.  3    |                those without (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Figure 9.5.2.
277   II,     9.  5.  3    |                and allergies (European Commission, 2003). By contrast, males
278   II,     9.  5.  3    |             educated mothers (European Commission, 2003). Education is also
279   II,     9.  5.  3    |      associated with alcohol (European Commission, 2002).~ ~Fourteen per cent
280   II,     9.  5.  3    |      associated with alcohol (European Commission, 2002). More complete and
281   II,     9.  5.  3    |                April 2007 the European Commission launched their Strategy
282   II,     9.  5.  3    |             and diet culture (European Commission, 2003).~ ~It is more commonly
283   II,     9.  5.  4    |            death.~ ~ ~Much of European Commission public health strategy focuses
284   II,     9.  5.  4    |                ordered by the European Commission as part of the Research
285   II,     9.  5.  4    |        disaggregated per sex (European Commission, 2006).~ ~
286   II,     9.  5.  5    |              in Europe and at European Commission level. Among the reasons
287   II,     9.  5.  6    |              Status. Eurostat/European Commission~ ~Diabetes Prevention Program
288   II,     9.  5.  6    |             accessed 07.07)~ ~European Commission (2002). Health statistics:
289   II,     9.  5.  6    |     Communities. Luxembourg~ ~European Commission (2003): The Health Status
290   II,     9.  5.  6    |             Gap. Luxembourg~ ~European Commission/Europe Against Cancer (2003):
291   II,     9.  5.  6    |             accessed 07.07)~ ~European Commission (2004): Expert ReportActions
292   II,     9.  5.  6    |       depression’. Brussels~ ~European Commission (2006): Equality between
293  III,    10.  2.  1    |               smoking (ERS 6; European Commission, 2003).~In 19901994, the
294  III,    10.  2.  1    |              now unavailable (European Commission, 2007).~ ~The European Commission
295  III,    10.  2.  1    |      Commission, 2007).~ ~The European Commission is in the process of reviewing
296  III,    10.  2.  1    |           present and future. European Commission, DG Health and Consumer
297  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): European Opinion
298  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2004), ASPECT Consortium
299  III,    10.  2.  1    |           present and future. European Commission, DG Health and Consumer
300  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): SCENHIRHealth
301  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007. Available at:~htt ~ ~
302  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2008): SCENHIRHealth
303  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007. Available at: http://
304  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007~Warren CW, Jones NR,
305  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 2006) are:.~ ~European Commission~ ~· Updated country profiles
306  III,    10.  2.  1    |            co-financed by the European Commission (http://www.ias.org.uk/btg/
307  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Frontiers Directive~http ~ ~Commission Recommendation on maximum
308  III,    10.  2.  1    |     adolescents, 2001~http ~ ~European Commission Road Safety Action Programme
309  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2003-2010~http ~ ~European Commission Communication on EU alcohol
310  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Report to the European Commission. London: Institute of Alcohol
311  III,    10.  2.  1    |               European Union, European Commission, Luxembourg.~
312  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Responses to the European Commission’s discussion paper for a
313  III,    10.  2.  1    |              on behalf of the European Commission in all member States of
314  III,    10.  2.  1    |                brisk walking (European Commission, 2000a). It has been estimated
315  III,    10.  2.  1    |          cycling and walking (European Commission, 2000b).~ ~In addition to
316  III,    10.  2.  1    |             years by both the European Commission and WHO. Some documents
317  III,    10.  2.  1    |            healthy-cities).~ ~European Commission~ ~In 2005, the EU launched
318  III,    10.  2.  1    | physical activity and health (European Commission, 2005a). Under the leadership
319  III,    10.  2.  1    |             leadership of the European Commission, the platform brings together
320  III,    10.  2.  1    |             leadership of the European Commission and to provide an example,
321  III,    10.  2.  1    |                health issues (European Commission, 2007a). The White Paper
322  III,    10.  2.  1    |             chronic diseases (European Commission, 2005b, RIVM, 2006)). The
323  III,    10.  2.  1    |              this goal.~ ~The European Commission is preparing an Action Plan,
324  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Urban Mobility (European Commission, 2007b).~ ~The European
325  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 2007b).~ ~The European Commission has also published a White
326  III,    10.  2.  1    |               an Action Plan (European Commission, 2007d), which addresses
327  III,    10.  2.  1    |              25(2):100104.~ ~European Commission (2000a): EU Transport in
328  III,    10.  2.  1    |         pocketbook. Brussels, European Commission Directorate-General for
329  III,    10.  2.  1    |              and Transport.~ ~European Commission (2000b): WalCyng: How to
330  III,    10.  2.  1    |            safer. Brussels.~ ~European Commission (2005a): EU platform on
331  III,    10.  2.  1    |             health. Brussels, European Commission, Directorate-General for
332  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Protection. [ht ~ ~European Commission (2005b): Green Paper. Promoting
333  III,    10.  2.  1    |            chronic diseases. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities (
334  III,    10.  2.  1    |             637 final.~[ht ~ ~European Commission (2007a): White Paper on
335  III,    10.  2.  1    |               health issues. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. [ht ~ ~
336  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Communities. [ht ~ ~European Commission (2007b): GREEN PAPER “Towards
337  III,    10.  2.  1    |            mobility_en.pdf]~ ~European Commission (2007c): WHITE PAPER ON
338  III,    10.  2.  1    |               sport_en.pdf]~ ~European Commission (2007d): COMMISSION STAFF
339  III,    10.  2.  1    |           European Commission (2007d): COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT ACTION
