1-500 | 501-717
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1           |            Community and Member State level. The adopted approach takes
  2    I,     2.  1       |            resources at macroeconomic level (Figure 2.1).~ ~ ~ ~The
  3    I,     2.  3       |             inflows reached an annual level of 2 million. Increased
  4    I,     2.  3       |      population.~In relation to skill level, Europe attracts less high
  5    I,     2.  4       |              Europe, indicated by low level of education, occupational
  6    I,     2.  4       |            occupational class, income level, or other groups such as
  7    I,     2.  4       |           differences in mortality by level of education in Finland,
  8    I,     2.  4       |              with a lower educational level, occupational class or income
  9    I,     2.  4       |          occupational class or income level:~· substantial inequalities
 10    I,     2.  4       |   self-reported chronic conditions by level of education among people
 11    I,     2.  5       |          years down to 7%, the lowest level ever achieved since the
 12    I,     2.  5       |    satisfactory. In relation to skill level, Europe attracts less high
 13    I,     2.  5       |           experience at an individual level for some workers. The pressure
 14    I,     2.  6       |         students enrolled in tertiary level education (i.e. ISCED levels
 15    I,     2.  6       |            men enrolled in ISCED in 5 level programmes in EU Member
 16    I,     2.  6       |               women enrolled in ISCED level 6 programmes compared to
 17    I,     2.  6       |        students graduating with ISCED level 5 qualifications in the
 18    I,     2.  6       |           different at post graduated level. In the EU25 as a whole
 19    I,     2.  6       |               among graduates at this level, moreover, was more than
 20    I,     2.  6       |               first stage of tertiary level programmes. While women
 21    I,     2.  6       |         education programmes at ISCED level 5, outnumbering men by more
 22    I,     2.  6       |         generally lower than at lower level (European Commission, 2006).~ ~
 23    I,     2.  7       |             is already on a very high level, ranging from 49% (Slovenia)
 24    I,     2.  7       |        populations, their educational level and their lifestyles, their
 25    I,     2.  9       |          Projections suggest that sea level and sea surface temperature
 26    I,     2. 10.  1   |               will also depend on the level of individualisation in
 27    I,     2. 10.  2   |               effort at international level for the evaluation and prevention
 28    I,     2. 10.  3   |            expanded at trans-European level through the e-TEN programme.
 29    I,     2. 10.  3   |           Health Telematics. The High Level Committee on Health established
 30    I,     2. 10.  4   |                often at logistic unit level). Retail pharmacies have
 31    I,     2. 10.  4   |               or tag at the unit-dose level as this is necessary for
 32    I,     2. 10.  4   |          implementation on a national level due to the complexity of
 33    I,     3.  1       |             the so-called replacement level of 2.2 children per woman
 34    I,     3.  1       |           well) below the replacement level; currently, these regions
 35    I,     3.  1       |               up with a childlessness level of around 10%. This ‘pattern
 36    I,     3.  1       |              leads to a childlessness level of 15% or over.~ ~More men
 37    I,     3.  1       |              Cyprus and Greece have a level below 10%. More than 40%
 38    I,     3.  2       |             inflows reached an annual level of 2 million. Increased
 39    I,     3.  3       |               currently at the lowest level. However, that will change
 40   II,     4.  1       |        estimates for 2005 at European level (EU25) per gender: life
 41   II,     4.  1       |             estimated each year at MS level within EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.
