1-500 | 501-685
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |           micro-organisms and made the prevention and control of zoonoses
  2    I,     2.  1        |             long-term care and promote prevention, including for those most
  3    I,     2.  2        |          hazardous agents and made the prevention and control of food-borne
  4    I,     2.  4        |                ensuring more effective prevention activities in various settings (
  5    I,     2.  4        |                emphasize promotion and prevention activities over curative
  6    I,     2.  9        |               improved housing and the prevention of winter infections. A
  7    I,     2. 10.  1    |        diseases as well as concepts of prevention and health service delivery,
  8    I,     2. 10.  1    |                 secondary and tertiary prevention. Inter alia, disease prevention
  9    I,     2. 10.  1    |        prevention. Inter alia, disease prevention programme and clinical interventions
 10    I,     2. 10.  1    |       description of groups individual prevention programmes based on the
 11    I,     2. 10.  1    |                risk stratification and prevention.~ ~The development of high-grade “
 12    I,     2. 10.  2    |           level for the evaluation and prevention of the possible health and
 13    I,     2. 10.  3    |             healthy living and illness prevention, electronic health records,
 14   II,     4.  1        |           health promotion and disease prevention agenda, known as Healthy
 15   II,     5.  1.  1    |             the beta cells. So far, no prevention is possible for this type
 16   II,     5.  1.  1    |            also contribute towards the prevention of other conditions and
 17   II,     5.  1.  1    |     determinants considered in primary prevention policies at the moment are:
 18   II,     5.  1.  3    |               field of chronic disease prevention).~The management of chronic
 19   II,     5.  2.Acr    |           European action on secondary prevention through intervention to
 20   II,     5.  2.  1    |            costs increase and make CVD prevention and treatment a priority
 21   II,     5.  2.  2    |               make data validation and prevention more difficult to realize.
 22   II,     5.  2.  4    |                Risk factors in primary prevention~CVD is eminently preventable.
 23   II,     5.  2.  4    |                community-based primary prevention) and clinical trials have
 24   II,     5.  2.  4    |           European action on secondary prevention through intervention to
 25   II,     5.  2.  4    |             European guidelines on CVD prevention had been properly implemented.
 26   II,     5.  2.  5    |        individuals including secondary prevention explained only the remaining
 27   II,     5.  2.  5    |                               5.2.5.1. Prevention~ ~In 1982, the WHO report
 28   II,     5.  2.  5    |                1982, the WHO report on Prevention of coronary heart disease
 29   II,     5.  2.  5    |               strategy and a secondary prevention strategy. Since then, many
 30   II,     5.  2.  5    |               primary’ and ‘secondaryprevention are artificial. Risk assessment,
 31   II,     5.  2.  5    |             established concept in CVD prevention is that individual risk
 32   II,     5.  2.  5    |              are the milestones of CVD prevention. The preferential use of
 33   II,     5.  2.  5    |                must be considered.~For prevention approaches of CVD risk factors
 34   II,     5.  2.  5    |     strengthening of comprehensive CVD prevention plans and to ensure that
 35   II,     5.  2.  6    |         individuals considered for CVD prevention.~ ~Blood pressure and CVD
 36   II,     5.  2.  6    |            cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment. JAMA 275:
 37   II,     5.  2.  7    |              Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation.~EUROSTAT [htt ] (
 38   II,     5.  2.  7    |              on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive
 39   II,     5.  2.  7    |          Finland: successful long-term prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
 40   II,     5.  2.  7    |               Expert Committee (1982): Prevention of coronary heart disease.
 41   II,     5.  3.  6    |         Cancer-service infrastructure, prevention and screening programmes,
 42   II,     5.  3.  7    |            Cancer control means cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment,
 43   II,     5.  3.  7    |                        5.3.6.1 Primary prevention~ ~The most obvious ways
 44   II,     5.  3.  7    |              of cancers. Thus, primary prevention in the context of cancer
 45   II,     5.  3.  7    |             See Chapter 10 for primary prevention approaches of cancer risk
 46   II,     5.  3.  7    |             Early diagnosis (secondary prevention or screening)~ ~An organised (
 47   II,     5.  3.  7    |          different kinds, from primary prevention of risk factors to early
 48   II,     5.  3.  7    |                cancer plan for primary prevention, screening, early diagnosis
 49   II,     5.  3.  7    |                cancer control factors: prevention, early detection, diagnosis,
 50   II,     5.  3.  8    |             incidence: address primary prevention as a main priority, sustain
 51   II,     5.  3.  9    |             Physical activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective.
 52   II,     5.  3.  9    |              European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable
 53   II,     5.  4.  1    |                to be developed for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment
 54   II,     5.  4.  2    |              solution.~ ~Plans for the prevention, identification and treatment
 55   II,     5.  4.  4    |              important risk factor for prevention, i.e. body mass index, increases
 56   II,     5.  4.  4    |              on this front with proper prevention strategies.~Incidence of
 57   II,     5.  4.  6    |            T2DM, primary intervention (prevention of obesity and overweight)
 58   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       5.4.6.2. Primary prevention~For Type 1 diabetes, genetic
 59   II,     5.  4.  6    |             the beta cells. So far, no prevention is possible for this type
 60   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     5.4.6.3. Secondary prevention~Screening may be an important
