1-500 | 501-613
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4        |           such as migrants, differ in incidence and prevalence rates, treatment
  2    I,     2.  4        |           reducing the prevalence and incidence of certain diseases; and
  3   II,     4.  1        |              period indicators (using incidence in place of prevalence),
  4   II,     5.  1.  1    |      essential in order to reduce the incidence and alter the course of
  5   II,     5.  1.  1    |               patterns of lung cancer incidence and mortality are influenced
  6   II,     5.  1.  1    |             Although male lung cancer incidence is decreasing in all European
  7   II,     5.  1.  1    |         likely to determine an higher incidence of food allergy, because
  8   II,     5.  2.  2    |          relative contribution of IHD incidence, case-fatality, trends in
  9   II,     5.  2.  3    |         MONICA Project also show that incidence was falling rapidly in most
 10   II,     5.  2.  3    |              and one third to reduced incidence. However, it was not possible
 11   II,     5.  2.  4    |             would more than halve CVD incidence.~CVD has a multifactor aetiology,
 12   II,     5.  2.  4    |       continuous association with CVD incidence (age, blood pressure, cholesterol,
 13   II,     5.  2.  4    |         associated with a reduced CVD incidence (Wellman J, 2004).~Due to
 14   II,     5.  2.  5    |            the decline was due to the incidence decrease and the remaining
 15   II,     5.  2.  6    |           years a 1% reduction of CVD incidence (Robinson JG et al, 2006).
 16   II,     5.  2.  7    |              Risk) and 10-year stroke incidence in women and men: findings
 17   II,     5.  2.  7    |             of Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in Relation to Optimal and
 18   II,     5.  2.  7    |           year coronary heart disease incidence in women and men: results
 19   II,     5.  3.  1    |           considered in ICD-X. Cancer incidence has been increasing since
 20   II,     5.  3.  1    |        particular population are:~ ~- Incidence: the frequency with which
 21   II,     5.  3.  1    |               given timeframe. Cancer incidence rate is the number of new
 22   II,     5.  3.  2    |             and robust data on cancer incidence, survival (following up
 23   II,     5.  3.  2    |          national estimates of cancer incidence from networks of regional
 24   II,     5.  3.  2    |           indicators: screen-detected incidence as a proportion of general
 25   II,     5.  3.  2    |      proportion of general population incidence, number of interval cases,
 26   II,     5.  3.  2    |             cancer control, including incidence, screening and survival;~·
 27   II,     5.  3.  2    |         publish the volume of “Cancer Incidence in V Continents” and to
 28   II,     5.  3.  2    |          national estimates of cancer incidence. See: http://www.iarc.fr~ ~
 29   II,     5.  3.  3    |              outcome indicators (i.e. incidence, mortality, survival) are
 30   II,     5.  3.  3    |               set of them):~ ~ Cancer incidence estimates in the European
 31   II,     5.  3.  3    |         Ferlay et al, 2007).~- Cancer incidence estimates trends in men
 32   II,     5.  3.  3    |             2008.~ ~Figures on cancer incidence, mortality and 5-year relative
 33   II,     5.  3.  3    |           ones. For these reasons all incidence, mortality and relative
 34   II,     5.  3.  4    |               patterns of lung cancer incidence and mortality are influenced
 35   II,     5.  3.  4    |             Although male lung cancer incidence is decreasing in all European
 36   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   5.3.4 Mortality and incidence data discussion~ ~All cancers (
 37   II,     5.  3.  5    |          Ferlay et al, 2007). Maximum incidence rates (Figures 5.3.1) were
 38   II,     5.  3.  5    |             per 100,000). The highest incidence rates in 2006 were in Western
 39   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Figures 5.3.2 show that incidence rates are increasing both
 40   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 41   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 42   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 43   II,     5.  3.  5    |            172, 174-208) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 44   II,     5.  3.  5    |             In 2006 maximum levels of incidence rates (Figures 5.3.5) were
 45   II,     5.  3.  5    |               12 deaths per 100,000). Incidence and mortality levels seem
