1-500 | 501-656
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1           |        approach on how to make optimal use of the available data previously
  2    I,     2.  3       |        services, they may be unable to use them adequately and the
  3    I,     2.  3       |             impact on attitudes to and use of health care services.
  4    I,     2.  3       |              The health status and the use of health services among
  5    I,     2.  4       |               cultural barriers to the use of services. The Structural
  6    I,     2.  5       |       workplace health and safety. The use of subcontractors, for example,
  7    I,     2.  5       |             more decentralised and may uselean production methods’.
  8    I,     2.  5       |                 Companies make greater use of short-term contracts,
  9    I,     2.  5       |             become more informal. More use is made of part-time workers,
 10    I,     2.  5       |       exhaustion (Rantanen, 1998). The use of and exposure to new technological
 11    I,     2.  5       |               hours and the increasing use of both very limited hours (
 12    I,     2.  7       |          consumption and make the best use of solar exposition. Huai
 13    I,     2.  7       |               buildings will even make use of wind power. Moreover,
 14    I,     2.  8       |          improvements and an increased use of renewable energy in certain
 15    I,     2.  8       |          security of supply.~Increased use of fuel for domestic use
 16    I,     2.  8       |               use of fuel for domestic use may increase the public
 17    I,     2.  8       |       individual houses. The increased use of renewable energy, especially
 18    I,     2.  9       |             quality and hence on human use and aquatic ecosystems.
 19    I,     2. 10.  1   |         phenotypic effects.~The future use of indicators and health
 20    I,     2. 10.  1   |            e.g. improve nutrient/water use efficiency, resistance to
 21    I,     2. 10.  1   |                part of the sustainable use of biological resources,
 22    I,     2. 10.  1   |               to identify, protect and use biodiversity, either for
 23    I,     2. 10.  1   |             aquaculture), for improved use for agricultural purposes (
 24    I,     2. 10.  2   |             Carbon nanotubes, of large use, with a cylinder structure,
 25    I,     2. 10.  2   |             Europe, data on the actual use and market presence of these
 26    I,     2. 10.  4   |                 of hospitals currently use bar-codes for medication
 27    I,     2. 10.  4   |       distributors already provide and use bar-codes or RFID tags for
 28    I,     2. 10.  4   |              extent than hospitals and use it at the point of sale.~ ~
 29    I,     2. 10.  4   |                of every single unit of use of all licensed medicines
 30    I,     2. 10.  4   |              UK already called for the use of standardised information
 31   II,     5.  1.  1   |               such as smoking, alcohol use, obesity, excessive fat
 32   II,     5.  1.  1   |             poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption,
 33   II,     5.  2.  3   |       identifying thrombolytic therapy use from hospital in-patient
 34   II,     5.  2.  3   |              and coding practices. The use of diagnostic technologies,
 35   II,     5.  2.  4   |                cholesterol and tobacco use would more than halve CVD
 36   II,     5.  2.  4   |          diabetes, overweight, alcohol use, physical activity, medical
 37   II,     5.  2.  5   |           prevention. The preferential use of fats with favourable
 38   II,     5.  2.  5   |             enhanced through a regular use of foods supplemented in
 39   II,     5.  2.  6   |              damage. For instance, the use of new biomarkers, such
 40   II,     5.  3.  2   |             burden and for promote the use of cancer registries in
 41   II,     5.  3.  7   |           avoidance of harmful alcohol use, diet improvement and physical activity
 42   II,     5.  3.  7   |         concern in many countries. The use of anticancer drugs should
 43   II,     5.  4.  2   |                client-based, i.e. they use only a portion of the information
 44   II,     5.  4.  2   |                problems exist with the use of HDRs~Coding for primary
 45   II,     5.  4.  2   |                are increasingly making use of specific national unique
 46   II,     5.  4.  2   |  identification numbers, including the use of smart cards, which involve
 47   II,     5.  4.  2   |               cards, which involve the use of a specific flag that
 48   II,     5.  4.  2   |      prevalence and the pharmaceutical use made by diabetic patients.~
 49   II,     5.  4.  4   |            related possibly due to the use different coding practices.
 50   II,     5.  4.  6   |            EUBIROD project through the use of BIRO technology (see “
 51   II,     5.  4.  7   |               project is to spread the use of the BIRO system to produce
 52   II,     5.  4.  8   |          strategies: towards an active use of health information, Diabetes
 53   II,     5.  5.Int   |      Technology (ICT) -based tools for use in prevention, diagnosis