 61   II,     5.  4.  6    |                weapon in the secondary prevention of diabetes, but this poses
 62   II,     5.  4.  6    |             where health promotion and prevention are particularly developed.
 63   II,     5.  4.  6    |            Recommendation for diabetes prevention, diagnosis and control;~·
 64   II,     5.  4.  6    |               Council to make care and prevention of diabetes a priority and
 65   II,     5.  4.  6    |                of the EU Conference on Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes, organized
 66   II,     5.  4.  6    |              of healthy lifestyles and prevention of type 2 diabetes at the
 67   II,     5.  4.  6    |              of evidence-based disease prevention, screening~· and management
 68   II,     5.  4.  6    |           public awareness and primary prevention measures that are accessible
 69   II,     5.  4.  6    |               and accessible secondary prevention measures based on national
 70   II,     5.  4.  6    |               including an emphasis on prevention, involving primary, secondary
 71   II,     5.  4.  6    |                of health promotion and prevention policies and programmes
 72   II,     5.  4.  6    |            national diabetes plans and prevention measures, on the basis of
 73   II,     5.  4.  6    |    implementation of national diabetes prevention programmes and measures;~·
 74   II,     5.  4.  6    |              national policies for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment
 75   II,     5.  4.  7    |              from health promotion and prevention to screening, diagnosis,
 76   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 Diabetes registers and prevention strategies: towards an active
 77   II,     5.  4.  8    |              of healthy lifestyles and prevention of type 2 diabetes, 2733rd
 78   II,     5.  4.  8    |              Occurrence, treatment and prevention seen in a gender perspective.
 79   II,     5.  5.Int    |            mental disabilities and the prevention of stress at the workplace,
 80   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 based tools for use in prevention, diagnosis and care; Regional
 81   II,     5.  5.Int    |               with mental ill healthPrevention of mental distressPromotion
 82   II,     5.  5.  1    |                health of older people, prevention of depression and suicide
 83   II,     5.  5.  1    |         promotion of mental health and prevention of mood and anxiety disorders
 84   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Mental health promotion and Prevention Policies (2004- ) was especially
 85   II,     5.  5.  1    |              targeted at promotion and prevention of stress, anxiety, depression
 86   II,     5.  5.  1    |               mental health promotion, prevention and services.~o The establishment
 87   II,     5.  5.  1    |           mental disabilities, and the prevention of stress at workplaces.~ ~
 88   II,     5.  5.  1    |             increasing activity in the prevention and promotion of mental
 89   II,     5.  5.  1    |            mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders.~ ~It
 90   II,     5.  5.  2    |                on the Epidemiology and Prevention of Dementia.~EuroCoDe~European
 91   II,     5.  5.  2    |                on the Epidemiology and Prevention of Dementia. The EURODEM
 92   II,     5.  5.  2    |            also contribute towards the prevention of other conditions and
 93   II,     5.  5.  2    |             Grouping working group on “Prevention”. Prevention is also being
 94   II,     5.  5.  2    |         working group on “Prevention”. Prevention is also being taken up by
 95   II,     5.  5.  2    |             factors and risk reduction/prevention strategies and an analysis
 96   II,     5.  5.  2    |                discontinued.~ ~Primary Prevention~Primary preventive measures
 97   II,     5.  5.  2    |                factors. Useful primary prevention measures, which could also
 98   II,     5.  5.  2    |              et al, 2005).~ ~Secondary Prevention~Early diagnosis and access
 99   II,     5.  5.  2    |              the category of secondary prevention. Combined in some cases
100   II,     5.  5.  2    |             the convention.~ ~Tertiary Prevention~The aim of tertiary prevention
101   II,     5.  5.  2    |         Prevention~The aim of tertiary prevention is to try to limit disability
102   II,     5.  5.  2(25)|            Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of disorders of the cognitive
103   II,     5.  5.  2    |             efficient health services, prevention and early diagnosis, awareness
104   II,     5.  5.  2    |            Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of disorders of the cognitive
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |              The Center for Health and Prevention in Adolescence and the 1st
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |         international level.~Effective prevention is beneficial in reducing
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |             that primary and secondary prevention are cost-saving and in the
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of families and children. Prevention can be named as a strategy
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |          school-based intervention and prevention activities play an important
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and coordinate education prevention programmes.~Parents themselves
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |                role in eating disorder prevention. They should take into account
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2005): Eating disorders prevention: parents are key players [
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |              schizophrenia and relapse prevention are antipsychotics. In general
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |        development of new drugs, since prevention will hopefully be far more
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |             also for long-term relapse prevention, many will benefit from
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |          measures.~Prodromal state and prevention~People even in an initial
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |                prodromal syndromes and prevention of psychosis. Based on the
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |            PACE) in Australia, and the Prevention through Risk Identification,
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |             PRIME) and Recognition and Prevention (RAP) programmes in the
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |          different structures of care, prevention programmes will only be
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |                a future evidence-based prevention of psychosis. (Klosterkötter
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |   health promotion and mental disorder prevention across~· European Member
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |         desirable (Wölwer et al, 2003)~Prevention~The WHO Report “Prevention
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Prevention~The WHO ReportPrevention of Mental Disorders: Effective
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |          disorders for which effective prevention programmes can be designed.