 42   II,     4.  1       |          Member States in 2005. At MS level, values of life expectancy
 43   II,     4.  1       |        calculation of HLY at European level (EU25) and for all MS has
 44   II,     4.  1       |           early 1960s, converged to a level of around two years from
 45   II,     4.  2       |             or stagnated at very high level), while the one among men
 46   II,     4.  2       |         tendency. If one compares the level of life expectancy at birth
 47   II,     4.  2       |              relationship between the level of life expectancy in 1970
 48   II,     4.  2       |              Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth
 49   II,     4.  2       |              Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth
 50   II,     4.  2       |              relationship between the level of life expectancy in 1970
 51   II,     4.  2       |              Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth
 52   II,     4.  2       |              Relationship between the level of life expectancy at birth
 53   II,     5.  1.  1   |          Figure 5.1.1). At individual level, the control of behavioural
 54   II,     5.  1.  1   |               important at population level selected from WHO HFA database (htt 7)
 55   II,     5.  1.  1   |          Wallace, 2004). Whilst a low level of education and/or a manual
 56   II,     5.  1.  1   |           inhalable particles, ground level ozone), damp and changes
 57   II,     5.  1.  1   |          drivers of CKD at population level. Patients with neoplasias
 58   II,     5.  1.  2   |            Organizations. At national level, health decision makers
 59   II,     5.  1.  4   |            and strongly intensify the level of information for the sick.~ ~
 60   II,     5.  2.  2   |               important at population level were selected: hypertension,
 61   II,     5.  2.  3   |             by changes in the average level of risk factors, such as
 62   II,     5.  2.  3   |               poor nutrition and high level of psycho-social stress
 63   II,     5.  2.  4   |            the fact that there are no level over or under which the
 64   II,     5.  2.  4   |               factors at a favourable level throughout our life.~ ~Although
 65   II,     5.  2.  4   |               is well known, national level data are difficult to obtain
 66   II,     5.  2.  5   |              maintain this favourable level during their life. Therefore,
 67   II,     5.  2.  5   |             population and individual level, notably by identifying
 68   II,     5.  2.  6   |               showed that the average level of total plasma cholesterol
 69   II,     5.  2.  6   |           vegetables, and an adequate level of physical activity can
 70   II,     5.  3.  2   |           institution. The population level cancer patient data are
 71   II,     5.  3.  2   |             cancer data at population level;~· cancer registries need
 72   II,     5.  3.  6   |             i.e those with the lowest level of prognosis (Figures 5.
 73   II,     5.  3.  6   |         estimates remained at the low level of ~42% for the entire period,
 74   II,     5.  3.  7   |           effectiveness at population level. Organised screening programmes
 75   II,     5.  3.  7   |              be addressed at European level. Pap smear test is able
 76   II,     5.  3.  7   |              is available at national level without further delays due
 77   II,     5.  3.  7   |            define, mainly at national level and in some countries also
 78   II,     5.  3.  7   |            countries also at regional level, priorities and main objectives
 79   II,     5.  3.  7   |              at national and European level. EUROCAN+PLUS aim is to
 80   II,     5.  3.  7   |             be improved at a national level: identifying necessary actions
 81   II,     5.  3.  7   |             actions at trans-national level is a European added value
 82   II,     5.  4.  1   |           diabetes at national and EU level. As for many other chronic
 83   II,     5.  4.  2   |           information.~On a technical level, computerised medical records
 84   II,     5.  4.  2   |               a broader international level.~ ~Table 5.4.1. Recommendations
 85   II,     5.  4.  2   |      standardization.~At the National level, it is worth mentioning
 86   II,     5.  4.  2   |                 while at the regional level the best referenced example
 87   II,     5.  4.  2   |               we are uncertain on the level of representativeness of
 88   II,     5.  4.  2   |         series of HES at the European level are still in their initial
 89   II,     5.  4.  2   |      representativeness at a national level must be carefully ascertained,
 90   II,     5.  4.  2   |             countries at the national level.~ ~
 91   II,     5.  4.  2   |              months, with an abnormal level~11~Percent of diabetic subjects
 92   II,     5.  4.  2   |            and are not reported here.~Level of HbA1c>7.0% is an indicator
 93   II,     5.  4.  2   |       comparable and applicable at EU level.~Measurement of total cholesterol
 94   II,     5.  4.  2   |             months.~Total cholesterol level>5 mmol/l is an important
 95   II,     5.  4.  2   |               months.~LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l is an important
 96   II,     5.  4.  2   |               months.~HDL cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <
 97   II,     5.  4.  2   |              12 months.~Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l is an important
 98   II,     5.  4.  2   |           last 12 months.~An abnormal level of albuminuria and proteinuria
 99   II,     5.  4.  2   |               blood pressure and age.~Level of blood pressure is measured
100   II,     5.  4.  3   |             Spain) and 98% (Finland).~Level of HbA1c>7.0%. According
101   II,     5.  4.  3   |             of 87%.~Total cholesterol level>5 mmol/l. In EUCID databases
102   II,     5.  4.  3   |              testing.~LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l. Crude percentages
103   II,     5.  4.  3   |             above 65.~HDL cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <
104   II,     5.  4.  3   |            for Denmark.~Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l. In EUCID databases