 46   II,     5.  3.  5    |        Figures 5.3.7). Stomach cancer incidence (Figures 6) and mortality
 47   II,     5.  3.  5    |            with the exception of male incidence in Eastern Europe). Moreover,
 48   II,     5.  3.  5    |            macro-areas) both for male incidence and mortality.~ ~Figure
 49   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 50   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 51   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 52   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 151) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 53   II,     5.  3.  5    |               5.3.9 show that maximum incidence rates were estimated in
 54   II,     5.  3.  5    |                Finland had lower male incidence rate compared to other countries
 55   II,     5.  3.  5    |          Europe had maximum levels of incidence estimated rates (in respect
 56   II,     5.  3.  5    |               000).~Colorectal cancer incidence rates are increasing rather
 57   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 58   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 59   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 60   II,     5.  3.  5    |           ICD9 153, 154) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 61   II,     5.  3.  5    |         cancer of men, while in women incidence rates are lower.~Figures
 62   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Sweden had a lower male incidence rate compared to other countries
 63   II,     5.  3.  5    |           country in which the female incidence estimated rate was higher
 64   II,     5.  3.  5    |          Europe had maximum levels of incidence (Figure 5.3.14a) and mortality (
 65   II,     5.  3.  5    |       Northern Europe had the maximum incidence (Figure 5.3.14b) and mortality (
 66   II,     5.  3.  5    |             epidemic in men, although incidence and mortality rates are
 67   II,     5.  3.  5    |             and 5.3.16a. In contrast, incidence and mortality are increasing
 68   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 69   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 70   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 71   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 162) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 72   II,     5.  3.  5    |         Ferlay et al, 2007). The high incidence rates in recent years in
 73   II,     5.  3.  5    |             countries that anticipate incidence detecting early invasive
 74   II,     5.  3.  5    |               screening effect on the incidence trends is in fact an anticipation
 75   II,     5.  3.  5    |           fact an anticipation of the incidence in the years following full
 76   II,     5.  3.  5    |             17 shows that the maximum incidence rate in 2006 was estimated
 77   II,     5.  3.  5    |               100,000). Breast cancer incidence seems to be associated with
 78   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 174) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 79   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 174) standardized incidence rates (European standard)~
 80   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2003). Cervical cancer incidence rates can be influenced
 81   II,     5.  3.  5    |           second, the cervical cancer incidence rate in the latter country
 82   II,     5.  3.  5    |              should be lower than the incidence rate in the former one.~
 83   II,     5.  3.  5    |           former one.~Cervical cancer incidence seems to be negatively associated
 84   II,     5.  3.  5    |           declines in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, most clearly
 85   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 180) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 86   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 180) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 87   II,     5.  3.  5    |            increased early detection (incidence) of positive prostate cancers
 88   II,     5.  3.  5    |            prognosis.~Prostate cancer incidence seems to be positively associated
 89   II,     5.  3.  5    |              In fact, the increase of incidence rates in Western, Northern
 90   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 185) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 91   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD9 185) standardized incidence estimated rates (European