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 But when talking about prevention of schizophrenia the only
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the so called indicated prevention that is targeted to people
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |                has initiated a focused prevention programme on schizophrenia –
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 train psychiatrists in prevention, recognition and management
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |   health promotion and mental disorder prevention across European Member States:
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |                detection and secondary prevention of psychosis: facts and
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Klosterkötter J (2007): Prevention in Psychiatry: “WHO objective –
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Psychiatry: “WHO objectivePrevention of psychotic disorders”.
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance abuse, Geneva.~
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Health Organization (2005a): Prevention of Mental Disorders: Effective
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |                for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) carried out a prevalence
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |         factors has contributed to the prevention of other health problems
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |            traffic accidents and their prevention. Epilepsy Res 60:1-16.~Vaa
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~The importance of environmental
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |            practical relevance for the prevention of MS have not received
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |           long-term outcome.~Secondary prevention~ ~Diagnostic criteria~ ~
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~Currently, there are no
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |              available for the primary prevention of PD.~Secondary prevention~
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |            prevention of PD.~Secondary prevention~Currently, there are no
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |            available for the secondary prevention of PD. The medications and
146   II,     5.  6.  2    | Musculoskeletal Health: A guide to the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal
147   II,     5.  6.  3    |        considerable and strategies for prevention are central to controlling
148   II,     5.  6.  3    |                European guidelines for prevention in low back pain http ).
149   II,     5.  6.  5    |                message is that primary prevention has to do with the promotion
150   II,     5.  6.  6    |         European Community: Action for prevention. Luxembourg. Available at
151   II,     5.  6.  6    |              The European Strategy for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable
152   II,     5.  7.  1    |            important issue. Indeed CKD prevention may also help to control
153   II,     5.  7.  3    |           treatment strategies for the prevention of ESRD have finally started
154   II,     5.  7.  3    |           treatment strategies for the prevention of ESRD have finally started
155   II,     5.  7.  5    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~See Chapter 8~ ~Secondary
156   II,     5.  7.  5    |              See Chapter 8~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~It is still uncertain
157   II,     5.  7.  5    |              an ongoing cardiovascular prevention project of the Istituto
158   II,     5.  7.  5    |               CKD, including secondary prevention, dialysis and kidney transplant.~·
159   II,     5.  7.  6    |        evaluation are essential in the prevention of ESRD and in the improvement
160   II,     5.  7.  6    |               screening strategies and prevention programs is vital. As stated
161   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation,
162   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation,
163   II,     5.  7.  7    |       Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Hypertension 2003;42(5):
164   II,     5.  8.  1    |                efforts in the field of prevention are necessary to avoid an
165   II,     5.  8.  4    |                particular care towards prevention and cost-effectiveness of
166   II,     5.  8.  5    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~COPD is a progressive
167   II,     5.  8.  5    |            actions should focus on the prevention of smoking uptake, and on
168   II,     5.  8.  5    |              at end stage.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~Differential diagnosis
169   II,     5.  8.  6    |               effectiveness of current prevention, education, medication and
170   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Diagnosis Management, and Prevention of COPDExecutive Summary,
171   II,     5.  9. FB    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~In many industrialized
172   II,     5.  9. FB    |              Interventions for primary prevention are aimed at a population
173   II,     5.  9. FB    |        additional measures for primary prevention have been studied in this “
174   II,     5.  9. FB    |              the studies investigating prevention during pregnancy have found
175   II,     5.  9. FB    |          hydrolysed formulas for atopy prevention has been extensively studied
176   II,     5.  9. FB    |               were avoided but not for prevention of disease such as atopic
177   II,     5.  9. FB    |           infant formulas.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~The organization of health