340  III,    10.  2.  1    |                United Nations Economic Commission for Europe~ ~ ~
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the European Union (EU) (Commission of the European Communities,
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |             the rising obesity trends (Commission of the European Communities,
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |  disability-adjusted life years) lost (Commission of the European Communities,
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |               over the world (European Commission, 2005). The main agents
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |             years by both the European Commission and the WHO:~ ~· WHO Consultation
346  III,    10.  2.  1    | physical activity and health (European Commission, 2005a). This Platform brings
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |             leadership of the European Commission and to provide an example,
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |             chronic diseases (European Commission, 2005b; RIVM, 2006)~· The
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Health Issues” (European Commission, 2007)~· Second WHO European
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |    obesity-related health issues~ ~The Commission will collaborate with the
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |            White Paper of the European Commission (Commission of the European
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the European Commission (Commission of the European Communities,
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |          effective societal response” (Commission of the European Communities,
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |      Overweight and Obesity' (European Commission, 2007), which stresses the
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |              in the recently published Commission White Paper … the Council
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |                the Council invites the Commission to come forward with a proposal
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |              keeping with the European Commission's commitment to better legislation,
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |              of representatives of the Commission services concerned.~ ~Since
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |               risk to consumers.~ ~The Commission establishes and maintains
360  III,    10.  2.  1    |              specific directives or by Commission Directive 2001/15/EC (European
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Directive 2001/15/EC (European Commission, 2001) and Commission Directive
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |         European Commission, 2001) and Commission Directive 2006/34/EC (European
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Directive 2006/34/EC (European Commission, 2006).~ ~
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 it is stated that “the Commission will carry out a review
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |        achievement of the objectives” (Commission of the European Communities,
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Health 48:338345.~ ~European Commission (2001): Directive 2001/15/
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |         32001L0015:EN:HTML]~ ~European Commission (2005a): EU platform on
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |             health. Brussels, European Commission, Directorate-General for
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |              October 2007).~ ~European Commission (2005b): Green Paper. Promoting
370  III,    10.  2.  1    |            chronic diseases. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities (
371  III,    10.  2.  1    |             637 final.~[ht ~ ~European Commission (2006): Directive 2006/34/
372  III,    10.  2.  1    |            0014:01:EN:HTML]~ ~European Commission (2007): White Paper on strategy
373  III,    10.  2.  1    |               health issues. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. [ht ] (
374  III,    10.  2.  1    |                the European Community. Commission of the European Communities,
375  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Suppl 2: S1-S3.~ ~European Commission (2005): Promoting healthy
376  III,    10.  2.  1    |              fork statistics. European Commission. Agriculture and Fisheries.
377  III,    10.  2.  4    |           Protection~ ~of the European Commission~DNA~Deoxyribonucleic Acid~
378  III,    10.  2.  4    |             the revised EC Treaty. The Commission and the European Parliament
379  III,    10.  3.  1    |              Noise Directive (European Commission, 2002), exposure to noise
380  III,    10.  3.  1    |             activities to the European Commission. However, it does not give
381  III,    10.  3.  1    |                radiation, the European Commission issued a Recommendation (
382  III,    10.  3.  1    |               objectives. In 2004, the Commission published a report assessing
383  III,    10.  3.  1    |         collected and published by the Commission and according to the directive,
384  III,    10.  3.  1    |        according to the directive, the Commission shall set up a database
385  III,    10.  3.  1    |              EEA, Copenhagen.~European Commission (2002): Noise directive (htt )~
386  III,    10.  3.  2    |             Action Program~EC~European Commission~ECB~European Chemicals Bureau~
387  III,    10.  3.  2    |                United Nations Economic Commission for Europe~UNEP~United Nations
388  III,    10.  3.  2    |               authorities and European Commission Services.~ ~· European Chemicals
389  III,    10.  3.  2    |               report from the European commission, EU countries have "further
390  III,    10.  3.  2    |                to the public (European Commission, 2007).~ ~Globalisation
391  III,    10.  3.  2    |               The United Kingdom Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution
392  III,    10.  3.  2    |             Mercury strategy (European Commission, 2005), and UNEPs Global
393  III,    10.  3.  2    |              IPPC) Directive (European Commission, 1996), through the application
394  III,    10.  3.  2    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1996): COUNCIL DIRECTIVE
395  III,    10.  3.  2    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): Report from the
396  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 2007): Report from the Commission on the Application in the
