1-500 | 501-634
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |               ensure access for all to quality healthcare and long-term
  2    I,     2.  2        |               match the efficiency and quality of market leaders – or close
  3    I,     2.  2        |               group concerning service quality and accessibility. Innovation
  4    I,     2.  2        |            costs and improving service quality to increase competitiveness.
  5    I,     2.  2        |               evolving demand. Product quality and innovation are important
  6    I,     2.  2        |          initiate increases of service quality resulting in improved competitiveness
  7    I,     2.  3        |                them adequately and the quality of the health care services
  8    I,     2.  4        |              involves a combination of quality job opportunities, allowing
  9    I,     2.  4        |        allowing access for all to high quality care reflecting recent technological
 10    I,     2.  5        |               match the efficiency and quality of market leaders – or close
 11    I,     2.  5        |               supportive tasks such as quality and maintenance; job enlargement,
 12    I,     2.  5        |        improving work organisation and quality of working life for the
 13    I,     2.  7        |               cut in pollution, higher quality of life and the possibility
 14    I,     2.  9        |               several effects on water quality and hence on human use and
 15    I,     2.  9        |                human behaviour and the quality of health care services
 16    I,     2. 10.  1    |               abiotic stresses and the quality of end products. Bioinformatics
 17    I,     2. 10.  3    |           services (e.g. air and water quality on-line information) could
 18    I,     2. 10.  3    |               initiatives to implement quality criteria for websites.~ ~
 19   II,     4.  1        |              increasing focus on one’s quality of life (life spent in a
 20   II,     4.  1        |                information in terms of quality of life is provided by the
 21   II,     4.  1        |               gaps in the quantity and quality of life (i.e. between total
 22   II,     4.  1        |              goals are to increase the quality and years of healthy life
 23   II,     4.  1        |              indicators to monitor the quality of life and support active
 24   II,     4.  1        |               political demands on the quality of life of populations will
 25   II,     5.  1.  2    |               and well controlled. The quality of control is directly dependent
 26   II,     5.  1.  2    |             easy to understand, as the quality of care does not depend
 27   II,     5.  1.  3    |              maintain or improve their quality of life. There are a growing
 28   II,     5.  1.  3    |               self-management and high quality of care for all long-term
 29   II,     5.  1.  3    |               maintaining or improving quality of life. Its main purpose
 30   II,     5.  2.  1    |              of disability and reduced quality of life.~ ~Although EU is
 31   II,     5.  2.  1    |            causing substantial loss of quality of life, disability, and
 32   II,     5.  2.  2    |                the usual paucity, weak quality and comparability of data
 33   II,     5.  2.  5    |         protect health and improve the quality of life in the European
 34   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 and~ ~· Evaluating the quality of cancer care by providing
 35   II,     5.  3.  2    |               as details on treatment, quality of life, hospitalisation
 36   II,     5.  3.  2    |          epidemiology and on patientsquality of life. For all of the
 37   II,     5.  3.  3    |              assessment of results and quality of care. The Czech Republic
 38   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 improving survival and quality of life for cancer patients.
 39   II,     5.  3.  7    |            treatment, thus improve the quality of life. The basic approach
 40   II,     5.  3.  7    |             are often reflected in the quality of care given to individuals.
 41   II,     5.  4.  1    |        considerable improvement of the quality of life and patients' outcomes
 42   II,     5.  4.  2    |             the disease, risk factors, quality of care, and population
 43   II,     5.  4.  2    |               20 years later.~Tracking quality of care is paramount to
 44   II,     5.  4.  2    |              of variables entering the quality equation that must be taken
 45   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Planning, provision and quality audit of health care~->
 46   II,     5.  4.  2    |                               5.4.2.3. Quality of care monitoring~ ~The
 47   II,     5.  4.  2    |              way for the definition of quality of care (QOC) information
 48   II,     5.  4.  2    |                benchmarking system for quality improvement is still valid
 49   II,     5.  4.  2    |        existing in Europe, and beyond. Quality of care can be measured
 50   II,     5.  4.  2    |      indicators.~The OECD basic set of quality indicators undoubtedly reflect
 51   II,     5.  4.  2    |        National Diabetes Audit and the Quality and Outcomes Framework.~ ~
 52   II,     5.  4.  2    |            number that can be used for quality control purposes.~ ~
 53   II,     5.  4.  3    |               reflect a decline in the quality of care, despite the existing
 54   II,     5.  4.  4    |            joint effort to enhance the quality of data, with the adoption
 55   II,     5.  4.  6    |          indicate clearly the level of quality of care that must be ensured
 56   II,     5.  4.  6    |               to other areas: for most quality of care indicators the gold
 57   II,     5.  4.  7    |                 structures, structural quality, processes, measurement
 58   II,     5.  4.  7    |      indicators (epidemiology, process quality, intermediate and terminal
 59   II,     5.  4.  8    |             Update Report, Health Care Quality Indicators Project, Health
 60   II,     5.  4.  8    |                Vincent Declaration for Quality Improvement in Diabetes
 61   II,     5.  4.  8    |           Selecting Indicators for the quality of Diabetes Care at the
 62   II,     5.  5.Int    |           systems and brings a loss of quality of life for those affected
 63   II,     5.  5.Int    |           Europe in mental health, the quality of care and welfare for
 64   II,     5.  5.  1    |              reduces significantly the quality of life to an extent comparable
 65   II,     5.  5.  1    |          common and causes decrease in quality of life and loss of productivity.~ ~
 66   II,     5.  5.  1    |        European-wide comparability and quality of mental health related
 67   II,     5.  5.  1    |             disability, health-related quality of life, use of treatment
 68   II,     5.  5.  1    |              1999-2003), evaluated the quality of existing data and epidemiological