 54   II,     5.  5.Int   |        willingness of Member States to use the EU-level for cooperation
 55   II,     5.  5.  1   |          causing loss of productivity. Use of formal health services
 56   II,     5.  5.  1   |           anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and suicidal ideations
 57   II,     5.  5.  1   |        health-related quality of life, use of treatment and healthcare
 58   II,     5.  5.  1   |         randomly-selected samples, and use validated instruments used
 59   II,     5.  5.  1   |           Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%) among those with any
 60   II,     5.  5.  1   |           health disorders through the use of surveys conducted in
 61   II,     5.  5.  1   |              Bernert S, Bru t (2004b). Use of mental health services
 62   II,     5.  5.  1   |                Differences in lifetime use of services for mental health
 63   II,     5.  5.  3   |           sample size, and a different use of measurement methods.
 64   II,     5.  5.  3   |                sampling design and the use of diagnostic instruments.~
 65   II,     5.  5.  3   |              do not reflect the actual use in patients with schizophrenia
 66   II,     5.  5.  3   |           WHO-data on the intensity of use of pharmaceuticals are principally
 67   II,     5.  5.  3   |          regard to the spectrum of the use of antipsychotics (not limited
 68   II,     5.  5.  3   |                in third place, alcohol use disorders sixth rank, self
 69   II,     5.  5.  3   |              YLDs, followed by alcohol use disorder accounting for
 70   II,     5.  5.  3   |      cardiovascular system (due to the use of nicotine) or the liver (
 71   II,     5.  5.  3   |               schizophrenia before the use of antipsychotic medication (
 72   II,     5.  5.  3   |                learned in the everyday use of these treatments, because
 73   II,     5.  5.  3   |            displaying the next highest use of this drug class (Knapp
 74   II,     5.  5.  3   |                are probably related to use of antipsychotics for other
 75   II,     5.  5.  3   |              and recommends the proper use of a range of services.
 76   II,     5.  5.  3   |                care and the increasing use of prophylactic measures
 77   II,     5.  5.  3   |            ascertainment, i.e. for the use of registry systems and
 78   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 explaining the intense use of informal care (22% of
 79   II,     5.  5.  3   |                 year 2005) by resource use components.~ ~Production
 80   II,     5.  5.  3   |               1994): Establishment and use of multiple sclerosis registers –
 81   II,     5.  5.  3   |    Monti-Bragadin L, et al (2003): The use of standardized incidence
 82   II,     5.  5.  3   |          cigarette smoking and alcohol use in 144 PD patients and 464
 83   II,     5.  5.  3   |         patient-level data on resource use and productivity loss due
 84   II,     5.  6.  3   |           complementary therapists and use alternative medications
 85   II,     5.  6.  3   |             factor associated with its use, apparently protect against
 86   II,     5.  6.  3   |              the frequency of the pill use, nulliparity and breast-feeding
 87   II,     5.  6.  3   |         advances in the management and use of different therapeutic
 88   II,     5.  6.  3   |       considerably with the widespread use of anti-TNF (Woolf, 2008).~ ~
 89   II,     5.  6.  3   |           deficiency or corticosteroid use. The back pain may remit
 90   II,     5.  6.  3   |              Efforts are being made to use existing data to describe
 91   II,     5.  6.  4   |                The work disability and use of health resources are
 92   II,     5.  6.  4   |             and gender. Norway 1997.~ ~Use of health care services~ ~
 93   II,     5.  8.  3   |           explained by gluco-corticoid use alone, thus the Authors
 94   II,     5.  8.  6   |              into consideration.~ ~The use of telecare aimed at helping
 95   II,     5.  8.  7   |                   Horton K (2008): The use of telecare for people with
 96   II,     5.  9. FB   |               best to be marginal. The use of hydrolysed formulas for
 97   II,     5.  9.  2   |              suggestive of asthma, the use of medication for asthma
 98   II,     5. 11.  3   |              for labelling products or use concentration limitation
 99   II,     5. 11.  4   |             affecting one’s ability to use his/her hands. Atopic eczema
100   II,     5. 11.  5   |   participating centres in Europe will use the same questionnaires;
101   II,     5. 11.  5   |           Consumers should, therefore, use sunscreens and clearer labelling
102   II,     5. 11.  7   |                study of prevalence and use of medical care. Brit J
103   II,     5. 12.  6   |              modest to date due to its use mainly in very advanced
104   II,     5. 14.  3   |             implications regarding the use of oral disadvantage to
105   II,     5. 14.  4   |             poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption,
106   II,     5. 14.  5   |            approaches include fluoride use.~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~