397  III,    10.  3.  2    |              Register (htt ~ ~European Commission (2005): Communication from
398  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European
399  III,    10.  3.  2    |         Environment 318: 1-43.~ ~Royal Commission for Environmental Pollution (
400  III,    10.  3.  2    |              and human health.~ ~Royal Commission for Environmental Pollution (
401  III,    10.  3.  2    |            Special report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution,
402  III,    10.  3.  2    |                United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (2003):
403  III,    10.  3.  4    |               2006). The 2005 European Commission’s Communication "Winning
404  III,    10.  3.  4    |             and requested the European Commission to deepen its analysis.
405  III,    10.  3.  4    |              to this request (European Commission, 2007).~ ~The EU is projected
406  III,    10.  3.  4    |             October 2005. The European Commission has since come forward with
407  III,    10.  3.  4    |          Verlag, Darmstadt.~ ~European Commission, 2007~Ahern et al (xxxx)~
408  III,    10.  4.  1    |             Action Program~EC~European Commission~EC4MACS~European Consortium
409  III,    10.  4.  1    |           authorities and the European Commission Services.~ ~WHO EURO, within
410  III,    10.  4.  1    |                consortia.~ ~· European Commission : ht CAFE CBA: htt WHO: htt
411  III,    10.  4.  1    |               made within the European Commission Clean Air For Europe (European
412  III,    10.  4.  1    |               Air For Europe (European Commission, 2005d) programme found
413  III,    10.  4.  1    |            listed pollutants (European Commission, 2005a; European Commission
414  III,    10.  4.  1    |            Commission, 2005a; European Commission 2005b).~The air quality
415  III,    10.  4.  1    |     information.~In 2001, the European Commission launched the Clean Air for
416  III,    10.  4.  1    |             other pollutants (European Commission, 2005b).~Following the CAFE
417  III,    10.  4.  1    |             the various scenarios, the Commission adopted in September 2005
418  III,    10.  4.  1    |              still remain in 2020. The Commission also made it clear that
419  III,    10.  4.  1    |             agriculture sectors.~ ~The Commission proposal is for a new directive (
420  III,    10.  4.  1    |               the new www. ~ ~European Commission (2005a): Proposed Directive
421  III,    10.  4.  1    |                August 2007)~ ~European Commission (2005b): Commission staff
422  III,    10.  4.  1    |           European Commission (2005b): Commission staff working paperImpact
423  III,    10.  4.  1    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission, Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) (
424  III,    10.  4.  1    |          Access April 2005)~ ~European Commission (2005d): Science for Environment
425  III,    10.  4.  2    |           limited resources within the Commission providing scientific support
426  III,    10.  4.  2    |                In the White Paper, the Commission proposed a number of measures
427  III,    10.  4.  2    |              EU institutions (European Commission, European Parliament and
428  III,    10.  4.  2    |               therefore managed by the Commission but by an Executive Director,
429  III,    10.  4.  2    |               coming from the European Commission, the European Parliament
430  III,    10.  4.  2    |            immediately notified to the Commission under the RASFF. The Commission
431  III,    10.  4.  2    |        Commission under the RASFF. The Commission immediately transmits this
432  III,    10.  4.  2    |           shall immediately notify the Commission under the rapid alert system
433  III,    10.  4.  2    |            have been harmonised in the Commission Directive 2002/6327,28~ ~
434  III,    10.  4.  2    |             There are also a number of Commission regulations specifying in
435  III,    10.  4.  2    |             selected contaminants:~ ~• Commission regulation (EC) 401/2006
436  III,    10.  4.  2    |            mycotoxins in foodstuffs;~• Commission regulation (EC) 1882/2006
437  III,    10.  4.  2    |               in certain foodstuffs;~• Commission regulation (EC) 333/2007
438  III,    10.  4.  2(28)|                                        Commission Directive 2002/63/EC of
439  III,    10.  4.  2    |    benzo(a)pyrene in foodstuffs; and~• Commission regulation (EC) 1883/2006
440  III,    10.  4.  2    |             for further harmonisation. Commission regulation (EC) 1881/2006
441  III,    10.  4.  2    |               regular reporting to the Commission but the frequency of testing
442  III,    10.  4.  2    |             and zoonotic agents to the Commission each year. The revised Community
443  III,    10.  4.  2    |              all parties involved, the Commission has adopted with the relevant
444  III,    10.  4.  2    |             also been requested by the Commission to support the design, collation
445  III,    10.  4.  2    |               the Member States to the Commission's Animal Disease Notification
446  III,    10.  4.  2    |                EEC (as last amended by Commission Decision 2004/216/EC) makes
447  III,    10.  4.  2    |               structured e-mail to the Commission; the information is then
448  III,    10.  4.  2    |              for animal health and the Commission about outbreaks of these