105   II,     5.  4.  3   |          people above 75.~An abnormal level of albuminuria and proteinuria.
106   II,     5.  4.  3   |           Finland) and 100% (Cyprus).~Level of blood pressure. The percentage
107   II,     5.  4.  4   |              and analysing data at EU level. There are very large discrepancies
108   II,     5.  4.  6   |               at broader geographical level. The EU Program of Community
109   II,     5.  4.  6   |    surveillance system at continental level. In the field of diabetes,
110   II,     5.  4.  6   |            its morbidity” at national level. The set of indicators released
111   II,     5.  4.  6   |            which indicate clearly the level of quality of care that
112   II,     5.  4.  6   |           benchmark for assessing the level of implementation of national
113   II,     5.  4.  6   |             and reporting at national level of comprehensive diabetes
114   II,     5.  4.  6   |              determinants at European level, including a coherent and
115   II,     5.  4.  7   |       management);~· population (area level); and~· risk-adjusted indicators (
116   II,     5.  4.  7   |            locally and at continental level.~Approaches proposed by
117   II,     5.  4.  7   |         improve surveillance at local level. As a matter of fact, it
118   II,     5.  4.  8   |            Care at the health systems level in OECD countries, OECD
119   II,     5.  5.Int   |            not yet exist at Community level. Such a strategy would be
120   II,     5.  5.Int   |               mental illness, and the level of support for their family
121   II,     5.  5.Int   |               act jointly at European level.~· Strengthening and assisting
122   II,     5.  5.  1   |           2003) and even at community level (Berk et al., 2006) and
123   II,     5.  5.  1   |          weighting. Thus, on European level, comparison of relative
124   II,     5.  5.  1   |                only.~ ~Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%) among those
125   II,     5.  5.  1   |          interviewed presented a high level of psychological distress.
126   II,     5.  5.  1   |            the highest also at global level, 70 per 100 000 and Lithuanian
127   II,     5.  5.  1   |         Determinants for the European level (2004-6), provided final
128   II,     5.  5.  2   |          Wallace, 2004). Whilst a low level of education and/or a manual
129   II,     5.  5.  2   |            associations to assess the level of support provided to people
130   II,     5.  5.  2   |              Europe and improving the level of care;~· Addressing the
131   II,     5.  5.  3   |             conclusions on population level. Several population groups
132   II,     5.  5.  3   |          emphasised that the evidence level for reviewed studies is
133   II,     5.  5.  3   |             measurement~ ~On national level, limited data are mostly
134   II,     5.  5.  3   |             at European/international level (Alexander et al, in press).~ ~
135   II,     5.  5.  3   |               Romania~X~ ~At national level data about the general morbidity
136   II,     5.  5.  3   |         collection starts from county level; the data are generally
137   II,     5.  5.  3   |         weight control, with a higher level for girls (18%) than for
138   II,     5.  5.  3   |               weight. Once again, the level increases with age (WHO,
139   II,     5.  5.  3   |            national and international level.~Effective prevention is
140   II,     5.  5.  3   |              system at European Union level. We must bear in mind that
141   II,     5.  5.  3   |        spectrum disorders have a high level of excess mortality due
142   II,     5.  5.  3   |        Finland has by far the highest level of antipsychotic prescriptions
143   II,     5.  5.  3   |              excellence on a European level in order to enhance research
144   II,     5.  5.  3   |             schizophrenia at European level covering aetiology and pathogenesis,
145   II,     5.  5.  3   |        function at a mild to moderate level. As they grow older, their
146   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Great Britain. At European level, however, the early detection