107   II,     5. 15.  5   |                maximise cost-effective use of resources by concentrating
108   II,     6.  3.  2   |                liable to inappropriate use, often unnecessarily prescribed
109   II,     6.  3.  2   |              As for AMR, antimicrobial use shows a general gradient
110   II,     6.  3.  2   |              general gradient from low use in Northern Europe to higher
111   II,     6.  3.  2   |              Northern Europe to higher use in Southern Europe; the
112   II,     6.  3.  2   |             larger proportion of total use is still represented by
113   II,     6.  3.  2   |       association between the level of use of specific antibiotic classes,
114   II,     6.  3.  2   |             strategies to contain AMR: use them in the correct way;
115   II,     6.  3.  3   |               thanks to the widespread use of penicillin. However,
116   II,     6.  3.  3   |              or cancer. Injecting drug use is the dominant mode of
117   II,     6.  3.  3   |              via blood transfusion and use of plasma-derived products
118   II,     6.  3.  7   |               and the environment. The use of suitable protective equipment
119   II,     6.  4.  3   |          maximise the availability and use of both vaccines and antiviral
120   II,     6.  4.  5   |           November 2001 on the prudent use of antimicrobial agents
121   II,     6.  4.  5   |             and to promote the prudent use of such agents. These include:
122   II,     7.  1       |         fragmentation hampers the full use of the prevention potential.
123   II,     7.  1       | interdepartmental coordination. Better use of scarce resources for
124   II,     7.  2.  1   |          countries (death certificate, use of ICD). However, important
125   II,     7.  3.  5   |            defined as "the intentional use of physical force or power,
126   II,     7.  4.  6   |                 alcohol and other drug use, and anxiety disorders;~·
127   II,     7.  4.  6   |             were also seen through the use of problem solving, emergency
128   II,     7.  5       |         Governments should make better use of existing data and should
129   II,     8.  1.  2   |             means of surveys that make use of common instruments. Health
130   II,     8.  2.  1   |   characteristics, health outcomes and use of health services may be
131   II,     8.  2.  1   |              residential centres or by use of proxy respondents. Further,
132   II,     8.  2.  1   |              ascertainment such as the use of different definitions,
133   II,     8.  2.  1   |            changes in health status or use of health services over
134   II,     8.  2.  1   |      disability measures, suitable for use in censuses, sample based
135   II,     8.  2.  1   |             neurological and substance use disorders WHO Geneva~World
136   II,     9           |                Parity also impacts the use of services and intervention
137   II,     9           |        difficult to study, as the drug use may be illegal and there
138   II,     9           |              Section 10.2).~ ~Cannabis use. Cannabis use varies widely
139   II,     9           |                 Cannabis use. Cannabis use varies widely among 15-year-olds
140   II,     9           |                boys are more likely to use cannabis than girls: 22%
141   II,     9           |            previous 12 months. Regular use of cannabis (339 times
142   II,     9           |              ranges of reported condom use during the 15 year olds’
143   II,     9           |              women may include regular use of alcohol (especially if
144   II,     9           |             Report states that alcohol use is the leading cause of
145   II,     9           |               and report more frequent use of nutrient supplements.
146   II,     9           |              deficit, balance deficit, use of assistive devices, visual
147   II,     9.  1       |                and access to care, and use limited health care resources
148   II,     9.  1.  1   |          furthered the development and use of perinatal health indicators.
149   II,     9.  1.  1   |              et al (1993):~Patterns of use of obstetrical interventions
150   II,     9.  1.  2   |         available, or hospitals do not use a standard coding system.
151   II,     9.  1.  2   |             registers nevertheless now use HE/HD data as one of their
152   II,     9.  1.  2   |                Parity also impacts the use of services and intervention
153   II,     9.  1.  2   |        difficult to study, as the drug use may be illegal and there
154   II,     9.  1.  2   |                priority to ensure safe use of medicine during pregnancy.~ ~
155   II,     9.  2.  1   |           alcohol consumption, tobacco use, illegal drug use, obesity/
156   II,     9.  2.  1   |              tobacco use, illegal drug use, obesity/overweight, eating
157   II,     9.  2.  2   |            total child population. The use of a 0-19 years category
158   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|           attacks or asthma medication use was avoided due to the marked