 69   II,     5.  5.  1    |                for mental health. High quality and comparable data need
 70   II,     5.  5.  1    |           conditions on health-related quality of life: a general population
 71   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 and to try to maintain quality of life. Measures must also
 72   II,     5.  5.  2    |             health strategy guarantees quality and safe access to currently
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Wrigley et al, 2005). The quality of psychiatric care differs
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disorders. In general, the quality of cause-of-death information
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |      statistics, as well as the coding quality, are inconsistent. Schizophrenia
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |               is also reflected in the quality of life assessment which
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |        deficits, decreasing subjective quality of life, substantial loss
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |               them do not meet current quality standards as assessed by
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |             rating scale to assess the quality of reporting and of the
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disorders.~The extent and quality of mental health care in
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |            health expenditures reflect quality of care. However, insufficient
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |           general, as major factors of quality of life.~ ~
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |           instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines:
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the largest impact of data quality. By following specific manuals,
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |             alone interfere with their quality of life and productivity (
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |              well interferons with the quality of life and productivity
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Practice on the Rights and Quality of Life of People Affected
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |             critical to the health and Quality of Life of People affected
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |            symptomatic treatment, high quality studies are still scarce.
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Principles to promote the quality of life of people with MS (
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Practice on the rights and quality of life of people affected
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |        specific towards the rights and quality of life of people affected
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |          treatment, access thereto and quality of services for EU citizens
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Principles to promote the quality of life of people with MS (
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Union~HRQoL~Health-related quality of life~ICD~International
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |     considerably affects the patient’s quality of life and leads to a substantial
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |               impact on health-related quality of life in those patients (
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |      burden-of-disease, health-related quality of life and patient utilities
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |                RM, Gullaksen E (1995): Quality of life and care in Parkinson100   II,     5.  5.  3    |           review of the health-related quality of life and economic impact
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |            2002): Factors impacting on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease:
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Population based mortality and quality of death certification in
103   II,     5.  6.  3    |           determinants; disability and quality of life; health care utilization;
104   II,     5.  6.  3    |             diseases)~ ~Disability and quality of life~ ~Musculoskeletal
105   II,     5.  6.  3    |            associated with the poorest quality of life if compared to other
106   II,     5.  6.  3    |       vertebral fracture affects one’s quality of life with limitation
107   II,     5.  6.  3    |                long-term impairment of quality of life which worsens with
108   II,     5.  6.  3    |           contributes to the impact on quality of life and increased mortality (
109   II,     5.  6.  6    |          fractures and their impact on quality of life. Am J Med 103:12S-17S~
110   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Musculoskeletal pain and quality of life in patients with
111   II,     5.  6.  6    |               J (2000): Health-related quality of life in postmenopausal
112   II,     5.  6.  6    |       associated with better or poorer quality of life? J Clin Epidemiol
113   II,     5.  7.Acr    |          Million of the Population~QOF~Quality and Outcomes Framework~RRT~
114   II,     5.  7.  1    |          morbidity, mortality and poor quality of life engendered by CKD
115   II,     5.  7.  4    |             ESRD, by the access to and quality of health care and by survival
116   II,     5.  7.  5    |              Health Ministry has had a quality improvement program for
117   II,     5.  7.  5    |           biochemical, but as of 2009, quality measures will be based on
118   II,     5.  7.  5    |            issued a declaration on the quality of care for renal patients.~·
119   II,     5.  7.  5    |           electronically reported four quality indicators. Since the beginning
120   II,     5.  7.  5    |                the centres about their quality based on these parameters
121   II,     5.  7.  5    |          limits.~· In The Netherlands, quality assurance is a vital element
122   II,     5.  7.  5    |   responsibility for the provision and quality of health care. At present,
123   II,     5.  7.  5    |          present, there is a system of quality control, auditing and certification
124   II,     5.  7.  5    |                dialysis centers have a quality certificate. The development
125   II,     5.  7.  5    |               chronic renal failure on quality of life, especially in dialysis
126   II,     5.  7.  5    |              As for ESRD, reporting on quality of treatment is still not
127   II,     5.  7.  5    |              monitors the quantity and quality of RRT care using electronic
128   II,     5.  7.  5    |         Healthcare Commission monitors quality improvement in England &
129   II,     5.  7.  5    |             the UK registry, while NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (QIS)