147   II,     5.  5.  3   |             coping at a below average level and 16% were seriously behind (
148   II,     5.  5.  3   |             national or multinational level and serve as a basis for
149   II,     5.  5.  3   |               latitudinal gradient to level off. Scotland’s rates are
150   II,     5.  5.  3   |           indexes adjusting for price level differences in different
151   II,     5.  5.  3   |           risk especially at familial level. Major environmental factors,
152   II,     5.  5.  3   |               operative at population level, among which vitamin D status
153   II,     5.  5.  3   |             to 10) which indicate the level of disability. Further lumping
154   II,     5.  5.  3   |         gender, education, disability level) that were directly associated
155   II,     5.  5.  3   |              will be used at national level to promote the rights of
156   II,     5.  5.  3   |            promote, at European Union level, the employment of people
157   II,     5.  5.  3   |               of the Code at national level will help overcome the currently
158   II,     5.  5.  3   |             people with MS at country level. The contents of the database
159   II,     5.  5.  3   |  International, European and National Level~There are active MS societies
160   II,     5.  5.  3   |          parent body at international level, the Multiple Sclerosis
161   II,     5.  5.  3   |              to indicate the relative level of disability. Rates stratified
162   II,     5.  6.  3   |              are seldom fatal and the level of disability for many is
163   II,     5.  6.  3   |               be present when the BMD level in women was 2.5 standard
164   II,     5.  6.  3   |             and often not to the same level as prior to the fracture (
165   II,     5.  7.  1   |              biomarkers at population level.~ ~Figure 5.7.1. Development
166   II,     5.  7.  4   |          drivers of CKD at population level. Patients with neoplasias
167   II,     5.  7.  5   |             been accepted at national level.~· The public health policy
168   II,     5.  7.  5   |              CKD and ESRD at national level, as the national health
169   II,     5.  7.  5   |           needs, assessed at regional level. In 2004 the French Ministry
170   II,     5.  7.  5   |        prevalence of CKD at community level has been submitted by the
171   II,     5.  7.  5   |           comparable at international level.~ ~
172   II,     5.  7.  6   |         specific policies at European level may be of help for improving
173   II,     5.  9.  3   |        between asthma (74% of country level and 36% of centre level
174   II,     5.  9.  3   |               level and 36% of centre level variation explained), hay
175   II,     5.  9.  5   |                  Policies~ ~At policy level the most important recommendations
176   II,     5.  9.  5   |               the primary health care level in which general practitioners,
177   II,     5.  9.  5   |               of patients. The second level is the specialized care
178   II,     5.  9.  5   |              in severe cases. At this level there are Pneumology (Respiratory
179   II,     5. 10.  1   |           variation in FA lies in the level of exposure to cross-reactive
180   II,     5. 10.  2   |             vary greatly, with a high level of redundancy and relatively
181   II,     5. 10.  5   |            not likely to increase the level of allergenicity assessed
182   II,     5. 11.  3   |            not experience ACD at this level of nickel release, whilst
183   II,     5. 11.  3   |              had remained at the same level (T Hasan et al. 2005).~ ~ ~
184   II,     5. 12.  4   |              in any case far from the level reached in central and Eastern
185   II,     5. 12.  5   |             recommended at population level to avoid cirrhosis.~In subjects
186   II,     5. 12.  6   |               mortality at population level. Sudden variations in cirrhosis
187   II,     5. 12.  6   |       cirrhosis mortality at national level in various European countries
188   II,     5. 13       |                BMI) above the optimum level of 21 kg/m2 is among the
189   II,     5. 13       |                high blood cholesterol level, high BMI, low fruit and
190   II,     5. 14.  1   |               oral health status, the level of untreated dental caries
191   II,     5. 14.  2   |     collection system at the national level: only United Kingdom has
192   II,     5. 14.  3   |              For instance, the actual level of dental caries in Portuguese
193   II,     5. 14.  3   |        European countries have a high level of untreated diseases. Oral
194   II,     5. 14.  3   |             related to socio-economic level, low income being a strong
195   II,     5. 14.  3   |             age, race, dental status, level of education and family
196   II,     5. 14.  5   |               oral health status, the level of untreated dental caries
197   II,     5. 14.  5   |            both at EU and at national level. The strategy is to promote
198   II,     5. 14.  6   |           also a commitment at global level to improve oral health worldwide.
199   II,     5. 15.  2   |               very much linked to the level of knowledge about its genetic
200   II,     5. 15.  3   |           reasons for unavailability, level of reimbursement, population
201   II,     5. 15.  4   |          place in Europe either at EU level or at Member States (MS)
202   II,     5. 15.  4   |              or at Member States (MS) level.~Regulation No 141/2000
203   II,     5. 15.  4   |           products.~ ~At Member State level, several countries have
204   II,     5. 15.  4   |             individual and collective level; coordination of policies
205   II,     5. 15.  4   |        policies and initiatives at MS level and EU level.~ ~A Community
206   II,     5. 15.  4   |        initiatives at MS level and EU level.~ ~A Community action programme
207   II,     5. 15.  4   |            the aim of ensuring a high level of health protection in
208   II,     5. 15.  4   |               and co-ordination at EU level to encourage continuity
209   II,     5. 15.  5   |            diseases for improving the level of empowerment of patients.
210   II,     6.  3.  1   |            with the Member States, EU level initiatives can assist in
211   II,     6.  3.  1   |             be brought up to the same level, another is that we need ‘
212   II,     6.  3.  1   |                Extrapolated to the EU level these country estimates
213   II,     6.  3.  2   |              at globally and European level. If the present rapid negative
214   II,     6.  3.  2   |               association between the level of use of specific antibiotic
215   II,     6.  3.  3   |              surveillance at national level, the currently available
216   II,     6.  3.  4   |   institutions to reach an acceptable level of preparedness.~ ~Key areas
217   II,     6.  3.  4   |            plans operational at local level;~· inter-sectoral operability