159   II,     9.  2.  3   |               tobacco and illegal drug use (WHO, 2005a).~ ~Good mental
160   II,     9.  2.  4   |              Section 10.2).~ ~Cannabis use. Cannabis use varies widely
161   II,     9.  2.  4   |                 Cannabis use. Cannabis use varies widely among 15-year-olds
162   II,     9.  2.  4   |                boys are more likely to use cannabis than girls: 22%
163   II,     9.  2.  4   |            previous 12 months. Regular use of cannabis (339 times
164   II,     9.  2.  4   |              ranges of reported condom use during the 15 year olds’
165   II,     9.  2.  5   |              tested and authorised for use by children. The European
166   II,     9.  2.  5   |                products for paediatric use, with the objective of increasing
167   II,     9.  2.  5   |         authorisation of medicines for use in children.~ ~Policies~ ~
168   II,     9.  2.  5   |                toys and the paediatric use of medicinal products.~ ~
169   II,     9.  2.  5   |           concerning violence, a safer use of the Internet, trafficking
170   II,     9.  3.  1   |      transmission and intravenous drug use. The public health impact
171   II,     9.  3.  1   |            negotiate abstinence or the use of a condom. Women are becoming
172   II,     9.  3.  1   |             life. Avoidance of tobacco use and moderation in alcohol
173   II,     9.  3.  1   |            work absence and medication use. A Swedish study has found
174   II,     9.  3.  1   |              women may include regular use of alcohol (especially if
175   II,     9.  3.  2   |            rates caused by more common use of procedures to manage
176   II,     9.  3.  2   |        subfertility) and the increased use of medical technology in
177   II,     9.  3.  2   |           Describing variations in the use and success of these medical
178   II,     9.  3.  2   |              European countries in the use of caesarean sections, with
179   II,     9.  3.  2   |                of intervention and the use of evidence based medicine
180   II,     9.  3.  2   |       questions about the best ways to use new medical techniques which
181   II,     9.  3.  2   |               women and newborns is to use and benefit from new medical
182   II,     9.  3.  2   |         medical interventions and poor use of valuable healthcare resources.~ ~ ~
183   II,     9.  3.  2   |               al (1993):~ ~Patterns of use of obstetrical interventions
184   II,     9.  3.  3   |              multiple partners without use of a condom. The average
185   II,     9.  3.  3   |               that they did not always use condom in these occasions.~ ~
186   II,     9.  3.  3   |               than among men.~ ~Condom use~ ~The proportion of sexually-active
187   II,     9.  3.  3   |            than girls to report condom use. The gender difference can
188   II,     9.  3.  3   |             concordant rates of condom use; however, in casual sexual
189   II,     9.  3.  3   |               2007).~ ~In Denmark, the use of identical questionnaires
190   II,     9.  3.  3   |                of men and women making use of condom, after an increase
191   II,     9.  3.  3   |             when HIV emerged.~ ~Condom use can be challenged by several
192   II,     9.  3.  3   |              poor motivation in condom use and decreased perception
193   II,     9.  3.  3   |           adolescents who consistently use condoms, subdivided per
194   II,     9.  3.  3   |              year, lifetime);~· condom use at most recent coital act
195   II,     9.  3.  3   |           countries and regions in the use of condoms. These findings
196   II,     9.  3.  3   |            especially drug and alcohol use), school and community bonding,
197   II,     9.  3.  3   |               calls for the systematic use of comparative indicators
198   II,     9.  3.  3   |                1997): Increased condom use without other major changes
199   II,     9.  3.  3   |             2004): HIV risk and condom use in the adult heterosexual
200   II,     9.  3.  3   |                2005): Increased condom use at sexual debut in the general
201   II,     9.  3.  3   |     association with subsequent condom use. Aids 19:1215-23.~Layte
202   II,     9.  3.  3   |           relationship between alcohol use and risk-taking sexual behaviours
203   II,     9.  4.  3   |     post-menopausal women, many do not use condoms. Wrongly considered
204   II,     9.  4.  4   |             Report states that alcohol use is the leading cause of
205   II,     9.  4.  4   |               and report more frequent use of nutrient supplements.
206   II,     9.  4.  4   |              deficit, balance deficit, use of assistive devices, visual
207   II,     9.  4.  5   |           Problems associated with the use of medications can be avoided
208   II,     9.  4.  5   |              avoided by the systematic use of quality indicators for
209   II,     9.  4.  5   |            quality indicators for drug use and better co-ordination
210   II,     9.  4.  5   |               per cent of older people use the internet, but severe
211   II,     9.  5.  1   |                behaviour (e.g. tobacco use), risk taking, and medical
212   II,     9.  5.  2   |              gender differences in the use of health and social care
213   II,     9.  5.  3   |              women may include regular use of alcohol (especially if
214   II,     9.  5.  3   |                that while boys tend to use most of the playground space
215   II,     9.  5.  4   |            association between alcohol use and violence, is the World
216   II,     9.  5.  4   |             problems caused by harmful use of alcohol (WHA58.26[53])
217   II,     9.  5.  4   |          associated to harmful alcohol use, and requests Member States
218   II,     9.  5.  4   |           collate this information for use in planning and policy development
219   II,     9.  5.  4   |               and planning through the use of analytical tools which
220  III,    10.  1       |              uterus when their mothers use pesticides, work in sprayed
221  III,    10.  1.  1   |               within subgroup (tobacco use)~Health determinants within
222  III,    10.  1.  1   |            within the field of tobacco use are manifold: predisposing
223  III,    10.  1.  1   |              health effects of tobacco use, attitudes towards tobacco
224  III,    10.  1.  1   |              attitudes towards tobacco use, biological / genetic factors
225  III,    10.  1.  1   |           social disapproval). Tobacco use as behavioural risk factor
226  III,    10.  1.  1   |             applicable to the “tobacco usehealth determinant.~Exposure
227  III,    10.  1.  1   |                and barriers of alcohol use (Green and Potvin, 2004).~ ~
228  III,    10.  1.  1   |         individual engaging in alcohol use depends on the stress level
229  III,    10.  1.  1   |               sexual behaviour. Condom use can be challenged by several
230  III,    10.  1.  1   |              poor motivation in condom use and decreased perception
231  III,    10.  1.  3   |              role of stress in alcohol use, alcoholism treatment, and
232  III,    10.  1.  3   |                 2003): Harmful alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health 27(1):