130   II,     5.  7.  5    |           introduction of CKD into the Quality and Outcomes Framework (
131   II,     5.  7.  5    |                with CKD, they get high quality advice and support in modifying
132   II,     5.  7.  5    |                Service Framework (NSF) quality requirements which aim to
133   II,     5.  7.  5    |              OEDTR) shall take care of quality assurance in ESRD treatment.
134   II,     5.  7.  6    |            improvement of survival and quality of life of those patients
135   II,     5.  7.  6    |               different aspects on the quality of ESRD care, but also projects
136   II,     5.  7.  6    |              in development up to high quality standards.~As already summarized
137   II,     5.  7.  6    |                As patient survival and quality of life are higher in transplant
138   II,     5.  7.  7    |              al (2005): Health-related quality of life and estimates of
139   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Kimmel PL, Patel SS (2006): Quality of life in patients with
140   II,     5.  7.  7    |           Williams A, Geary DF (2006): Quality of life in children with
141   II,     5.  8.  3    |          effects on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) as shown
142   II,     5.  8.  5    |              on improved workplace air quality. If preventive actions are
143   II,     5.  8.  6    |             admissions and improve the quality of life should be implemented
144   II,     5.  9.Acr    |              in Rural Environments~QoL~Quality of Life~SAPALDIA~Air Pollution
145   II,     5.  9. FB    |           heavily affect the patientsquality of life and have a considerable
146   II,     5.  9. FB    |          training in allergology. High quality assessment criteria must
147   II,     5.  9. FB    |             have a heavy impact on the quality of life of affected people,
148   II,     5.  9.  1    |          effects, leading to a reduced quality of life (QoL) of both patients
149   II,     5.  9.  2    |               reviewed journals;~- The Quality of life and management of
150   II,     5.  9.  3    |               of the access to and the quality of outpatient health care.~ ~
151   II,     5.  9.  3    |             year. Allergies impair the quality of life over a long period,
152   II,     5.  9.  3    |          improvement of the individual quality of life and long-term reduction
153   II,     5.  9.  5    |          training in allergology. High quality assessment criteria must
154   II,     5.  9.  5    |               levels.~ ~Research~ ~The Quality of life and management of
155   II,     5.  9.  5    |                network, to enhance the quality and relevance of research,
156   II,     5.  9.  5    |         include the improvement on the quality of life.~ ~More studies
157   II,     5.  9.  5    |          deaths as an indicator of the quality of ambulatory care and adopting
158   II,     5.  9.  5    |            deaths as part of the total quality management process.~ ~In
159   II,     5.  9.  6    |               productivity but also of quality of life impairment. Asthmatic
160   II,     5.  9.  6    |             This is why Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) has become
161   II,     5.  9.  6    |                 Schipper et al, 1990). Quality of life research has demonstrated
162   II,     5.  9.  6    |             symptoms and improving the quality of life in asthmatic patients:
163   II,     5.  9.  7    |           diseases and their impact on quality of life. Ann Allergy Asthma
164   II,     5.  9.  7    |           Clinch J, Olweny CLM (1990): Quality of life studies: definitions
165   II,     5.  9.  7    |                 In: Spilker B Editors. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics
166   II,     5. 10.  1    |               deeply deteriorate one’s quality of life (Mills et al, 2007).
167   II,     5. 10.  2    |              Europe.~ ~Data of similar quality and consistency are lacking,
168   II,     5. 10.  6    |           increase food choice and the quality of social life of food allergic
169   II,     5. 11.  3    |     significant negative impact on the quality of life for children, as
170   II,     5. 11.  3    |               included nickel in their quality control programme and are
171   II,     5. 11.  4    |             job prospects. Indeed, the quality of life scores for people
172   II,     5. 11.  4    |             the adverse effects on the quality of life and the opportunity
173   II,     5. 11.  6    |               profoundly influence the quality of life of affected people
174   II,     5. 13        |                often cheaper than good quality food. The prevalence of
175   II,     5. 13        |      psychological problems and poorer quality of life (intangible costs) (
176   II,     5. 14.  2    |              systems for improving the quality of oral health care and
177   II,     5. 14.  2    |                the morbidity rates and quality of life of the population.
178   II,     5. 14.  2    |             control costs, help assure quality and favourable outcomes,
179   II,     5. 14.  2    |               in terms of methodology, quality control, and presentation
180   II,     5. 14.  2    |               the production of higher quality information in oral health
181   II,     5. 14.  3    |             are predominantly cases of quality dental care, meaning more
182   II,     5. 14.  3    |           dental caries on the overall quality of health and wellbeing
183   II,     5. 14.  3    |      dimensions of oral health related quality of life. Dissatisfaction
184   II,     5. 14.  5    |              changes in life-style and quality of life behaviour in relation
185   II,     5. 14.  5    |             health system for a better quality of care. Clearly health
186   II,     5. 14.  5    |                and oral health related quality of life.~ ~Oral health systems
187   II,     5. 14.  5    |       objectives expressed in terms of quality of life improvements, reduction
188   II,     5. 14.  5    |               goals are formulated for quality of care and access to care,
189   II,     5. 14.  5    |           older people affecting their quality life (Petersen and Yamamoto,
190   II,     5. 14.  7    |               and meeting. The overall quality of life of any individual
191   II,     5. 15.  2    |                small subsets and their quality is low in general as the
192   II,     5. 15.  5    |                services of the highest quality.~ ~Pressure for change in
193   II,     6.  3.  2    |                that it is reliable and quality assured.~ ~For other bacteria
194   II,     6.  3.  3    |               infection, improving the quality of life and delaying the
195   II,     6.  3.  7    |              discussed here below. The quality and availability of data
196   II,     7.Acr        |          Safety Enforcement Forum~QALY~Quality Adjusted Life Years~SDR~
197   II,     7.  2.  1    |            poisoning (E800-E999)~ ~The quality of the data is subject to
198   II,     7.  2.  1    |               ICD). However, important quality and comparability issues
199   II,     7.  2.  1    |                of data reliability and quality see the ANAMORT project (htt ~ ~
200   II,     7.  2.  2    |                of data reliability and quality of hospital discharge data
201   II,     7.  4        |             Years of Life Lost (PYLL), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs),