 92   II,     5.  3.  6    |             context of relatively low incidence levels, whereas the European
 93   II,     5.  3.  6    |             highest survival had high incidence levels (Sant et al, 2003;
 94   II,     5.  3.  7    |             mortality, and reduce the incidence of the disease when too
 95   II,     5.  3.  7    |             reduce and monitor cancer incidence with preventive and epidemiological
 96   II,     5.  3.  8    |          developments~ ~In Europe the incidence rates for most cancer types
 97   II,     5.  3.  8    |          cancer diagnosis, grows with incidence and with the percentage
 98   II,     5.  3.  8    |         European directives)~· Reduce incidence: address primary prevention
 99   II,     5.  3.  8    |       substantial reduction in cancer incidence over the next 10-20 years (
100   II,     5.  3.  9    |               Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe
101   II,     5.  4.  1    |               a worldwide increase in incidence being consistently reported
102   II,     5.  4.  2    |   Epidemiology of diabetes~ ~ ~Annual incidence of Type 1 diabetes by age/
103   II,     5.  4.  2    |              complications~ ~ ~Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic
104   II,     5.  4.  2    |              retinopathy/total annual incidence of blindness~4~HIS/HES/SPSN/
105   II,     5.  4.  2    |             SPSN/RS Registries~Annual incidence of dialysis and/or transplantation (
106   II,     5.  4.  2    |           Records.~Definitions~Annual incidence of diabetes in children (
107   II,     5.  4.  2    |              immediate action.~Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic
108   II,     5.  4.  2    |            could provide data.~Annual incidence of dyalisis and/or transplantation
109   II,     5.  4.  2    |         creatinine 400 mol/l~9~Annual incidence of amputations above the
110   II,     5.  4.  2    |           general population~9~Annual incidence of stroke in diabetic patients /
111   II,     5.  4.  2    |          general population~10~Annual incidence of myocardial infarction
112   II,     5.  4.  2    |              umol/l (WHO).~The annual incidence of major amputations is
113   II,     5.  4.  2    |               comparisons.~The annual incidence of stroke is defined as
114   II,     5.  4.  2    |               in one year.~The annual incidence of any myocardial infarction
115   II,     5.  4.  3    |         report.~Core indicatorsAnnual incidence of diabetes in children (
116   II,     5.  4.  3    |              0-14 year). Standardised incidence shows a ten-fold variation,
117   II,     5.  4.  3    |            Europe, with a much higher incidence in the Nordic countries (
118   II,     5.  4.  3    |              A steady increase of the incidence has been observed in almost
119   II,     5.  4.  3    |            type 1 and type 2).~Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic
120   II,     5.  4.  3    |            could provide data.~Annual incidence of dyalisis and/or transplantation.
121   II,     5.  4.  3    |            median is 1.2%.~The annual incidence of major amputations. This
122   II,     5.  4.  3    |          Slovak Republic).~The annual incidence of stroke. In EUCID, a total
123   II,     5.  4.  3    |            individual, the higher the incidence.~The annual incidence of
124   II,     5.  4.  3    |             the incidence.~The annual incidence of any myocardial infarction.
125   II,     5.  4.  3    |             collaborators reported an incidence between 21 (Cyprus) and
126   II,     5.  4.  3    |               dependant with a rising incidence above middle age.~ ~
127   II,     5.  4.  4    |         proper prevention strategies.~Incidence of T1DM seems to be less
128   II,     5.  4.  4    |               the dialysis/transplant incidence of Cyprus), so it is possible
129   II,     5.  4.  8    |          Diabetes Register: trends in incidence, prevalence and mortality,
130   II,     5.  4.  8    |               Variation and trends in incidence of childhood diabetes in
131   II,     5.  4.  8    |            from young and middle-aged incidence cohorts in Sweden. Diabetes
132   II,     5.  5.Int    |               disease.~ ~The lifetime incidence of severe mental illnesses
133   II,     5.  5.Int    |             limited, suggest that the incidence and mortality of epilepsy
134   II,     5.  5.Int(19)|                                2000): Incidence of dementia and major subtypes
135   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Owens et al, 2002). The incidence of non-fatal self-harm is
136   II,     5.  5.  1    |            validity of prevalence and incidence data when derived from hospital
137   II,     5.  5.  1    |          disorders only. HfA includes incidence of mental disorders as total
138   II,     5.  5.  1    |            relevant data sources. The incidence and prevalence data are
139   II,     5.  5.  1    |            and analysis~ ~Prevalence, incidence, access to treatment and
140   II,     5.  5.  2    |               the aim of reducing the incidence of dementia (Cooper, 2002).
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |      conclusions about prevalence and incidence. ~ ~Literature reviews~ ~
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |               is difficult to measure incidence and prevalence. One method,
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |         emphasise the upward trend in incidence of anorexia since the 1950s,
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |           information (prevalence and incidence) about the whole risk group (
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |               complete prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. Some
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |       statements about prevalence and incidence of anorexia and bulimia.
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |              performs research on the incidence and prevalence of eating
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the upward trend in the incidence of anorexia since the 1950s,
149   II,     5.  5.  3    |           from 1935 to 1989. Also the incidence rate among 10-14-year-old
150   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the 1950s although, the incidence rate for women and men older
151   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Hoeken, 2003). Time trends in incidence reveal that bulimia affects