178   II,     5.  9. FB    |               diagnosis and treatment. Prevention requires a more precise
179   II,     5.  9. FB    |        required to establish efficient prevention programmes on the general
180   II,     5.  9. FB    |             allergic diseases is their prevention, mainly in atopic individuals.
181   II,     5.  9.  4    |     determinants considered in primary prevention policies at the moment are:~ ~
182   II,     5.  9.  5    |           health statistics.~ ~Primary prevention~ ~Studies such as the ISAAC
183   II,     5.  9.  5    |     determinants considered in primary prevention policies at the moment are:~·
184   II,     5.  9.  5    |              habits.~ ~For the primary prevention approaches of the asthma
185   II,     5.  9.  5    |                as a whole.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~The organization of health
186   II,     5.  9.  5    |          treatment of proven efficacy. Prevention requires a more precise
187   II,     5.  9.  5    |             The emphasis is clearly on prevention.~ ~The GA²L k) is a research
188   II,     5.  9.  6    |              for asthma management and prevention considers HRQoL as a relevant
189   II,     5.  9.  6    |            underline the importance of prevention strategies in controlling
190   II,     5.  9.  6    |       asthmatic patients: measures for prevention of allergic sensitization,
191   II,     5.  9.  6    |                global approach towards prevention and control of chronic respiratory
192   II,     5.  9.  7    |              for asthma management and prevention. Revised 2006~ ~Masoli M,
193   II,     5. 11.  3    |      information necessary for primary prevention,. In the year 2004, altogether
194   II,     5. 11.  3    |              the primary and secondary prevention of nickel ACD. Many of the
195   II,     5. 11.  3    |               of the dangers and adopt prevention programs. Moreover, the
196   II,     5. 11.  3    |             campaigns aimed at primary prevention (preventing the development
197   II,     5. 11.  3    |             first place) and secondary prevention (catching established disease
198   II,     5. 11.  5    |           Control tools and policies~ ~Prevention of skin disease is still
199   II,     5. 11.  5    |            Dermatology and Venereology prevention campaign against melanoma
200   II,     5. 11.  5    |         general message of skin cancer prevention.~Moreover, the European
201   II,     5. 11.  6    |               a more effective disease prevention.~The fourth is to develop
202   II,     5. 11.  7    |                 Mar A, Marks R (2000): Prevention of atopic dermatitis. In:
203   II,     5. 11.  7    |               epidemiology, causes and prevention of aropic eczema. Cambridge:
204   II,     5. 12.  5    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~A policy for the avoidance
205   II,     5. 12.  5    |            Chapter 8 for what concerns prevention of alcohol drinking .~Universal
206   II,     5. 12.  5    |                 2005).~ ~ ~ ~Secondary prevention and European policies~ ~
207   II,     5. 12.  5    |            There is no clear secondary prevention for cirrhosis and no diagnostic
208   II,     5. 12.  5    |               key measure of secondary prevention of cirrhosis complication
209   II,     5. 12.  7    |           Hepatitis B epidemiology and prevention. Epidemiol Rev 12:221-227.~ ~
210   II,     5. 14.  3    |         currently available for caries prevention being diverted to other
211   II,     5. 14.  3    |                come by. The failure of prevention is also the failure of the
212   II,     5. 14.  3    |       assessment are prerequisites for prevention. Knowledge of periodontal
213   II,     5. 14.  5    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~For the control of smoking
214   II,     5. 14.  5    |                on health promotion and prevention by implementing community
215   II,     5. 14.  5    |         practices contribute to caries prevention and control, the most effective
216   II,     5. 14.  5    |              fluoride use.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~Special attention should
217   II,     5. 14.  5    |           towards health promotion and prevention, consideration should nevertheless
218   II,     5. 14.  5    |      health promotion and oral disease prevention into oral health services.
219   II,     5. 14.  5    |          example, health promotion and prevention tend to focus on specific
220   II,     5. 14.  5    |               supporting education and prevention activities. Primary care
221   II,     5. 14.  5    |   health promotion, integrated disease prevention, and emphasis on age-friendly
222   II,     5. 14.  7    |         enhanced through oral diseases prevention and health promotion. In
223   II,     5. 14.  8    |           health promotion and disease prevention. Bull World Health Organ.
224   II,     5. 14.  8    |       promotion and integrated disease prevention”. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. [
225   II,     5. 15.  4    |               in promoting the optimal prevention, diagnosis and treatment
226   II,     5. 15.  4    |             and efficient recognition, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, care,
227   II,     5. 15.  4    |           rare diseases to improve the prevention and management of important
228   II,     6.Acr        |             European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control~EWRS~Early Warning
229   II,     6.  2.  0(1) |             European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) produced
230   II,     6.  3.  1    |                cases through concerted prevention and control action by Member
231   II,     6.  3.  1    |              However, surveillance and prevention would remain necessary until
232   II,     6.  3.  1    |               way communicable disease prevention and control are managed
233   II,     6.  3.  1(3) |               effective evidence-based prevention actions.~
234   II,     6.  3.  1    |        effective disease surveillance, prevention and control: not only within
235   II,     6.  3.  2    |          specific measures for primary prevention.~ ~Surveillance~ ~AMR is
236   II,     6.  3.  2    |        therefore a priority.~ ~Primary prevention~ ~Considering the mechanisms
237   II,     6.  3.  3    |              for Member States. As for prevention, action should continue
238   II,     6.  3.  3    |                needed to implement the prevention messages; and migrants from
239   II,     6.  3.  4    |          national level;~· stepping up prevention efforts against seasonal
240   II,     6.  3.  4    |               including guidelines for prevention and control of TB in immigrants,
241   II,     6.  3.  6    |         control authorities. Effective prevention and control requires close
242   II,     6.  3.  7    |       coordinated approach in terms of prevention and control. Imported cases
243   II,     6.  3.  7    |               typical symptoms appear. Prevention is possible by vaccination (
244   II,     6.  3.  7    |        available for yellow fever, but prevention is possible through administration
245   II,     6.  4.  2    |            European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). EEA
246   II,     6.  4.  4    |            European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control inaugurated
247   II,     6.  4.  5    |        reinforce and promote infection prevention programmes, in particular
248   II,     7.Acr        |        European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Prevention~EuroStat~
249   II,     7.Acr        |           Injury Prevention and Safety Prevention~EuroStat~Statistical Information
250   II,     7.Acr        |                VIP~Violence and Injury prevention~WHO~World Health Organization~
251   II,     7.  1        |            injury surveillance, injury prevention and safety promotion:~ ~
252   II,     7.  1        |                Committee Resolution on Prevention of Injuries in the WHO European
253   II,     7.  1        |               Recommendation on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion based