233  III,    10.  1.  3   |        Adolescent alcohol and cannabis use in relation to peer and
234  III,    10.  1.  3   |             factors predicting alcohol use in adolescence. Subst Use
235  III,    10.  1.  3   |              use in adolescence. Subst Use Misuse 41:71-86.~Kushner
236  III,    10.  1.  3   |             1998): Competence and drug use: theoretical frameworks,
237  III,    10.  1.  3   |           relationship between alcohol use and risk-taking sexual behaviors
238  III,    10.  1.  3   |                life-events and alcohol use in the general population.
239  III,    10.  2.  1   |                      10.2.1.1. Tobacco use~ ~
240  III,    10.  2.  1   |             Figure 10.2.1.1.1, tobacco use is a risk factor for six
241  III,    10.  2.  1   |            data on prevalence of snuff use in Sweden are gathered through
242  III,    10.  2.  1   |             high prevalence of tobacco use among European women.~ ~
243  III,    10.  2.  1   |           lifestyle in common: tobacco use (WHO, 2002).~ ~Economic
244  III,    10.  2.  1   |             product. Smokeless tobacco use, however, appears to be
245  III,    10.  2.  1   |                effects of oral tobacco use include an increased risk
246  III,    10.  2.  1   |                are associated to snuff use, although an increased risk
247  III,    10.  2.  1   |                health effects of snuff use include increase of blood
248  III,    10.  2.  1   |              health hazards of tobacco use; and~· measures to raise
249  III,    10.  2.  1   |       possibilities.~ ~Curbing tobacco use is a longstanding EU health
250  III,    10.  2.  1   |               to lift the ban on snuff use.~ ~International organisations~ ~
251  III,    10.  2.  1   |             labels and prohibiting the use of deceptive labels such
252  III,    10.  2.  1   |             analysis of global tobacco use and control efforts, the
253  III,    10.  2.  1   |                are:~ ~ Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies~·
254  III,    10.  2.  1   |             Offer help to quit tobacco useWarn about the dangers
255  III,    10.  2.  1   |              health resulting from the use of tobacco products or their
256  III,    10.  2.  1   |               medicinal nicotine (NRT) use or on abstinence (“quit-or-die”
257  III,    10.  2.  1   |             established and widespread use of snuff in that population.
258  III,    10.  2.  1   |             relationship between snuff use and quitting smoking. Other
259  III,    10.  2.  1   |           commonly associated to snuff use. Other concerns include
260  III,    10.  2.  1   |                and prevalence of snuff use low, despite its availability.
261  III,    10.  2.  1   |                evidence to support the use of STP as a smoking cessation
262  III,    10.  2.  1   |                the patterns of tobacco use from one country where oral
263  III,    10.  2.  1   |               the reduction of tobacco use:~· Tobacco control programmes
264  III,    10.  2.  1   |                2000): Treating tobacco use and dependence: Clinical
265  III,    10.  2.  1   |                P, Nyrén O (2007): Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (
266  III,    10.  2.  1   |             Patterns of global tobacco use in young people and implications
267  III,    10.  2.  1   |              to manage~harmful alcohol use.~ ~Alcohol-related harm
268  III,    10.  2.  1   |             harm includes the “harmful use of alcohol”, a category
269  III,    10.  2.  1   |                between greater alcohol use and criminal and domestic
270  III,    10.  2.  1   |            status, childhood abuse and use of other drugs in addition
271  III,    10.  2.  1   |               relationship between the use of alcohol, largely in the
272  III,    10.  2.  1   |                of the level of alcohol use. There is a straight line
273  III,    10.  2.  1   |                likely to deter alcohol use and problems (Anderson and
274  III,    10.  2.  1   |                defence lawyer; and the use of an ignition interlock,
275  III,    10.  2.  1   |              has evaluated whether the use of designated drivers actually
276  III,    10.  2.  1   |                decrease its appeal and use) has inconclusive effects.
277  III,    10.  2.  1   |          hazardous and harmful alcohol use in the absence of severe
278  III,    10.  2.  1   |          prevent and/or reduce alcohol use by young people under 18
279  III,    10.  2.  1   |              of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction, 97,
280  III,    10.  2.  1(1)|                            Non-medical use of drugs that have been
281  III,    10.  2.  1   |           Population with Problem Drug Use~POU~Problem Opioid Use~REITOX~
282  III,    10.  2.  1   |            Drug Use~POU~Problem Opioid Use~REITOX~European Information
283  III,    10.  2.  1   |           sometimes used. Finally, the use of inhalants and the misuse
284  III,    10.  2.  1   |              the prevalence of cocaine use in young adults (15-34 y)
285  III,    10.  2.  1   |       according to recent survey data. Use of cocaine and other stimulant
286  III,    10.  2.  1   |               virus in Europe. Regular use of cannabis and the co-use
287  III,    10.  2.  1   |                also increasing.~ ~Drug use occurs overall mainly among
288  III,    10.  2.  1   |               considering regular drug use. The routes of administration
289  III,    10.  2.  1   |              indicator of problem drug use. The frequency of use is
290  III,    10.  2.  1   |             drug use. The frequency of use is also an important indicator
291  III,    10.  2.  1   |               problems related to drug use include acute problems such
292  III,    10.  2.  1   |              associated with long term use of illicit drugs. The social
293  III,    10.  2.  1   |            burden associated with drug use in Europe is still difficult
294  III,    10.  2.  1   |                intensive forms of drug use, including problem drug
295  III,    10.  2.  1   |                 including problem drug use and addiction/dependence.~
296  III,    10.  2.  1   |   epidemiological indicators ((i) drug use among the general population; (
297  III,    10.  2.  1   |          population; (ii) problem drug use; (iii) drug related infectious
298  III,    10.  2.  1   |         estimates on the prevalence of use of the most frequently used
299  III,    10.  2.  1   |            anymore. However, last year use of different drugs shows