202   II,     7.  5        |                meeting the statistical quality criteria of EUROSTAT for
203   II,     8.  1.  5    |        activities, promoting access to quality support and care services,
204   II,     8.  2.  1    |             also as a key indicator of quality of life (AAMR, 2002).~ ~
205   II,     8.  2.  1    |               Arguably, the health and quality of life of family carers
206   II,     8.  2.  2    |               revenue and the impaired quality of life, pain, suffering
207   II,     9.  1        |            practices and improving the quality of care.~ ~ ~
208   II,     9.  1.  1    |            comparing health status and quality of care (Macfarlane and
209   II,     9.  1.  1    |           longer be used for comparing quality of perinatal health services
210   II,     9.  1.  1    |               contrasts as a basis for quality assessment. Acta Obstet
211   II,     9.  1.  2    |               terms of~· impact on the quality of life of affected children
212   II,     9.  1.  2    |                the familyprovision, quality and financial cost of medical,
213   II,     9.  1.  2    |          improve the participation and quality of life of affected individuals
214   II,     9.  1.  2    |            their familiesprovision, quality and financial cost of prenatal
215   II,     9.  1.  2    |            information to collect high quality data (both in terms of case
216   II,     9.  1.  2    |          Registries~ ~Maintaining high quality data usually requires a
217   II,     9.  1.  2    |              of the same anomaly. Data quality can also be influenced by
218   II,     9.  1.  2    |      registrations is dependent on the quality of death certification,
219   II,     9.  1.  2    |        termination of pregnancy d) the quality of treatment for congenital
220   II,     9.  1.  2    |            overall improvement in data quality and increases in risk factors
221   II,     9.  1.  2    |               Europe would improve the quality or efficiency of registries:
222   II,     9.  1.  2    |                of survival, morbidity, quality of life and participation.
223   II,     9.  1.  2    |            anomalies. Variation in the quality of screening services within
224   II,     9.  1.  2    |           families in terms of health, quality of life and participation.~ ~
225   II,     9.  3.  1    |              complaints, a decrease in quality of life and an increase
226   II,     9.  3.  1    |           systems and brings a loss of quality of life for those affected
227   II,     9.  3.  1    |               impact on disability and quality of life which result in
228   II,     9.  3.  1    |               level. In this way, good quality research and health services
229   II,     9.  3.  1    |               maintain and improve the quality of life in women as they
230   II,     9.  3.  2    |               of several years.~ ~Data quality for maternal deaths must
231   II,     9.  3.  2    |           important for obtaining good quality data. The Confidential Enquiry
232   II,     9.  3.  2    |              the early 1990s. Improved quality of maternal mortality statistics
233   II,     9.  3.  2    |            testing the feasibility and quality of an indicator based on
234   II,     9.  3.  2    |      incorporate aspects of healthcare quality, as assessed by mothers
235   II,     9.  3.  2    |           longer be used for comparing quality of perinatal health services
236   II,     9.  3.  2    |               contrasts as a basis for quality assessment. Acta Obstet
237   II,     9.  4.  1    |              impact of ageing on one’s quality of life and the increased
238   II,     9.  4.  1    |          citizens to experience a high quality of life in the years to
239   II,     9.  4.  1    |             Commission; accessibility, quality and financial sustainability (
240   II,     9.  4.  3    |                mobility influences the quality of life. Men are more likely
241   II,     9.  4.  5    |             instruments to improve the quality of care in nursing home
242   II,     9.  4.  5    |               by the systematic use of quality indicators for drug use
243   II,     9.  4.  5    |               of older workers and the quality of their working lives using
244   II,     9.  4.  5    |              on community life and the quality of life of the more vulnerable
245   II,     9.  4.  5    |        identified the ensuring of high quality and sustainable healthcare
246   II,     9.  4.  5    |            able to continue to provide quality health services. In June
247   II,     9.  4.  5    |              wealth;~· a high level of quality of care; and~· financial
248   II,     9.  4.  5    |               the questions of access, quality and financial sustainability.
249   II,     9.  4.  5    |            broad objectives of access, quality and sustainability as a
250   II,     9.  4.  5    |                care for all, with high quality?; how to provide more cost-effective
251   II,     9.  4.  5    |           balance between the focus on quality, standards and cost control -
252   II,     9.  4.  5    |                 and how to develop the quality of work, by providing skill
253   II,     9.  4.  5    |           mechanisms.~ ~In the area of quality, the replies reveal that
254   II,     9.  4.  5    |           Member States in the area of quality of service delivery regarding
255   II,     9.  4.  5    |              be usefule for developing quality assessment tools.~ ~For
256   II,     9.  4.  5    |         particular barriers in access, quality and outcomes of care that
257   II,     9.  4.  5    |           enjoy a healthier and higher quality of life for a longer time.
258   II,     9.  4.  6    |                has economic as well as quality of life related consequences
259   II,     9.  4.  6    |      contribution in EuropeFocus on quality of life initiatives that
260   II,     9.  5.  3    |        Heinrich, 2000). While the life quality of all older people may
261   II,     9.  5.  4    |          effects of inequity. The life quality of carers, lone parents,
262  III,    10.  1.  1    |                 e.g. smuggling and low quality cigarettes), availability
263  III,    10.  1.  1    |            affects the environment and quality of life of growing children
264  III,    10.  1.  1    |         publication bias and low study quality (Gil-González, 2006). Additional
265  III,    10.  1.  3    |     Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.
266  III,    10.  2.  1    |       ineffective antidote to the high quality, pro-drinking messages that
267  III,    10.  2.  1    |            children because it affects quality of life and social functioning,
268  III,    10.  2.  1    |             also have an impact on the quality of life~Strategies for improving
269  III,    10.  2.  1    |       objectives expressed in terms of quality of life, reduction of health
270  III,    10.  2.  1    |                of health inequalities, quality of care and access to care.
271  III,    10.  2.  1    |               as well as improve one’s quality of life. These benefits
272  III,    10.  2.  1    |             every second year.~ ~ ~The quality of currently available data
273  III,    10.  2.  1    |                often cheaper than good quality food. The prevalence of
274  III,    10.  2.  1    |      psychological problems and poorer quality of life (intangible costs) (
275  III,    10.  2.  1    |            objectives of improving the quality of diet in a population.
276  III,    10.  2.  1    |               facilities for exercise, quality and safety of products).
277  III,    10.  2.  4    |                the 2003 study “Towards quality assurance and harmonisation
278  III,    10.  2.  4    |             EC-Joint Research. Towards quality assurance and harmonisation
279  III,    10.  2.  5    |              dependant of the time and quality of the stimulus (Black 1998).
280  III,    10.  3.  1    |                combines information on quality and quantity of life, gives
281  III,    10.  3.  1    |             affect people’s health and quality of life, as it interferes
282  III,    10.  3.  1    |              night for a sleep of good quality. A Swedish questionnaire
283  III,    10.  3.  1    |     information. One key aspect of the quality of reported data is the
284  III,    10.  3.  1    |                assessments of a higher quality. By doing this, assessments
285  III,    10.  3.  1    |              which endanger health and quality of life.~The implementation
286  III,    10.  3.  1    |              WHO) (1987 and 2000). Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. WHO
287  III,    10.  3.  2    |      assessments are peer reviewed and quality checked by scientific experts
288  III,    10.  3.  2    |          Worldwide, a decline in semen quality has been observed over the
289  III,    10.  3.  2    |              that ensure environmental quality or health protection from
290  III,    10.  3.  2    |         Organization (WHO) (2000): Air quality guidelinesSecond Edition
291  III,    10.  3.  4    |             policy domains such as air quality, energy security, employment
292  III,    10.  3.  4    |                on agriculture and soil quality rather than human health
293  III,    10.  3.  4    |            supply and compromise water quality. Drought in Europe has also
294  III,    10.  3.  4    |            forest fires can affect air quality for thousands of kilometres .~ ~
295  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     Acronyms~ ~AQG~Air Quality Guidelines~CAFÉ~Clean Air