218   II,     6.  3.  4   |               operability at national level;~· stepping up prevention
219   II,     6.  3.  6   |             safety authorities. At EU level, besides the ECDC, also
220   II,     6.  3.  6   |           VTEC infections at the farm level are important in preventing
221   II,     6.  3.  6   |              farm and food-processing level to prevent the contamination
222   II,     6.  4.  3   |            and encouraged by the good level of European and international
223   II,     6.  4.  5   |              b) support, at Community level, educational campaigns directed
224   II,     7.  2.  3   |   international databases is the high level of desegregations, i.e.
225   II,     7.  2.  6   |               is aggregated at the EU level in a standardised way and
226   II,     7.  3.  1   |             of national surveys at EU level anticipate also the incidence
227   II,     7.  3.  2   |               injuries and has a high level of international comparability.
228   II,     7.  3.  2   |            mortality rate to the same level as in the Netherlands (Figure
229   II,     7.  4.  3   |             Community and at national level.~ ~Informative sources on
230   II,     7.  4.  6   |                national and Community level. Actions in the field of
231   II,     7.  5       |              stakeholders at national level; and~· Disseminate injury
232   II,     7.  5       |       information service at national level where stakeholders get answers
233   II,     7.  6       | organizational capacities at national level, e.g. national focal agencies
234   II,     8.  1.  5   |        initiatives at EU and national level to identify and remove the
235   II,     8.  2.  1   |           also be gathered at country level, for example through a post
236   II,     8.  2.  1   |      significantly lower than average level of general intellectual
237   II,     8.  2.  1   |               old age.~Efforts at the level of health systems are also
238   II,     8.  2.  1   |                 At European Community level, all health disparities
239   II,     8.  2.  1   |            policy makers at Community level as well as within their
240   II,     8.  2.  2   |        problem at personal and family level, as well as at community
241   II,     8.  2.  2   |           community and public health level; non-availability of and/
242   II,     8.  2.  2   |              carried out at community level and integrated into school
243   II,     8.  2.  3   |      rehabilitation at the population level? Hearing impairments in
244   II,     9           |              is controversy about the level of risk of congenital anomaly
245   II,     9           |       educated only to primary school level have a higher risk of health
246   II,     9           |               known at the population level across Europe. Such disabilities
247   II,     9           |            and vegetables at national level, and the prevalence of ischaemic
248   II,     9           |           with decreasing educational level. People with low levels
249   II,     9           |            and small increases in the level of physical fitness, for
250   II,     9           |          elderly (Volkert, 2005). The level of physical activity among
251   II,     9.  1.  2   |          nationally and at a European level by EUROCAT. The proportion
252   II,     9.  1.  2   |        anomaly in that country b) the level of investigation by autopsy
253   II,     9.  1.  2   |              is controversy about the level of risk of congenital anomaly
254   II,     9.  1.  2   |              anomaly risk at European level, but the evidence to date
255   II,     9.  1.  2   |               be understood at social level, in order to create an appropriate
256   II,     9.  1.  2   |           acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands.
257   II,     9.  2.  2   |        produces reports at the global level, though with data for each
258   II,     9.  2.  2   |            invaluable at the national level, but may not be comparable
259   II,     9.  2.  2   |              national or sub-national level. Research may also be failing
260   II,     9.  2.  3   |            otherwise viewed as a high level of snacking. A recent report
261   II,     9.  2.  4   |       educated only to primary school level have a higher risk of health
262   II,     9.  2.  4   |               known at the population level across Europe. Such disabilities
263   II,     9.  2.  5   |           stakeholders together at EU level to initiate Europe-wide
264   II,     9.  2.  5   |           substantially improving the level of health of disadvantaged
265   II,     9.  3.  1   |          feelings toward the partner, level of past sexual function,
266   II,     9.  3.  1   |             social class, educational level, experience of physical
267   II,     9.  3.  1   |              2006) suggest a repeated level <300 ng/dl (or 10.4 nmol/
268   II,     9.  3.  1   |           require ART. When the serum level is > 346 ng/dL (12 nmol/
269   II,     9.  3.  1   |            and vegetables at national level, and the prevalence of ischaemic
270   II,     9.  3.  1   |           with decreasing educational level. People with low levels
271   II,     9.  3.  1   |           finance allocation at State level. There are several strata
272   II,     9.  3.  1   |      institutes operating below State level to sign up to implementation,
273   II,     9.  3.  1   |               to, right down to local level. In this way, good quality
274   II,     9.  3.  1   |               be obtained at European level.~ ~As life expectancy continues
275   II,     9.  3.  2   |        Previous work to establish the level of maternal morbidity within
276   II,     9.  3.  2   |          perinatal period at European level. Descriptions of healthcare
277   II,     9.  3.  2   |         indicators useful at national level cannot be transposed for
278   II,     9.  3.  3   |               May 2005) on individual level factors associated with
279   II,     9.  3.  3   |            reducing risk (educational level and source of information
280   II,     9.  3.  3   |         social class, having a higher level of education and age of
281   II,     9.  4.  4   |            and small increases in the level of physical fitness, for
282   II,     9.  4.  4   |          elderly (Volkert, 2005). The level of physical activity among
283   II,     9.  4.  5   |         social isolation at community level. These policies would have
284   II,     9.  4.  5   |            income or wealth;~· a high level of quality of care; and~·
285   II,     9.  4.  5   |              differences in education level, and by subsequent income,
286   II,     9.  5.  3   |           with decreasing educational level (EP/EIWH, 2007).~ ~ ~Individuals
287   II,     9.  5.  3   |       educated only to primary school level have a higher risk of health
288   II,     9.  5.  3   | socio-economic status and educational level as well as gender roles