152   II,     5.  5.  3    |              000 females, whereby the incidence rate has remained relatively
153   II,     5.  5.  3    |            year-old females) shows an incidence rate of 81,1 per 100.000 (
154   II,     5.  5.  3    |          conclusions about changes in incidence, prevalence and progress.
155   II,     5.  5.  3    |            information on prevalence, incidence and progress of anorexia
156   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Review of the Prevalence and Incidence of Eating Disorders. Published
157   II,     5.  5.  3    |         schizophrenia.~Prevalence and Incidence~According to a systematic
158   II,     5.  5.  3    |    substantial difference between the incidence in male and female populations (
159   II,     5.  5.  3    |             urban areas show a higher incidence. The data on fluctuation
160   II,     5.  5.  3    |        focusing on the prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia as a single
161   II,     5.  5.  3    |              summarize prevalence and incidence rates for mental disorders
162   II,     5.  5.  3    |         population.~ ~In most studies incidence rates are based on data
163   II,     5.  5.  3    |      important source of variation in incidence and prevalence data (Lange
164   II,     5.  5.  3    |          influence the reliability of incidence rates. The renaming of “
165   II,     5.  5.  3    |  schizophrenia burden.~Prevalence and Incidence~Figure 5.5.3.2.1. Estimated
166   II,     5.  5.  3    |      schizophrenia per year; thus the incidence rate is 0.016 to 0.042%
167   II,     5.  5.  3    |             prevalence and in certain incidence figures (gender, migrants,
168   II,     5.  5.  3    |            also need to be addressed.~Incidence data are usually estimates
169   II,     5.  5.  3    |               cannot be due to higher incidence or prevalence rates in these
170   II,     5.  5.  3    |          disease is apt to reduce the incidence of first onset of psychosis
171   II,     5.  5.  3    |             gather comparable data on incidence and prevalence rates, risk
172   II,     5.  5.  3    |              2006): Variations in the incidence of schizophrenia: data versus
173   II,     5.  5.  3    |             JK (1999): Decline in the incidence of schizophrenia in the
174   II,     5.  5.  3    |        approach and that the raise in incidence of autism should be a matter
175   II,     5.  5.  3    |             by the epileptic process. Incidence of epilepsy is expected
176   II,     5.  5.  3    |             analysis~ ~In Europe, the incidence, prevalence and mortality
177   II,     5.  5.  3    |              be evenly distributed.~ ~Incidence of epilepsy and seizures~
178   II,     5.  5.  3    |        epilepsy and seizures~Thirteen incidence studies carried out in Europe
179   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Table 5.5.3.4.1). The annual incidence of all unprovoked seizures
180   II,     5.  5.  3    |             73 per 100,000, while the incidence of epilepsy ranges from
181   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Olafsson et al, 2005). The incidence is higher in children and
182   II,     5.  5.  3    |            design.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.1. Incidence of epilepsy in Europe~ ~
183   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Europe~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.2. Incidence (per 100,000) of epilepsy
184   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Cockerell et al, 1995), the incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked
185   II,     5.  5.  3    |            socio-cultural reasons.~In incidence studies, the proportion
186   II,     5.  5.  3    |             et al, 1995) age-specific incidence rates of epilepsy tended
187   II,     5.  5.  3    |             decrease with time of the incidence of the disease, mostly in
188   II,     5.  5.  3    |        explanations of the decreasing incidence of epilepsy in children,
189   II,     5.  5.  3    |              diagnosis.~An increasing incidence of epilepsy in the elderly
190   II,     5.  5.  3    |               only few reports on the incidence of epileptic syndromes in
191   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Olafsson et al, 2005), the incidence of single unprovoked seizures
192   II,     5.  5.  3    |             occurred in 41% of cases (incidence 23.5 per 100,000 per year).
193   II,     5.  5.  3    |              In Bordeaux, France, the incidence of the most common syndromes
194   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in the elderly. As with incidence, prevalence of epilepsy
195   II,     5.  5.  3    |             same as those reported in incidence studies (see above).~ ~Table
196   II,     5.  5.  3    |              adults.~In contrast with incidence, the prevalence of epilepsy
197   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prospective and retrospective incidence cohorts, the SMR for epilepsy
198   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prospective and retrospective incidence cohorts (Jallon, 2004).~
199   II,     5.  5.  3    |          post-mortem examination. The incidence of SUDEP ranges from 1 per
200   II,     5.  5.  3    |             1997) to 3.5 per 1,000 in incidence studies (Nashef et al, 1995).
201   II,     5.  5.  3    |      non-surgical patients, while the incidence of SUDEP was 2.5 vs. 6.3
202   II,     5.  5.  3    |       European data on the cumulative incidence (Beghi and Cornaggia, 2002)
203   II,     5.  5.  3    |            for further studies on the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy
204   II,     5.  5.  3    |            published reports, similar incidence, prevalence and mortality
205   II,     5.  5.  3    |      countries. However, age-specific incidence rates of epilepsy in the
206   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Heijbel J, Bergfors PG (1978): Incidence of epilepsy in children:
207   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Erksson S, Bergmark L (1996): Incidence and clinical characterization
208   II,     5.  5.  3    |           review and meta-analysis of incidence studies of epilepsy and
209   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the French Southwest. I. Incidence of epileptic syndromes.