296  III,    10.  4.  1    |            respiratory health and life quality improve when air quality
297  III,    10.  4.  1    |               quality improve when air quality improves.~ ~In Europe, emissions
298  III,    10.  4.  1    |            remain in 2020. Meeting air quality targets will require efforts
299  III,    10.  4.  1    |             sectors.~ ~Poor indoor air quality is the source of a number
300  III,    10.  4.  1    |            buildings. Other indoor air quality problems arise from construction
301  III,    10.  4.  1    |            common pollutants, poor air quality is still associated with
302  III,    10.  4.  1    |             growth, legislation on air quality, together with associated
303  III,    10.  4.  1    |              of the vehicle fleet, low quality and high sulphur content
304  III,    10.  4.  1    |             assessment’ (chaptersAir Quality’ and ‘Environment and Health
305  III,    10.  4.  1    |      assessments are peer reviewed and quality checked by scientific experts
306  III,    10.  4.  1    |           levels exceeding the WHO air quality guideline level (AQG) (20
307  III,    10.  4.  1    |               benefits of improved air quality. Dublin, Ireland, and towns
308  III,    10.  4.  1    |       considering human health and the quality of life, the most urgent
309  III,    10.  4.  1    |              be the improvement of the quality of outdoor and indoor air.~ ~
310  III,    10.  4.  1    |            respiratory health and life quality improves when air quality
311  III,    10.  4.  1    |              quality improves when air quality improves. This is clearly
312  III,    10.  4.  1    |             community behaviour on air quality and childhood asthma was
313  III,    10.  4.  1    |        day-care and during travel. The quality of the indoor environment
314  III,    10.  4.  1    |             contribution of indoor air quality to respiratory symptoms
315  III,    10.  4.  1    |          asthma prevalence. Indoor air quality is therefore, receiving
316  III,    10.  4.  1    |                indoor than outdoor air quality. There are several European
317  III,    10.  4.  1    |              that regulate outdoor air quality but no European guidelines
318  III,    10.  4.  1    |              guidelines for indoor air quality. In the US, the Dept of
319  III,    10.  4.  1    |                96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management
320  III,    10.  4.  1    |             Commission 2005b).~The air quality directives require EU Member
321  III,    10.  4.  1    |            Member States to assess air quality throughout their territory.
322  III,    10.  4.  1    |               methods, calibration and quality assessment methods in order
323  III,    10.  4.  1    |               to achieve levels of air quality that do not give rise to
324  III,    10.  4.  1    |               Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (
325  III,    10.  4.  1    |             need to revise current air quality protection legislation was
326  III,    10.  4.  1    |              of ambition regarding air quality in the EU up to 2020 (between
327  III,    10.  4.  1    |              it clear that meeting air quality targets will require efforts
328  III,    10.  4.  1    |             for primary particles.~Air quality protection policy of South-eastern
329  III,    10.  4.  1    |               and harmonised their air quality protection legislations
330  III,    10.  4.  1    |    strengthened through the use of air quality standards and national emission
331  III,    10.  4.  1    |                linking climate and air quality policies.~Most of this action
332  III,    10.  4.  1    |               be summarized as:~· Fuel quality standardsEmission limits
333  III,    10.  4.  1    |             Linkage of climate and air quality policiesReduced demand
334  III,    10.  4.  1    |             polluting activitiesAir quality standardsNational emission
335  III,    10.  4.  1    |          involved in the debate on air quality. Whilst specific actions
336  III,    10.  4.  1    |             AirBase – the European air quality database. Copenhagen, European
337  III,    10.  4.  1    |               Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe.
338  III,    10.  4.  1    |              directive on “Ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe” ({
339  III,    10.  4.  1    |                A. (2007) improving air quality: the Clean Air for europe (
340  III,    10.  4.  1    |               2004.~ ~WHO (2005a): Air quality guidelines for particulate
341  III,    10.  4.  1    |            2005.~ ~WHO (2005): WHO air quality guidelines global update
342  III,    10.  4.  2    |               food safety by improving quality standards and reinforcing
343  III,    10.  4.  2(27)|                  Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticide
344  III,    10.  4.  2    |           assessment of the safety and quality of all types of foodstuffs
345  III,    10.  4.  2    |               assessing the safety and quality of foods. Due to reasons
346  III,    10.  4.  2    |            outbreaks would improve the quality of the Community analyses.~·
347  III,    10.  4.  2    |  quantification, resulting in improved quality of pesticide residue data.
348  III,    10.  4.  2    |                be focused on improving quality standards and reinforcing
349  III,    10.  4.  2    |              consistency and technical quality in risk assessment in order
350  III,    10.  4.  2    |                improvement of a food’s quality or nutritional value, increased
351  III,    10.  4.  3    |           drinking water. An effective quality control and water treatment
352  III,    10.  4.  3    |          availability of water of good quality for consumption and recreation
353  III,    10.  4.  3    |          regions have an impact on the quality of coastal waters which
354  III,    10.  4.  3    |          attention when discussing the quality of European drinking- and
355  III,    10.  4.  3    |                  Health impact of poor quality drinking water~ ~Significant
356  III,    10.  4.  3    |           health effects of poor water quality. There is no consolidated
357  III,    10.  4.  3    |          including water treatment and quality control. However, in some
358  III,    10.  4.  3    |          including water treatment and quality control. In rural areas,
359  III,    10.  4.  3    |              to water of high hygienic quality it is necessary to take
360  III,    10.  4.  3    |               as of water quantity and quality aspects. In WFD, integration
361  III,    10.  4.  3    |              WFD, integration combines quality, ecological and quantity
362  III,    10.  4.  3    |          Guidelines for drinking-water quality are the international reference
363  III,    10.  4.  3    |                order to maintain water quality and ensure human health.
364  III,    10.  4.  3    |              impacts. Reports on water quality must be made publicly available
365  III,    10.  4.  3    |         impacts on water supply and on quality. Water flows are not limited