289   II,     9.  5.  3   |        countries reported no moderate level physical activity in the
290   II,     9.  5.  3   |               reported daily moderate level physical activity. Investigations
291   II,     9.  5.  4   |              policy development at EU level.~ ~Some suggestions to this
292   II,     9.  5.  4   |              interest at governmental level in this new field. Examples
293   II,     9.  5.  4   |               policy areas seen at EU level. As men tend to present
294   II,     9.  5.  4   |       regional, national and European level policy documents could be
295   II,     9.  5.  5   |            and at European Commission level. Among the reasons that
296  III,    10.  1       |           factors such as poverty and level of education (EEA, 2005).
297  III,    10.  1       |               determinants affect the level and sustainability of the
298  III,    10.  1       |              from those at individual level to those of societal and
299  III,    10.  1.  1   |            balanced with the activity level. (Melzer et al, 2005). Most
300  III,    10.  1.  1   |          children with a low activity level (Parsons et al, 1999). Ambler
301  III,    10.  1.  1   |        exercise, but also affects the level of engagement in physical
302  III,    10.  1.  1   |             use depends on the stress level and the individualsresources,
303  III,    10.  2.  1   |             with a higher educational level. Women reach their peak
304  III,    10.  2.  1   |              are similar and the high level remains constant for a much
305  III,    10.  2.  1   |             tobacco control at global level.~ ~EU action focuses on
306  III,    10.  2.  1   |        control at EU and Member State level.~Within the Treaties of
307  III,    10.  2.  1   |          implemented at (sub)national level. These measures differ as
308  III,    10.  2.  1   |       supportive measures at national level. Key examples of these measures
309  III,    10.  2.  1   |          implemented at (sub)national level. These measures differ as
310  III,    10.  2.  1   |            pure alcohol each year – a level over 2.5 times the rest
311  III,    10.  2.  1   |        southern Europe has an average level below 56g, while in the
312  III,    10.  2.  1   |              Generally the higher the level of alcohol consumption,
313  III,    10.  2.  1   |           blood alcohol concentration level (BAC). Comparison of blood
314  III,    10.  2.  1   |     co-morbidity as a function of the level of alcohol use. There is
315  III,    10.  2.  1   |         decreases to about 80% of the level of non-drinkers at 20 grams (
316  III,    10.  2.  1   |             across the EU.~ ~The high level of harm to young people
317  III,    10.  2.  1   |             as well as the individual level. Areas with the most manual
318  III,    10.  2.  1   |               a maximum blood-alcohol level (BAL) for driving is a well-established
319  III,    10.  2.  1   |   countermeasure. Over the years, the level specified as maximum has
320  III,    10.  2.  1   |          lower BALs (including a zero level) for young or novice drivers;
321  III,    10.  2.  1   |         driver with a BAL above a low level, for reducing repeat infractions
322  III,    10.  2.  1   |           bar-related issues as noise level and customer behaviour.
323  III,    10.  2.  1   |              opioid users at national level range roughly between one
324  III,    10.  2.  1   |              in all countries and the level of their intensity also
325  III,    10.  2.  1   |              but often at a very high level. Figure 10.2.3.7 shows the
326  III,    10.  2.  1   |             concern at European Union level since the late eighties,
327  III,    10.  2.  1   |             interventions at national level.~ ~Prevention is sometimes
328  III,    10.  2.  1   |             programme outlets and the level of provision of injecting
329  III,    10.  2.  1   |            both at national and at EU level. This development was strengthened
330  III,    10.  2.  1   |         disease itself. At population level, the incidence of dental
331  III,    10.  2.  1   |        lifestyle predicts educational level. J Dent Res 2003; 82:~361-
332  III,    10.  2.  1   |             expenditure above resting level (Caspersen et al, 1985).
333  III,    10.  2.  1   |            but not at the recommended level of regularity while time
334  III,    10.  2.  1   |        starting from a slightly lower level but ending at slightly higher
335  III,    10.  2.  1   |          levels, from local community level, through governments, to
336  III,    10.  2.  1   |            policy and action as local level initiatives have the greatest
337  III,    10.  2.  1   |                BMI) above the optimum level of 21 kg/m2 is among the
338  III,    10.  2.  1   |                high blood cholesterol level, high BMI, low fruit and
339  III,    10.  2.  1   |            monitoring at the national level the nutritional status of
340  III,    10.  2.  1   |        consumption data at individual level. However, national dietary
341  III,    10.  2.  1   |              data obtained a national level can often not be compared
342  III,    10.  2.  1   |             harmonising international level dietary data from household
343  III,    10.  2.  1   |          urbanisation and educational level of household head. DAFNE
344  III,    10.  2.  1   |         availability at the household level. It includes data from 75
345  III,    10.  2.  1   |            were collected at European level.~ ~The rationale of the
346  III,    10.  2.  1   |              intake at the individual level in as much detail as possible
347  III,    10.  2.  1   |         groups categorized per income level, occupational level or educational
348  III,    10.  2.  1   |            income level, occupational level or educational attainment
349  III,    10.  2.  1   |             or educational attainment level has been noticed (Monteiro
350  III,    10.  2.  1   |         syndrome, indicated by a high level of serum insulin, a high
351  III,    10.  2.  1   |           serum insulin, a high blood level of low-density lipoprotein
352  III,    10.  2.  1   |        lipoprotein cholesterol, a low level of high-density lipoprotein
353  III,    10.  2.  1   |             not reach the recommended level of 400 µg per day. The lower
354  III,    10.  2.  1   |              recommended daily intake level. While the recommendation
355  III,    10.  2.  1   |               µg is still valid at EU level, most countries have their
356  III,    10.  2.  1   |         Lifestyle factors such as the level of physical activity, stress,
357  III,    10.  2.  1   |         policies at national or local level and encourages a multisectoral
358  III,    10.  2.  1   |         community, local or programme level (Ebbeling et al, 2002).
359  III,    10.  2.  1   |         project or policy at national level, which deals with the larger