300  III,    10.  2.  1   |           associated with current drug use across the EU are young
301  III,    10.  2.  1   |                and bars5.~ ~Early drug use~ ~Use of illicit drugs can
302  III,    10.  2.  1   |              bars5.~ ~Early drug use~ ~Use of illicit drugs can begin
303  III,    10.  2.  1   |                in their life) cannabis use ranges from more than 40%
304  III,    10.  2.  1   |           rates for other illicit drug use are much lower than for
305  III,    10.  2.  1   |         lifetime prevalence of cocaine use is 2% or lower. Lifetime
306  III,    10.  2.  1   |                lower. Lifetime ecstasy use was reported by 0 to 8%
307  III,    10.  2.  1(5)|                selected issues on drug use in recreational settings: htt l)~
308  III,    10.  2.  1   |             the prevalence of cannabis use among school children between
309  III,    10.  2.  1   |             lifetime prevalence of the use of other drugs has also
310  III,    10.  2.  1   |                16y-old students~ ~Drug use among young adults (15-34
311  III,    10.  2.  1   |               34 year old)~ ~Most drug use is taking place among 15-
312  III,    10.  2.  1   |               in the prevalence of the use of different substances.~ ~
313  III,    10.  2.  1   |              in Europe report lifetime use of cannabis, 13% (3-20%)
314  III,    10.  2.  1   |             over 7% (1.515.5%) report use in the last month. For cocaine,
315  III,    10.  2.  1   |                3% for average lifetime use, with six countries reporting
316  III,    10.  2.  1   |               5.1% and 5% for lifetime use and 1.5% and 2% for last
317  III,    10.  2.  1   |                5% and 2% for last year use. Lifetime prevalence of
318  III,    10.  2.  1   |             Lifetime prevalence of LSD use ranges from 0.3% to 7.6%.~ ~
319  III,    10.  2.  1   |          adults (aged 15 to 34)~ ~Drug use in the European Union has
320  III,    10.  2.  1   |                s prevalence of cocaine use among the 1534 age group
321  III,    10.  2.  1   |               amphetamines and ecstasy use decreasing and cocaine use
322  III,    10.  2.  1   |             use decreasing and cocaine use increasing7.~ ~ ~Figure
323  III,    10.  2.  1   |         surveys~ ~Most of illicit drug use recorded in general population
324  III,    10.  2.  1   |             more intensive patterns of use, closely with a number of
325  III,    10.  2.  1   |         cannabis users.~ ~Problem drug use~ ~General population surveys
326  III,    10.  2.  1   |                dependent forms of drug use, especially for substances
327  III,    10.  2.  1   |               considered.~Problem drug use is defined by the EMCDDA
328  III,    10.  2.  1   |              EMCDDA as ‘injecting drug use or long duration / regular
329  III,    10.  2.  1   |                long duration / regular use of opioids, cocaine and /
330  III,    10.  2.  1   |           remain the main problem drug use subgroups found in almost
331  III,    10.  2.  1   |                problems related to the use of drugs (Table 10.2.1.3.
332  III,    10.  2.  1   |              10.2.1.3.2Problem Drug Use estimates: Problem opioid
333  III,    10.  2.  1   |              estimates: Problem opioid use and injecting drug use~ ~
334  III,    10.  2.  1   |          opioid use and injecting drug use~ ~Recent estimates on the
335  III,    10.  2.  1   |             increase in problem opioid use in some EU countries. This
336  III,    10.  2.  1   |             not only to problem heroin use, but increasingly also to
337  III,    10.  2.  1   |         problem.~ ~Time trends in drug use~ ~The important development
338  III,    10.  2.  1   |             main trends regarding drug use and drug-related problems.
339  III,    10.  2.  1   |             heroin, and injecting drug use during the 80s and the 90s.
340  III,    10.  2.  1   |      drug-related problems, other drug use patterns surfaced. Cannabis
341  III,    10.  2.  1   |            patterns surfaced. Cannabis use among school-aged children
342  III,    10.  2.  1   |            ecstasy and other stimulant use became widespread among
343  III,    10.  2.  1   |                attendees while cocaine use started to grow among multiple
344  III,    10.  2.  1   |                the second wave of drug use increase during the 90s.~ ~
345  III,    10.  2.  1   |               the prevalence of opioid use is relatively stable, but
346  III,    10.  2.  1   |                the incidence of heroin use or injecting of diverted
347  III,    10.  2.  1   |             cannabis indicate that the use among young people, after
348  III,    10.  2.  1   |                amphetamine and ecstasy use but not for cocaine use
349  III,    10.  2.  1   |                use but not for cocaine use which could still be increasing.~ ~
350  III,    10.  2.  1   |             observed that illicit drug use has increased during the
351  III,    10.  2.  1   |              countries.~ ~Problem drug use has also changed in the
352  III,    10.  2.  1   |            opioid users who also often use cocaine and multiple other
353  III,    10.  2.  1   |             characterized by poly-drug use where multiple illicit and
354  III,    10.  2.  1   |               be attributed to opioids use, mainly drug overdoses,
355  III,    10.  2.  1   |             problems brought on by the use of cocaine over a long time,
356  III,    10.  2.  1   |         demanding treatment for opioid use has been falling until recently
357  III,    10.  2.  1   |         treatment for primary cannabis use increased in all countries
358  III,    10.  2.  1   |        demanding treatment for cocaine use more than doubled. European
359  III,    10.  2.  1   |          treatment for primary cocaine use are mainly related to cocaine
360  III,    10.  2.  1   |              related to cocaine powder use (85%), with only 15% referring
361  III,    10.  2.  1   |               treatment related to the use of amphetamines is increasing,
362  III,    10.  2.  1   |          increasing, this form of drug use is rarely the primary reason
363  III,    10.  2.  1   |               settings where substance use choices are made and the
364  III,    10.  2.  1   |        reducing the acceptance of drug use. However, so far only some
365  III,    10.  2.  1   |                 The increase of opiate use and injecting drug use in
366  III,    10.  2.  1   |          opiate use and injecting drug use in the eighties and nineties,