449  III,    10.  4.  2    |              enables Member States and Commission services to take coordinated
450  III,    10.  4.  2    |              working day of each week.~Commission Decision 2005/176/EC (repealing
451  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Regulation laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 2245/
452  III,    10.  4.  2    |       Regulation (EC) No 2245/2003 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 214/2005,
453  III,    10.  4.  2    |                an annual report to the Commission on the monitoring programme
454  III,    10.  4.  2    |              be distributed within the Commission, to Member States, Bulgaria
455  III,    10.  4.  2    |                years ago, the European Commission established the Rapid Alert
456  III,    10.  4.  2    |            active consideration by the Commission. Interested third countries
457  III,    10.  4.  2    |             measures were taken by the Commission to increase the level of
458  III,    10.  4.  2    |              outbreaks to the European Commission and the European Food Safety
459  III,    10.  4.  2(34)|               August 2006 the European Commission set targets for Member States
460  III,    10.  4.  2    |            obtain authorisation by the Commission,.~• The existing legislation
461  III,    10.  4.  2    |          imported from China (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Persistence, increasing
462  III,    10.  4.  2    |               As a consequence, the EU Commission has set maximum levels for
463  III,    10.  4.  2    |               April 2002, the European Commission informed via the Rapid Alert
464  III,    10.  4.  2    |                website of the European Commission39.~ ~Currently, a high number
465  III,    10.  4.  2(38)|                                        Commission of the European Communities:
466  III,    10.  4.  2    |               reported to the European Commission on an annual basis as required
467  III,    10.  4.  2    |              are covered. The European Commission has a food standards programme
468  III,    10.  4.  2    |               possible. Therefore, the Commission will propose that MRLs for
469  III,    10.  4.  2    |      approximately 240 pesticides, the Commission will review the temporary
470  III,    10.  4.  2    |               Food Directive (European Commission 2006). This stipulates that,
471  III,    10.  4.  2(40)|                                        Commission f the European Communities:
472  III,    10.  4.  2    |            public health, the European Commission has established maximum
473  III,    10.  4.  2    |               as spinach and lettuce. (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/
474  III,    10.  4.  2    |           Community legislation.~ ~The Commission Communication 89/C271/03
475  III,    10.  4.  2    |              EU. This led the European Commission to forcefully promote food
476  III,    10.  4.  2    |                States and the European Commission to set EU-wide Maximum Residue
477  III,    10.  4.  2    |          equations are calculated, the Commission asked EFSA (the PPR Panel)
478  III,    10.  4.  2    |          substances from list 3 to the Commission and their relevant publication;~·
479  III,    10.  4.  2    |          substances from list 4 to the Commission and their relevant publication.~ ~
480  III,    10.  4.  2    |            procedure introduced by the Commission for substances withdrawn
481  III,    10.  4.  2    |            questions from the European Commission, EFSA’s PRAPeR unit (self-tasking),
482  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  EFSA was asked by the Commission to review the latest draft
483  III,    10.  4.  2    |              the Member States and the Commission.~ ~EU-level guidance on
484  III,    10.  4.  2    |         responsibility of the European Commission and DG SANCO and also includes
485  III,    10.  4.  2    |               with through established Commission procedures.41~A procedure
486  III,    10.  4.  2    |                by EFSA and in European Commission, considering that emerging
487  III,    10.  4.  2    |          managers such as the European Commission and EU Member States; and~·
488  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Veterinary Office (FVO), a Commission service based in Ireland,
489  III,    10.  4.  2    | recommendations.~ ~Together with other Commission services, the FVO evaluates
490  III,    10.  4.  2    |            animal or plant health, the Commission may take emergency or safeguard
491  III,    10.  4.  2    |    satisfactory corrective action, the Commission may use the inspection report
492  III,    10.  4.  2    |                an annual report to the Commission with information on the
493  III,    10.  4.  2(41)|                                        Commission Decision 2004/478EC concerning
494  III,    10.  4.  2    |       Luxembourg~Luxemburg~Food Safety Commission~Malta~Główny Inspektorat
495  III,    10.  4.  2    |               6. References~ ~European Commission (2002): Decision No. 178/
496  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2005): Decision No. 2073/
497  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1997): Regulation No. 258/
498  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (1990): Decision No. 90/
499  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (1997): Guidance Document
500  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2001): Directive No. 2001/