360  III,    10.  2.  1   |             or programmes at national level is lacking.~ ~As stressed
361  III,    10.  2.  1   |         levels. Firstly, at the macro level to ensure consistent, comparable
362  III,    10.  2.  1   |           coherent action at European level and draws attention to the
363  III,    10.  2.  1   |               added value at European level and analysing the advantages
364  III,    10.  2.  1   |               developed on a European level but at the most on a national
365  III,    10.  2.  1   |             at the most on a national level, and even there specific
366  III,    10.  2.  1   |         recommended physical activity level or on the basis of habitual
367  III,    10.  2.  1   |        habitual low physical activity level. In other words, should
368  III,    10.  2.  1   |              higher physical activity level. The last-mentioned approach
369  III,    10.  2.  1   |               whilst providing a high level of consumer protection.~ ~
370  III,    10.  2.  2   |               showed that the average level of total plasma cholesterol
371  III,    10.  2.  3   |            pressure.~ ~Blood pressure level is associated with an increased
372  III,    10.  2.  3   |           vegetables, and an adequate level of physical activity can
373  III,    10.  2.  4   |           care sector and on a policy level across Europe and globally,
374  III,    10.  2.  4   |              population health.~ ~The level of genome-based knowledge
375  III,    10.  2.  4   |               will also depend on the level of individualisation in
376  III,    10.  2.  4   |               functional genomic unit level, and to better understand
377  III,    10.  2.  4   |    information at the microanatomical level by the use of immunohistochemistry
378  III,    10.  2.  4   |            available in Europe.~ ~The level of genome-based knowledge
379  III,    10.  2.  4   |          obliged to strive for a high level of health protection in
380  III,    10.  2.  4   |           care sector and on a policy level across Europe and globally,
381  III,    10.  2.  5   |           neuro-toxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation”.
382  III,    10.  3.  1   |             A-weighted sound pressure level, where A-weighted means
383  III,    10.  3.  1   |     A-weighted average sound pressure level.~LaeqT~Exposure to noise
384  III,    10.  3.  1   |             equivalent sound pressure level (measured in dB(A)) over
385  III,    10.  3.  1   |            Lden~The Day-Evening Night level is the equivalent sound
386  III,    10.  3.  1   |               is the equivalent sound level over 24 hours, increasing
387  III,    10.  3.  1   |           States. On an international level Eurostat / OECD have gathered
388  III,    10.  3.  1   |              lung cancer risk and the level of radon exposure (Darby
389  III,    10.  3.  1   |               led to increased ground level exposure to UVR in recent
390  III,    10.  3.  1   |        conjunction with the worrisome level of sun-bed use among adolescents
391  III,    10.  3.  1   |               at non-thermal exposure level. In conclusion, no health
392  III,    10.  3.  1   |               at a much more detailed level will be facilitated, e.g.
393  III,    10.  3.  1   |        sources and 5 dB band of sound level along with its geographical
394  III,    10.  3.  1   |            the indoor radon reference level (annual average concentration
395  III,    10.  3.  1   |               new guidelines at local level is an area for improvement
396  III,    10.  3.  1   |           implemented at pan European level. The complete phasing-out
397  III,    10.  3.  2   |           children’s health at global level(WHO, 2006). The child-focused
398  III,    10.  3.  2   |            neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation”.~ ~
399  III,    10.  3.  2   |        suggest that a ‘safeexposure level currently cannot be established.
400  III,    10.  3.  4   |              surface temperature, sea level and heat waves, and with
401  III,    10.  3.  4   |            impacts will depend on the level of adaptation by tourists
402  III,    10.  3.  4   |       assessment also reported a high level of distress among the community,
403  III,    10.  3.  4   |             is closely related to the level of public awareness of health-related
404  III,    10.  4.  1   |             WHO air quality guideline level (AQG) (20 μg/m3 ) (1), giving
405  III,    10.  4.  1   |           both Community and national level. The cost of action has
406  III,    10.  4.  1   |               including the increased level of hygiene in homes and
407  III,    10.  4.  1   |            effect at whole population level and a 35 ppb cut-off point
408  III,    10.  4.  1   |              for 2020 and setting the level of ambition regarding air
409  III,    10.  4.  2   |         attempted to guarantee a high level of food safety by improving
410  III,    10.  4.  2   |               aims at ensuring a high level of protection of human life
411  III,    10.  4.  2   |              might undermine the high level of consumer protection pursued
412  III,    10.  4.  2   |               risk to ensure the high level of health protection deemed
413  III,    10.  4.  2   |          concern that an unacceptable level of risk to health exists
414  III,    10.  4.  2   |        aggregated and individual food level. This concerns food consumption
415  III,    10.  4.  2   |            Commission to increase the level of food safety and restore
416  III,    10.  4.  2   |            what believed at political level. Science-based control measures
417  III,    10.  4.  2   |              accordance with the high level of consumer protection that
418  III,    10.  4.  2   |        necessary to achieve this high level of health protection for
419  III,    10.  4.  2   |          body weight (BfR 2006). This level may already be exceeded
420  III,    10.  4.  2   |           Stockholm convention. At EU level, legislation was adopted
421  III,    10.  4.  2   |           them.~ ~The Maximum Residue Level (MRL) is the maximum specified
422  III,    10.  4.  2   |             the 10 years. At European level, national estimates of use
423  III,    10.  4.  2   |               with the MRLs set at EU level. Each year since 1996 monitoring
424  III,    10.  4.  2   |         formats used at Member States level should be developed in close
425  III,    10.  4.  2   |              programme.~ ~At European level, harmonised provisions for
426  III,    10.  4.  2   |    determination, which is the lowest level that surveillance laboratories
427  III,    10.  4.  2   |           young children and sets the level at 0.01mg/kg, again the
428  III,    10.  4.  2   |      available data indicate that the level of intake is below the reference
429  III,    10.  4.  2   |               harmonized at Community level, applicable to any product
430  III,    10.  4.  2   |               harmonized at Community level, only when the measures