254   II,     7.  1        |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).~ ~
255   II,     7.  1        |            Therefore, effective injury prevention also needs appropriate information
256   II,     7.  1        |           possible to develop targeted prevention measures, monitor injury
257   II,     7.  1        |                whereby the benefits of prevention for health systems often
258   II,     7.  1        |                   Traditionally injury prevention in EU Member States is segregated
259   II,     7.  1        |           justice etc. Although injury prevention programmes in the different
260   II,     7.  1        |            hampers the full use of the prevention potential. In particular
261   II,     7.  1        |               information for targeted prevention, monitor the effectiveness
262   II,     7.  1        |                of scarce resources for prevention, greater effectiveness of
263   II,     7.  2.  7    |                Center for Research and Prevention of Injuries (CE.RE.PR.I.).
264   II,     7.  2.  9    |        European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion) are
265   II,     7.  3.  1    |            different sectors of injury prevention. Projections in this overview
266   II,     7.  3.  1    |                and cross-sector injury prevention. For example:~ ~· For every
267   II,     7.  3.  2    |               required in elderly fall prevention in order to save more lives
268   II,     7.  3.  4    |                for cross-sector injury prevention by linking the strong vertical
269   II,     7.  3.  4    |      horizontal WHO approach to injury prevention (Figure 7.6).~ ~Figure 7.
270   II,     7.  3.  4    |               for which capacities for prevention are least developed. Home
271   II,     7.  3.  4    |               and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. The IDB provides
272   II,     7.  3.  4    |              for the purpose of injury prevention in particular important
273   II,     7.  3.  5    |      professionals involved in suicide prevention agree that suicide is associated
274   II,     7.  4        |         resource allocation for injury prevention by setting priorities. The
275   II,     7.  4        |          within Member States (gaps in prevention and political demand for
276   II,     7.  4        |              priority areas for injury prevention, analysed more in detail
277   II,     7.  4.  1    |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).~ ~
278   II,     7.  4.  1    |                on Accidents and Injury Prevention, 2007).~ ~Link to the project:~www ~ ~
279   II,     7.  4.  2    |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).~ ~
280   II,     7.  4.  2    |             expected if no substantial prevention actions are taken.~ ~Figure
281   II,     7.  4.  2    |       Five-year strategic plan for the prevention of unintentional injuries
282   II,     7.  4.  3    |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).
283   II,     7.  4.  4    |                                 7.4.4. Prevention of sports injuries~ ~Sport
284   II,     7.  4.  4    |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).~ ~
285   II,     7.  4.  4    |           physical exercise and injury prevention, should be combined as much
286   II,     7.  4.  4    |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).~ ~
287   II,     7.  4.  4    |               recent example of injury prevention in organised sports is the
288   II,     7.  4.  5    |                                 7.4.5. Prevention of injuries caused by products
289   II,     7.  4.  6    |                                 7.4.6. Prevention of self-harm~ ~Self-harm
290   II,     7.  4.  6    |               and in particular to the prevention of depression. Suicidal
291   II,     7.  4.  6    |               which emphasised suicide prevention. In this context, actions
292   II,     7.  4.  6    |         Actions in the field of injury prevention should therefore link up
293   II,     7.  4.  6    |             school population, suicide prevention programmes based on behavioural
294   II,     7.  4.  6    |             risk, school-based suicide prevention programmes based on skill
295   II,     7.  4.  6    |           national or regional suicide prevention strategies (Guo and Harstall,
296   II,     7.  4.  7    |                                 7.4.7. Prevention of interpersonal violence~ ~
297   II,     7.  4.  7    |              dissemination of violence prevention practices, in particular
298   II,     7.  4.  7    |                and evaluating violence prevention projects.~ ~Dealing with
299   II,     7.  4.  7    |             policy guidance on suicide prevention and the prevention of interpersonal
300   II,     7.  4.  7    |             suicide prevention and the prevention of interpersonal violence
301   II,     7.  5        |                and programmes for fire prevention, work safety, traffic safety,