366  III,    10.  4.  3    |             sustainable supply of high quality drinking- and recreational
367  III,    10.  4.  3    |           December 1975 concerning the quality of bathing water. Available
368  III,    10.  4.  3    |         proposal setting environmental quality standards for surface waters
369  III,    10.  4.  3    |             Indicators - Bathing water quality (CSI 022) - Assessment DRAFT
370  III,    10.  4.  3    |                Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer.
371  III,    10.  4.  3    |          Guidelines for drinking-water quality. First addendum to third
372  III,    10.  4.  5    |                At present, the general quality of bathing waters, as measured
373  III,    10.  4.  5    |              facilities, bathing water quality has improved since the 1990s.
374  III,    10.  4.  5    |         classification of 'sufficient' quality comes below 'excellent'
375  III,    10.  4.  5    |      sufficient'. Information on water quality will be provided on the
376  III,    10.  4.  5    |            bathing beaches to show the quality of recent tests. Under this
377  III,    10.  4.  5    |         proposal setting environmental quality standards for surface waters
378  III,    10.  4.  5    |             Indicators - Bathing water quality (CSI 022) - Assessment DRAFT
379  III,    10.  4.  5    |            affect soil and groundwater quality throughout Europe. The main
380  III,    10.  4.  5    |         Environment and health and the quality of life.~ ~Environment data
381  III,    10.  5.  1    |               and unhealthy indoor air quality, also influenced by outdoor
382  III,    10.  5.  1    |                conditions, such as air quality, traffic, safety, sanitation,
383  III,    10.  5.  1    |             For example, there are air quality problems and noise exposure
384  III,    10.  5.  1    |             lack of information on the quality of water from these sources,
385  III,    10.  5.  1    |          responsible for assessing the quality of the water. An example
386  III,    10.  5.  1    |                relevance of the indoor quality and conditions of human
387  III,    10.  5.  1    |              sprawl. Still, noise, air quality and adequate housing conditions
388  III,    10.  5.  1    |                of the human settlement quality and the related health impacts
389  III,    10.  5.  1    |            shows what variation in the quality of living conditions can
390  III,    10.  5.  1    |             only little to the overall quality of the human settlement
391  III,    10.  5.  1    |             Apte MG (2003): Indoor air quality, ventilation and health
392  III,    10.  5.  1    |              of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human
393  III,    10.  5.  1    |              Guidelines for Indoor Air QualityReport on a Working Group
394  III,    10.  5.  2    |             data from the 1st European Quality of Life Survey (Eurofound,
395  III,    10.  5.  2    |                as air pollution, water quality, noise exposure and access
396  III,    10.  5.  2    |                 A recent survey on the quality of life coordinated by the
397  III,    10.  5.  2    |       Eurofound (2006): First European Quality of Life Survey: Urban-rural
398  III,    10.  5.  3    |               match the efficiency and quality of market leaders – or else
399  III,    10.  5.  3    |               supportive tasks such as quality and maintenance; job enlargement,
400  III,    10.  5.  3    |              work organisation and the quality of working life for the
401  III,    10.  5.  3    |            ENWHP has produced a set of quality criteria for good practice
402  III,    10.  5.  3    |      Luxembourg Declaration and on the quality model of the European Foundation
403  III,    10.  5.  3    |                European Foundation for Quality Management. The European
404  III,    10.  5.  3    |                enhancing intrinsic job quality~- ensuring policy evaluation
405  III,    10.  5.  3    |           Commission (2007): Improving quality and productivity at work -
406  III,    10.  6.  1    |               Victor, 1988). Poor, low quality social networks are associated
407  III,    10.  6.  1    |              Kaplan et al., 1988). The quality of close relations is important:
408  III,    10.  6.  1    |                is measured by size and quality, existence and number of
409  III,    10.  6.  1    |          school children’s experienced quality of communication with their
410  III,    10.  6.  1    |               cohesion -defined as the quality of social networks and the
411  III,    10.  6.  2    |                everyone access to high quality care reflecting recent technological
412   IV,    11.  1.  1    |          prevention and treatment, and quality of life of citizens are
413   IV,    11.  1.  1    |      accessibility, sustainability and quality; whilst the latter encompass
414   IV,    11.  1.  1    |            emphasis on access to care, quality of care and responsiveness
415   IV,    11.  1.  2    |               methods, and health care quality measurement. Where possible,
416   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                use. The First European Quality of Life Survey (2004), coordinated
417   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                to adequate if not high quality health care, began finding
418   IV,    11.  1.  3    |         effectiveness through improved quality; in many cases through an
419   IV,    11.  1.  3    |          efforts to ensure and improve quality of care are currently present
420   IV,    11.  1.  3    |         facilitate improvements in the quality of care and the achievement
421   IV,    11.  1.  3    |            care and the achievement of quality standards. The focus on
422   IV,    11.  1.  3    |            payments to performance and quality all part of the new reform
423   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             dignity, prompt attention, quality of basic amenities, access
424   IV,    11.  1.  3    |               include: access to care, quality and appropriateness of care,
425   IV,    11.  1.  4    |             equitable delivery of high quality health services to their
426   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                              11.1.3.3. Quality in health care~ ~After a
427   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           effectiveness in the form of quality of care. For instance, evidence
428   IV,    11.  1.  5    |        provides some indication of how quality can be measured, identifies
429   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              significant variations in quality and shows that improving
430   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               and shows that improving quality is very difficult (and that
431   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              to differences in the way quality is measured and defined,
432   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           evidence available comparing quality of care across countries.