367  III,    10.  2.  1   |              dramatic increase in drug use and drug-related problems
368  III,    10.  2.  1   |               standards levels of drug use are high and, although inter-country
369  III,    10.  2.  1   |        observable and patterns of drug use still differ, the polarised
370  III,    10.  2.  1   |              European patterns of drug use.~ ~Historically, the drugs
371  III,    10.  2.  1   |          recreational and experimental use among young people. To some
372  III,    10.  2.  1   |               changing picture of drug use has prompted an awareness
373  III,    10.  2.  1   |            Increasing regular cannabis use, or the consumption of stimulant
374  III,    10.  2.  1   |                the fact that poly-drug use (the co-use of several substances)
375  III,    10.  2.  1   |             users in Europe. Poly–drug use issues are not restricted
376  III,    10.  2.  1   |              are not restricted to the use of controlled substances
377  III,    10.  2.  1   |               holistic approach to the use of psychoactive substances.~ ~
378  III,    10.  2.  1   |   complications caused by the combined use of different psychoactive
379  III,    10.  2.  1   |                recruitment into heroin use is falling, those experiencing
380  III,    10.  2.  1   |          through their current or past use of this drug will remain
381  III,    10.  2.  1   |              investigations. Poly-drug use, as already mentioned, risk
382  III,    10.  2.  1   |                  EMCDDA (2000): Opioid use and drug injection http ~ ~
383  III,    10.  2.  1   |            2006): Select issue on Drug Use In Recreational Settings.
384  III,    10.  2.  1   |                 Psychoactive Substance Use In Schoolchildren Between
385  III,    10.  2.  1   |               developed countries. The use of fluorides has been demonstrated
386  III,    10.  2.  1   |              types) as well as tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption.
387  III,    10.  2.  1   |              increased consumption and use of oral hygiene products
388  III,    10.  2.  1   |              In Austria, 97 % claim to use F-toothpaste. Trends of
389  III,    10.  2.  1   |                toothbrushes, while the use of mouthwash and sugar-free
390  III,    10.  2.  1   |           compare, but empirically its use would seem to have increased
391  III,    10.  2.  1   |                measures, including the use of fluoride mouth rinses,
392  III,    10.  2.  1   |              to fluorides.~ ~The daily use of toothpaste containing
393  III,    10.  2.  1   |               data to suggest that the use of low dose fluoride (250
394  III,    10.  2.  1   |               sugary foods and tobacco use. A more progressive health promotion
395  III,    10.  2.  1   |         general health such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption
396  III,    10.  2.  1   |         brushing behaviours and by the use of a range of oral hygiene
397  III,    10.  2.  1   |                perspective on fluoride use in seven countries. Community
398  III,    10.  2.  1   |              surveys and studies which use different instruments as
399  III,    10.  2.  1   |                difficult, due to their use of different data collection
400  III,    10.  2.  1   |               valuable information for use in national policy and are
401  III,    10.  2.  1   |               database is intended for use as a screening tool for
402  III,    10.  2.  1   |                However, the industrial use of iodised salt is still
403  III,    10.  2.  1   |            European States so that its use should be reduced and therefore
404  III,    10.  2.  1   |                as~· foods intended for use by individual members of
405  III,    10.  2.  1   |              Regulation No 1924 on the use of nutrition and health
406  III,    10.  2.  1   |               harmonised rules for the use of health or nutritional
407  III,    10.  2.  1   |               children have led to the use of nutrient profiles to
408  III,    10.  2.  1   |               list of substances whose use in foods is prohibited,
409  III,    10.  2.  1   |             necessary, to restrict the use of substances added to foods
410  III,    10.  2.  1   |        advertising to children and the use of new information technologies.~ ~ ~
411  III,    10.  2.  4   |            designated time. The future use of indicators and health
412  III,    10.  2.  4   |           microanatomical level by the use of immunohistochemistry
413  III,    10.  2.  4   |          technology rather than on the use of genome-based health information
414  III,    10.  2.  4   |        according to ICD10, but also to use the traditional and well
415  III,    10.  2.  4   |           therapy develop the more the use of the traditional tools
416  III,    10.  3.  1   |             phones have been in common use for little more than 10
417  III,    10.  3.  1   |                of skin cancer. Sun bed use (artificial sun, sunbathing
418  III,    10.  3.  1   |             worrisome level of sun-bed use among adolescents in some
419  III,    10.  3.  1   |                evidence indicates that use of mobile phones less than
420  III,    10.  3.  1   |           acoustic neuroma. For longer use, data are sparse and any
421  III,    10.  3.  1   |             the head as reported phone use was significantly raised
422  III,    10.  3.  1   |               significantly raised for use for 10 years or longer (
423  III,    10.  3.  1   |          consideration is mobile phone use by children. While no specific
424  III,    10.  3.  1   |                country to country. The use of harmonised assessments
425  III,    10.  3.  1   |              the regulation of sun bed use in youths and the provision
426  III,    10.  3.  2   |              industry, but also to the use of chemicals in downstream
427  III,    10.  3.  2   |              through manufacturing and use (industrial and consumer)
428  III,    10.  3.  2   |               even decades after their use has ceased.~ ~The public
429  III,    10.  3.  2   |                health relevance of the use of chemicals is extremely
430  III,    10.  3.  2   |             extraction, production and use up to their final disposal
431  III,    10.  3.  2   |       increasing production, trade and use of manufactured goods –
432  III,    10.  3.  2   |               their persistence; their use in new technologies including
433  III,    10.  3.  2   |                handling, transport and use of chemicals.~ ~