302   II,     7.  5        |               challenge is that injury prevention is a cross-cutting issue
303   II,     7.  5        |             only in rcent years injury prevention has also been accepted as
304   II,     7.  5        |                key role also in injury prevention as its mandate includes
305   II,     7.  5        |              coordinate multi-sectoral prevention efforts. How injury prevention
306   II,     7.  5        |         prevention efforts. How injury prevention can be supported by Ministries
307   II,     7.  5        |               implementation of injury prevention actions. Focal persons should
308   II,     7.  5        |            While the power for certain prevention measures is vested in different
309   II,     7.  5        |               the impact of injuriesPrevention: Effective measures are
310   II,     7.  5        |                and injury and violence prevention should be included in the
311   II,     7.  5        |           existing infrastructures for prevention and health promotion.~·
312   II,     7.  5        |                 Capacity-building: The prevention of injury and violence requires
313   II,     7.  5        |      institutional capacity for injury prevention; (iv) to promote evidence-based
314   II,     7.  5        |          problem, the opportunities of prevention, the added value of public
315   II,     7.  5        |          Council Recommendation on the prevention of injury and the promotion
316   II,     7.  5        |      pre-requisite for targeted injury prevention and monitoring of progress.
317   II,     7.  5        |               or programmes for injury prevention and safety promotion: these
318   II,     7.  5        |             the injury problem: Injury prevention should be implemented in
319   II,     7.  5        |                the inclusion of injury prevention knowledge into the training
320   II,     7.  5        |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, 2008).
321   II,     7.  5        |            current situation of injury prevention in Europe, informs about
322   II,     7.  5        |            human capacities for injury prevention, basic knowledge is condensed
323   II,     7.  5        |        European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety PromotionEuroSafe”.
324   II,     7.  5        |               on all aspects of injury prevention and is working together
325   II,     7.  5        |          effective measures for injury prevention” and a “Who is who” application,
326   II,     7.  5        |              of ‘what works’ in injury prevention is needed to develop good
327   II,     7.  5        |        European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety EUROSAFE offers
328   II,     7.  5        |           effective measures in injury prevention where everybody can search
329   II,     7.  6        |          health contribution to injury prevention will become more and more
330   II,     7.  6        |         realize the great potential of prevention.~As long as nobody can be
331   II,     7.  6        |                demand for governmental prevention in the sphere of home and
332   II,     7.  6        |           self-harm. The potential for prevention through policy action is
333   II,     7.  6        |               The challenge for injury prevention is to create policy platforms
334   II,     7.  6        |          experiences; including injury prevention knowledge in vocational
335   II,     7.  6        |             the safety of adolescents, prevention of falls, safety of vulnerable
336   II,     7.  6        |               of excellence for injury prevention in Europe is inappropriately
337   II,     7.  7        |        Recommendation of May 31 on the prevention of injury and the promotion
338   II,     7.  7        |                Center for Research and Prevention of Injuries (CERPRI), Department
339   II,     7.  7        |       Five-year strategic plan for the prevention of unintentional injuries
340   II,     7.  7        |                Center for Research and Prevention of Injuries (CERPRI), Department
341   II,     7.  7        |            which strategies of suicide prevention is there evidence of effectiveness?
342   II,     7.  7        |             unintentional child safety prevention and safety promotion. Amsterdam,
343   II,     7.  7        |         Governmental Experts on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (2008):
344   II,     7.  7        |          Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Geneva, World Health Organization.~ ~
345   II,     7.  7        |              on Mental Health, Suicide prevention. Copenhagen, WHO Regional
346   II,     7.  7        |              2005d): Resolution on the prevention of injuries in the WHO European
347   II,     8.Acr        |           International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness~ID~Intellectual