433   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              of care across countries. Quality encompasses a multitude
434   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            detection. Also integral in quality of care is patient safety,
435   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            consensus, on how to define quality of care, is largely due
436   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                since the mid-1960s the quality of healthcare has been measured
437   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               capacity to provide high quality care. Structural variables
438   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               or not provided care. In quality assessment, two types of
439   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            made between organizational quality assessment models and clinical
440   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         assessment models and clinical quality assessment schemes (Øvretveit,
441   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            visitation, clinical audit, quality circles and medical specialty.~ ~
442   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               and medical specialty.~ ~Quality indicators are necessary
443   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            necessary to guide clinical quality assessment although, because
444   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          example, in Sweden, voluntary quality registers were developed
445   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               and encourage continuous quality improvements (Rehnqvist,
446   IV,    11.  1.  5    |             participate.~ ~Publicizing quality~ ~Some countries have gone
447   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               gone further, developing quality indicators and reporting
448   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         maintain standards and improve quality (Marshall et al, 2003).
449   IV,    11.  1.  5    |     influential~Purchasers contract on quality (including safety) not just
450   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               in patients by improving quality instead of cream-skimming~
451   IV,    11.  1.  5    |     performance to the public improves quality is mixed. In some countries
452   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               launched the Health Care Quality Indicator Project to track
453   IV,    11.  1.  5    |             Indicator Project to track quality of healthcare across countries.
454   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            develop a set of healthcare quality indicators that can be reliably
455   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                European Foundation for Quality Management provides training
456   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              and guidance for numerous quality improvement initiatives
457   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              of care is a dimension of quality that refers to the extent
458   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                care relate to clinical quality assessment schemes such
459   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          clinical practice guidelines, quality indicators and information
460   IV,    11.  1.  5    |             clinical guidelines on the quality of care is uncertain (Gundersen,
461   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         guidelines seek to improve the quality of care, others are designed
462   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                successful in improving quality of care. In France, there
463   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            could negatively affect the quality of care being delivered (
464   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            made to monitor prescribing quality, such as the use of a Medical
465   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           Provider payment methods and quality of care~ ~Direct financial
466   IV,    11.  1.  5    |        financial incentives to improve quality of service provision are
467   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                used in many countries. Quality specifications in a payment
468   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            enacted to meet the goal of quality provision. One of the most
469   IV,    11.  1.  5    |       ambitious initiatives to promote quality in general practice was
470   IV,    11.  1.  5    |     contributing to an overall maximum quality score for each practice
471   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                specifications refer to quality measurement mechanisms such
472   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         collection systems or internal quality management mechanisms (Shaw,
473   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            documentation requirements. Quality indicators related to process
474   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 and if they will raise quality only in those already performing
475   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            effectiveness of paying for quality in healthcare (Rosenthal
476   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 Finally, as paying for quality will entail additional administrative
477   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               for improving healthcare quality (Rosenthal et al, 2004;
478   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            particularly in relation to quality improvements. Methodological
479   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                one survey on perceived quality of health and social care
480   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           highest ratings of perceived quality of health and also social
481   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               subjective indicators of quality; indeed many argue that
482   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                  Table 11.2. Perceived quality of public services~ ~Patient
483   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           integral to ensuring overall quality, and is only slowly being
484   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              encourages all to improve quality and safety; and is supportive
485   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            preventable barrier to high quality health care. They have therefore
486   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            satisfied they are with the quality of the service given by
487   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                indicative of perceived quality of physician care. It is
488   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                incorporate elements of quality of care into the measurement
489   IV,    11.  1.  6    |       Department of Health, 2005). The quality indicators that have been
490   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           myocardial infarction. These quality indicators are combined
491   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health system
492   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             systematically improve the quality of care (Institute of Medicine,
493   IV,    11.  1.  6    |          manipulation but may increase quality skimping, whereas tightly
494   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              maintaining and improving quality. Thus additional quality
495   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               quality. Thus additional quality incentives have been developed
496   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             Finally, cost shifting and quality skimping may arise because
497   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                a trade-off between the quality of data and the degree to
498   IV,    11.  2        |           performance: access to care, quality and responsiveness of care,
499   IV,    11.  2.  1    |            DMPs found they improve the quality of care and disease control
500   IV,    11.  3        |            resources~ ~Accessible high quality healthcare depends on a