434  III,    10.  3.  2   |          developments~ ~The widespread use of chemical substances without
435  III,    10.  3.  2   |            2005). http://www.cefic.org~Use expected July 2006 update~ ~
436  III,    10.  3.  4   |       terminology make comparisons and use of the different data sets
437  III,    10.  3.  4   |      contamination and advised them to use only mineral water, adding
438  III,    10.  3.  4   |         flood-prone areas, proper land use, planning and maintenance
439  III,    10.  3.  4   |                terms of land and river use and flood forecasting. A
440  III,    10.  4.  1   |               smoking, cooking and the use of cleaning agents, disinfectants
441  III,    10.  4.  1   |               because of the increased use of air conditioners - as
442  III,    10.  4.  1   |               strengthened through the use of air quality standards
443  III,    10.  4.  2   |             the market or the eventual use of food or feed on account
444  III,    10.  4.  2   |              contamination and for the use of illegal dyes. There are
445  III,    10.  4.  2   |            alternative methods for the use or disposal of animal waste.~ ~
446  III,    10.  4.  2   |           animal diseases, through the use of food additives and technological
447  III,    10.  4.  2   |              approx.1,800~additives in use; in EU~positive list~No
448  III,    10.  4.  2   |             human milk,~via increasing use in all~kinds of products~ ~
449  III,    10.  4.  2   |      favourable will be authorised for use in foodstuffs by means of
450  III,    10.  4.  2   |      established and in some cases the use of substances is prohibited.~•
451  III,    10.  4.  2   |         grouting agents. A large-scale use of acrylamide grout and
452  III,    10.  4.  2   |             restrict the marketing and use of PFOS as of 27 June 2007 (
453  III,    10.  4.  2   |           influenced by the pattern of use of plant protection products
454  III,    10.  4.  2   |            growing crops or subsequent use during storage and may be
455  III,    10.  4.  2   |             the approved conditions of use (Good Agricultural Practice).
456  III,    10.  4.  2   |              together with the greater use of reduced doses by farmers
457  III,    10.  4.  2   |           insecticides were withdrawn, use of organophosphorus insecticides
458  III,    10.  4.  2   |       insecticides fell by 78% and the use of the pyrethroids, with
459  III,    10.  4.  2   |              by 2004. Whilst fungicide use increased by 56% and herbicides
460  III,    10.  4.  2   |           level, national estimates of use derived from commercial
461  III,    10.  4.  2   |           format is not appropriate to use the data for detailed assessments.
462  III,    10.  4.  2   |         reflects patterns of pesticide use and the more demanding legislative
463  III,    10.  4.  2   |              necessary to optimize the use of the scarce available
464  III,    10.  4.  2   |                on conditions~governing use.~ ~Episode in 2001 in the~
465  III,    10.  4.  2   |              increased in both~through use of artificial~fertilizer~ ~
466  III,    10.  4.  2   |      understood as an incentive not to use breast milk. On the contrary,
467  III,    10.  4.  2   |             and should ensure a better use of assessment resources
468  III,    10.  4.  2   |              the risks involved in the use of pesticides. To further
469  III,    10.  4.  2   |        pesticide fate models and their USe) was established under the
470  III,    10.  4.  2   |              preparations intended for use as ingredients in food supplements.~ ~
471  III,    10.  4.  2   |               preparations intends for use as ingredients in food supplements,
472  III,    10.  4.  2   |            value, metabolism, intended use and the level of unwanted
473  III,    10.  4.  2   |         industries. One example is the use of GMOs in the food production
474  III,    10.  4.  2   |                acts:~ ~· The contained use of genetically modified
475  III,    10.  4.  2   |                EC (4) on the contained use of genetically modified
476  III,    10.  4.  2   |             consistent with the likely use of the food is recognized
477  III,    10.  4.  2   |             action, the Commission may use the inspection report as
478  III,    10.  4.  2   |            April 1990 on the contained use of genetically modified
479  III,    10.  4.  3   |               scarcity. The increasing use of consumer disinfectant
480  III,    10.  4.  3   |       Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water sources
481  III,    10.  4.  3   |              promote sustainable water use; ensure the reduction of
482  III,    10.  4.  3   |           Convention on Protection and Use of Transboundary Water sources
483  III,    10.  4.  3   |       Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses
484  III,    10.  4.  4   |       increasing production, trade and use of manufactured goods –
485  III,    10.  4.  4   |                see Chapter 8.1.2.) and use of consumer products. For
486  III,    10.  4.  5   |                diseases if ingested.~ ~Use of recreational waters provides
487  III,    10.  4.  5   |        prevention is possible with the use of several instruments.
488  III,    10.  4.  5   |            toxicological research, the use of pharmacokinetic models
489  III,    10.  5.  1   |                Housing can lead to the use of hazardous construction
490  III,    10.  5.  1   |               energy saving and energy use in air conditioning. The
491  III,    10.  5.  1   |             the relative humidity, the use of cleaning detergents brings
492  III,    10.  5.  1   |               outbreaks related to the use of private well water, are
493  III,    10.  5.  1   |              enough distance for daily use is a key feature for healthy
494  III,    10.  5.  1   |             There is evidence that the use of recreational facilities
495  III,    10.  5.  1   |              pollution from solid fuel use - for example - reduces
496  III,    10.  5.  1   |                Health Action Plans for use and implementation by local
497  III,    10.  5.  2   |           Research (NIVEL) (2006): The use of Electronic Medical Recording
498  III,    10.  5.  3   |            data are provided as public use file.~ ~Data on accidents
499  III,    10.  5.  3   |       workplace health and safety. The use of subcontractors, for example,
500  III,    10.  5.  3   |             more decentralised and may uselean production methods’.