348   II,     8.  2.  1    |             barriers to optimal health prevention, promotion and care. As
349   II,     8.  2.  1    |                     8.2.1.5.1. Primary prevention~ ~Some cases of intellectual
350   II,     8.  2.  1    |             birth defects.~ ~Secondary prevention~A growing body of evidence
351   II,     8.  2.  1    |            paradigm shift from disease prevention to prevention of secondary
352   II,     8.  2.  1    |             from disease prevention to prevention of secondary conditions.
353   II,     8.  2.  2    |           International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB). It
354   II,     8.  2.  2    |         adopted Resolution WHA 59.25, ‘Prevention of avoidable blindness and
355   II,     8.  2.  2    |       approaches of VISION 2020 to the prevention of blindness and visual
356   II,     8.  2.  2    |     infrastructure and technology. The prevention of avoidable visual impairment
357   II,     8.  2.  2    |             WHO/PBL/00.77.~WHO (2003): Prevention of blindness and deafness.
358   II,     8.  2.  3    |         Programme Developments for the Prevention of Deafness and Hearing
359   II,     9            |           present the most amenable to prevention. Genetic susceptibility
360   II,     9            |              is to be promoted for the prevention of congenital anomalies.
361   II,     9            |         derives largely from secondary prevention trials; in general, therapies
362   II,     9            |       therapies that work in secondary prevention will work in primary prevention
363   II,     9            |        prevention will work in primary prevention as well. Treatment effects
364   II,     9            |           observed in men. At present, prevention of CHD should rely on identifying
365   II,     9.  1.  2    |           present the most amenable to prevention. Genetic susceptibility
366   II,     9.  1.  2    |              is to be promoted for the prevention of congenital anomalies.
367   II,     9.  1.  2    |           tools and policies~ ~Primary Prevention~ ~Primary prevention of
368   II,     9.  1.  2    |           Primary Prevention~ ~Primary prevention of congenital anomalies
369   II,     9.  1.  2    |               and is the major primary prevention opportunity. Experience
370   II,     9.  1.  2    |                unsuccessful population prevention strategy, since it is difficult
371   II,     9.  1.  2    |             fortification.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~Developments in surgical
372   II,     9.  1.  2    |          anomalies amenable to primary prevention have been presented in Table
373   II,     9.  1.  2    |          success in congenital anomaly prevention, as evidenced by the lack
374   II,     9.  1.  2    |            achieving effective primary prevention, and improving the outcome
375   II,     9.  1.  2    |                EUROCAT Special Report: Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by
376   II,     9.  1.  2    |           Study Research Group (1991): Prevention of neural tube defects:
377   II,     9.  2.  2    |          measurement on health and the prevention of ill health, and the determinants
378   II,     9.  2.  3    |                   School based suicide prevention programmes are associated
379   II,     9.  2.  5    |               immunisation programmes; prevention of cigarette sales to children
380   II,     9.  2.  5    |          drinking; work on obesity and prevention; development of strategies
381   II,     9.  2.  5    |                among young people; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission
382   II,     9.  2.  6    |          includes health promotion and prevention and specifically includes
383   II,     9.  2.  6    |        environments, education and the prevention of disease. It has been
384   II,     9.  2.  7    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
385   II,     9.  2.  7    |            Europe: Violence and Injury Prevention Available at:~www ~ ~
386   II,     9.  3.  1    |           health promotion and disease prevention measures.~ ~Menopause is
387   II,     9.  3.  1    |                lack adequate access to prevention or economic security, or
388   II,     9.  3.  1    |             mother to child. Effective prevention programmes need to address
389   II,     9.  3.  1    |         derives largely from secondary prevention trials; in general, therapies
390   II,     9.  3.  1    |       therapies that work in secondary prevention will work in primary prevention
391   II,     9.  3.  1    |        prevention will work in primary prevention as well. Treatment effects
392   II,     9.  3.  1    |           observed in men. At present, prevention of CHD should rely on identifying
393   II,     9.  3.  1    |             which will enhance disease prevention and responses to health
394   II,     9.  3.  1    |          Geneva.~ ~WHO (2002): Suicide Prevention in Europe. WHO Regional
395   II,     9.  3.  3    |                for Disease Control and Prevention.~Shepherd J, Weston R, Peersman
396   II,     9.  4.  3    |               promoting safety, injury prevention and actions against violence
397   II,     9.  5.  2    |          Monitoring, Pollution related Prevention Programme, Rare Diseases
398   II,     9.  5.  4    |           Global Campaign for Violence Prevention was launched in 2002. Its
399   II,     9.  5.  4    |                of public health in its prevention, and increase violence prevention
400   II,     9.  5.  4    |      prevention, and increase violence prevention activities globally, regionally
401   II,     9.  5.  4    |    Complementary to this, the Violence Prevention Alliance provides a forum
402   II,     9.  5.  4    |                centres, as well as for prevention of suicide among older men.
403   II,     9.  5.  4    |                strategy focuses on the prevention of communicable diseases,
404   II,     9.  5.  4    |             planned the development of prevention programmes for high prevalence
405   II,     9.  5.  4    |           diagnostic tools, therapies, prevention rehabilitation programs
406   II,     9.  5.  6    |         European Commission~ ~Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (
407   II,     9.  5.  6    |               for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) (2001): Women and
408  III,    10.  2.  1    |           European Network for Smoking Prevention~EU-27~The 27 Member States
409  III,    10.  2.  1    |          contribution has evolved from prevention, training and research within
410  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and cross-national smoking prevention and cessation activities,
411  III,    10.  2.  1    |           action focuses on supporting prevention, collaboration between Member
412  III,    10.  2.  1    |           including a range of smoking prevention and cessation activities.~
413  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Council Recommendation on the prevention of smoking and on initiatives
414  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Monitor tobacco use and prevention policiesProtect people
415  III,    10.  2.  1    |           European Network for Smoking Prevention (ENSP) (2003): Status Report
416  III,    10.  2.  1    |              when relied upon as a key prevention strategy in a liberalizing
417  III,    10.  2.  1    |           customers.~ ~Community based prevention programmes can be effective
418  III,    10.  2.  1    |        National Foundation for Alcohol Prevention.~ ~Babor TF, Caetano R,
419  III,    10.  2.  1    |                several community-based prevention trials. Nordic Studies on
420  III,    10.  2.  1    |                JA, Lindgarde F (2002): Prevention of alcohol-related deaths
421  III,    10.  2.  1    |          reduce drug-related problems (prevention, treatment, harm reduction,
422  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and drug demand reduction (prevention, treatment and harm reduction)