431  III,    10.  4.  2   |               harmonized at Community level. The implementation of the
432  III,    10.  4.  2   |        globally, rather than at local level alone(EFSA, 2006c).~ ~Fitness
433  III,    10.  4.  2   |       research to reliably assess the level of protection for the entire
434  III,    10.  4.  2   |           work is, then, shared at EU level as follows, according to
435  III,    10.  4.  2   |            peer reviews the DAR at EU level with all MS, applicant(s)
436  III,    10.  4.  2   |           order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health,
437  III,    10.  4.  2   |      metabolism, intended use and the level of unwanted substances contained
438  III,    10.  4.  2   |      obligation to ensure the highest level of consumer protection and
439  III,    10.  4.  2   |            food and feed at Community level. Today, national law governing
440  III,    10.  4.  2   |             to harmonise at Community level general food law principles (
441  III,    10.  4.  2   |      guidelines drawn up at Community level. These guidelines should
442  III,    10.  4.  3   |              or countries with medium level of development than in other
443  III,    10.  4.  3   |         estimated cancer risk at this level is in the range 1/100-1/
444  III,    10.  4.  3   |               SGU, 2007). At European level, it is estimated that as
445  III,    10.  4.  3   |               time trends at European level difficult. The available
446  III,    10.  4.  3   |          water management at European level. Water flows do not respect
447  III,    10.  4.  3   |          region and geology. At local level, the health impact can be
448  III,    10.  4.  3   |          local treatment at household level significantly reduce the
449  III,    10.  4.  5   |      sufficient to ensure an adequate level of protection for all soil
450  III,    10.  4.  5   |        protection of soil at European level.~On the other hand, at national
451  III,    10.  4.  5   |               other hand, at national level, most of the countries have
452  III,    10.  4.  5   |             industrial structure, the level of implementation of pollution
453  III,    10.  4.  5   |               carried out at European level (EEA, 2007a).~ ~A considerable
454  III,    10.  4.  5   |      sufficient to ensure an adequate level of protection for all soil
455  III,    10.  4.  5   |              management~ ~At national level, inventories or registers
456  III,    10.  4.  5   |               at national or regional level. On the other hand, in most
457  III,    10.  4.  5   |            policy, program or project level, and help judge the potential
458  III,    10.  4.  5   |              on establishing the real level of risk associated with
459  III,    10.  5.  1   |           other areas above the floor level. The classroom should be
460  III,    10.  5.  1   |               Air pollution at street level in European cities. EEA
461  III,    10.  5.  2   |        addition, it indicates a lower level or urbanisation in the EU
462  III,    10.  5.  2   |              by the high urbanization level in the Netherlands, which
463  III,    10.  5.  2   |         general practice according to level of urbanisation and deprived
464  III,    10.  5.  3   |         insurer. In these systems the level of accident reporting is
465  III,    10.  5.  3   |        collect these data on European level. In September 2003, the
466  III,    10.  5.  3   |          outsourcing at international level.~The direct employment effects
467  III,    10.  5.  3   |          national and European policy level. This complicates the implementation
468  III,    10.  5.  3   |      occupational problem at European level (European Agency for Health &
469  III,    10.  5.  3   |               control risks at source level, eliminating or reducing
470  III,    10.  5.  3   |          floors are fixed, stable and level and have no bumps, holes
471  III,    10.  6.  1   |           personality and educational level have been found to be linked
472  III,    10.  6.  1   |           2005, has collected data on level of belonging to voluntary
473  III,    10.  6.  2   |          differences in mortality per level of education in Finland,
474  III,    10.  6.  2   |              with a lower educational level, occupational class or income
475  III,    10.  6.  2   |          occupational class or income level:~· substantial inequalities
476  III,    10.  6.  2   |  self-reported chronic conditions per level of education among people
477  III,    10.  6.  2   |              Europe, indicated by low level of education, occupational
478  III,    10.  6.  2   |            occupational class, income level, or other groups such as
479  III,    10.  6.  2   |          European, national and local level to tackle health inequalities
480  III,    10.  6.  2   |                national and community level. Examples presented here
481  III,    10.  6.  2   |          organisations (www ~ ~Global level~At this level, the work
482  III,    10.  6.  2   |                  Global level~At this level, the work of the Commission
483  III,    10.  6.  2   |              systems (htt ~ ~European level~The European Health and
484  III,    10.  6.  2   |               at improving everyone's level of health closer to that
485  III,    10.  6.  2   |             can improve faster. At EU level this involves many policy
486  III,    10.  6.  2   |                EUROTHINE’.~ ~National level~Member states should develop
487  III,    10.  6.  2   |             and the WHO/EURO.~ ~Local level~Having mentioned activities
488  III,    10.  6.  2   |              at European and national level, we would like to conclude
489  III,    10.  6.  2   |            and brings together a high level Consortium to apply evidence
490  III,    10.  6.  3   |            Europe.~ ~At international level, the Secretary General of
491   IV,    11.  1.  2   |              to 2005 to ensure a high level of reliability, though definitional
492   IV,    11.  1.  3   |              grouped in many ways: by level of (de)centralization; by
493   IV,    11.  1.  4   |           appears to have the highest level of pro-rich inequity in
494   IV,    11.  1.  5   |               variables encompass the level, mix, education and training
495   IV,    11.  1.  5   |               facilities. At European level, the European Foundation
496   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             used to ensure a suitable level of appropriateness of care.
497   IV,    11.  1.  5   |          clinical pharmacists at ward level, along with their traditional
498   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             surveys shed light on the level of responsiveness within
499   IV,    11.  1.  5   |          guidelines. At international level, the World Alliance for
500   IV,    11.  1.  5   |            been conducted at European level, although estimates suggest