423  III,    10.  2.  1    |     interventions at national level.~ ~Prevention is sometimes presented as
424  III,    10.  2.  1    |            community-located universal prevention are nowadays complemented
425  III,    10.  2.  1    |              complemented by selective prevention interventions targeting
426  III,    10.  2.  1    |         neighbourhoods). Environmental prevention strategies that aim at modifying
427  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 School-based universal prevention should be implemented with
428  III,    10.  2.  1    |            universal community-located prevention, the development of municipal
429  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 universal family-based prevention consists mostly of parents'
430  III,    10.  2.  1    |            drug-related interventions (prevention, treatment, social rehabilitation,
431  III,    10.  2.  1    |               to be better studied and prevention, treatment and harm reduction
432  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Farrell, M. (1995) Drug prevention: a review of legislation,
433  III,    10.  2.  1    |               with greater emphasis on prevention and health promotion. Directing
434  III,    10.  2.  1    |                primary health care and prevention. Apart from the distal socio-environmental
435  III,    10.  2.  1    |        recommendations for oral health prevention and prophylaxis include
436  III,    10.  2.  1    |            targeted through integrated prevention programmes to promote good
437  III,    10.  2.  1    |       insufficient emphasis on primary prevention of oral diseases, poses
438  III,    10.  2.  1    |               relates to dental caries prevention and control of periodontal
439  III,    10.  2.  1    |       promotion and integrated disease preventionurges Member States: (i)
440  III,    10.  2.  1    |            policies for the integrated prevention and treatment of chronic
441  III,    10.  2.  1    |           promotion of oral health and prevention of oral disease for preschool
442  III,    10.  2.  1    |               with greater emphasis on prevention and health promotion. Directing
443  III,    10.  2.  1    |              for a greater emphasis on prevention and health promotion. Over
444  III,    10.  2.  1    |                part of chronic disease prevention, amongst other issues through
445  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and experiences on disease prevention into action programmes (
446  III,    10.  2.  1    |               measure the potential of prevention. The termrisk factor’
447  III,    10.  2.  1    |            diet and nutrition, primary prevention of many oral, dental and
448  III,    10.  2.  1    |   opportunities to expand oral disease prevention and health promotion knowledge
449  III,    10.  2.  1    |       promotion and integrated disease prevention”. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
450  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
451  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
452  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Swiss Council for Accident Prevention, Swiss National Accident
453  III,    10.  2.  1    |              European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable
454  III,    10.  2.  1    |          widely recognized role in the prevention of neural tube defects in
455  III,    10.  2.  1    |               an important role in the prevention of hyperhomocysteinaemia
456  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases” (2003).~·
457  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
458  III,    10.  2.  1    |              physical activity and the prevention of obesity was given in
459  III,    10.  2.  1    |                specifically on obesity prevention and are targeted and tailored
460  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the effectiveness of the prevention of obesity in schools where
461  III,    10.  2.  1    |               service delivery for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment
462  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
463  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
464  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report
465  III,    10.  2.  1    |       Nutrition, physical activity and prevention of obesity: recent policy
466  III,    10.  2.  1    |        deficiency anaemia. Assessment, prevention and control. A guide for
467  III,    10.  2.  1    |         publications/en/ida_assessment_prevention_control.pdf~ ~Dietary patterns~ ~
468  III,    10.  2.  1    |             European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and
469  III,    10.  2.  2    |         individuals considered for CVD prevention.~ ~For more details and
470  III,    10.  2.  4    |             require an urgent shift of prevention but Public Health practitioners
471  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 secondary and tertiary prevention. Inter alia, by applying
472  III,    10.  2.  4    |            personal data sets, disease prevention programmes and clinical
473  III,    10.  2.  4    |                well as new concepts of prevention and health service delivery
474  III,    10.  2.  4    |                risk stratification and prevention.~ ~
475  III,    10.  2.  4    |     understanding of new approaches to prevention and therapy (Khoury, 1996;
476  III,    10.  2.  4    |             require an urgent shift of prevention but Public Health practitioners
477  III,    10.  2.  4    |                promotion of health and prevention of disease through the organised
478  III,    10.  2.  4    |    infrastructure. The more individual prevention and therapy develop the
479  III,    10.  2.  4    |        increasing individualisation of prevention. Thus, Public Health will
480  III,    10.  2.  4    |                Health. Partnership for Prevention. Washington~ ~Gao J, Shan
481  III,    10.  2.  4    |          Genetic Technology in Disease Prevention. Am J Public Health, 86(
482  III,    10.  2.  5    |           evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of
483  III,    10.  2.  5    |              in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful,
484  III,    10.  2.  5    |            children. Main obstacles to prevention of neuro-developmental deficits
485  III,    10.  3.  1    |             radon monitoring and radon prevention strategies are best developed
486  III,    10.  3.  1    |             first successes of primary prevention policies and should provide
487  III,    10.  3.  2    |              IPPC~Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control~JRC~Joint Research
488  III,    10.  3.  2    |           evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of
489  III,    10.  3.  2    |              in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful,
490  III,    10.  3.  2    |                two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits
491  III,    10.  3.  2    |               the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive (
492  III,    10.  3.  2    |        concerning integrated pollution prevention and control.~Available at: htt ~ ~
493  III,    10.  3.  3    |                cases through concerted prevention and control action by Member
494  III,    10.  3.  4    |            general health and improved prevention and treatment of winter
495  III,    10.  4.  2    |              laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication
496  III,    10.  4.  2    |            European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). These
497  III,    10.  4.  3    |            treatment processes and the prevention of contamination in the
498  III,    10.  4.  5    |         pollution.~ ~Even though waste prevention is a top priority across
499  III,    10.  4.  5    |       experience shows that successful prevention is possible with the use
500  III,    10.  4.  5    |                The objectives of waste prevention are:~· the reduction of