210   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in epilepsy : a study of incidence in a young cohort with epilepsy
211   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Gudmundsson G, et al (2005): Incidence of unprovoked seizures and
212   II,     5.  5.  3    |           community-based prospective incidence study of epileptic seizures
213   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Status Epilepticus (2003): Incidence and short-term prognosis
214   II,     5.  5.  3    |                The distribution of MS incidence and prevalence by age, sex,
215   II,     5.  5.  3    |     categorisation for prevalence and incidence differs from studies to
216   II,     5.  5.  3    |             country, gender, age, and incidence distribution by Country,
217   II,     5.  5.  3    |         estimates)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.4. Incidence (per 100 000/year) of Multiple
218   II,     5.  5.  3    |        distribution of prevalence and incidence, with peaks in central areas.
219   II,     5.  5.  3    |            central areas. Mean annual incidence rates have increased significantly
220   II,     5.  5.  3    |             versus men. A fluctuating incidence pattern was reported for
221   II,     5.  5.  3    |           1988, while the mean annual incidence rate was 2.6 in 197488.
222   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1997; and a mean annual incidence rate of 5.2 in 198897.~
223   II,     5.  5.  3    |      differences in MS prevalence and incidence have persisted over a 30-
224   II,     5.  5.  3    |              an estimated mean annual incidence rate of 4.2 (Lauer, personal
225   II,     5.  5.  3    |              to prevalence but not to incidence rates, indicating a focal
226   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of 3258 and mean annual incidence rates from 24 in the 1990s.
227   II,     5.  5.  3    |              survival. Prevalence and incidence rates in the island of Sardinia
228   II,     5.  5.  3    |      respectively, with a mean annual incidence of 0.9 for Romania. Prevalence
229   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2006), with a mean annual incidence of 2.4 in Greece. Methodological
230   II,     5.  5.  3    |              The total annual mean MS incidence in Europe is estimated to
231   II,     5.  5.  3    |           severity and course, and on incidence rates lacks for nearly two
232   II,     5.  5.  3    |            variability when comparing incidence and prevalence rates between
233   II,     5.  5.  3    |            increase of prevalence and incidence rates where multiple assessments
234   II,     5.  5.  3    |           However, for prevalence and incidence rates age-adjusted to the
235   II,     5.  5.  3    |                such as prevalence and incidence rates, age at disease onset,
236   II,     5.  5.  3    |          found to also have higher MS incidence (WHO, 2004), thus proportional
237   II,     5.  5.  3    |      prevalence on 1 January 1995 and incidence over a 25-year period. Eur
238   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Norway: a prevalence and incidence study. Acta Neurol Scand
239   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prospective study of the incidence, prevalence and mortality
240   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Italy. A reappraisal of incidence and prevalence in Ferrara.
241   II,     5.  5.  3    |              50-year follow-up of the incidence of multiple sclerosis in
242   II,     5.  5.  3    |   Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: incidence and prevalence rates in
243   II,     5.  5.  3    | Brønnum-Hansen H, Hyllested K (1992): Incidence of multiple sclerosis in
244   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis: an
245   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Urbinelli R, Giroud M (2000): Incidence of multiple sclerosis in
246   II,     5.  5.  3    |             al (2001): Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in
247   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Nordman B (1989): Increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis in
248   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Szczecin: prevalence and incidence 1993-1995. Neurol Neurochir
249   II,     5.  5.  3    |              et al (2005): Increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis in
250   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Charlton D (1998): High incidence and prevalence of multiple
251   II,     5.  5.  3    |             temporal variation in the incidence of multiple sclerosis in
252   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Multiple sclerosis in Finland: incidence trends and differences in
253   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Nyström L, Forsgren L (2003): Incidence (1988-97): and prevalence (
254   II,     5.  5.  3    |               The use of standardized incidence and prevalence rates in
255   II,     5.  5.  3    |           selected EUGLOREH countries~Incidence rates for PD in different
256   II,     5.  5.  3    |              6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease
257   II,     5.  5.  3    |            disease in Europe.~ ~Crude incidence estimates varied from 5/
258   II,     5.  5.  3    |            The latter estimate is for incidence in persons aged 65 to 84,
259   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Estimated prevalence and incidence rates for PD in the general
260   II,     5.  5.  3    |               rates of prevalence and incidence were much higher: 1,280
261   II,     5.  5.  3    |           estimated an average annual incidence rate of 326 per 100,000
262   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and drawbacks of available incidence studies have been illustrated
263   II,     5.  5.  3    |             account for the different incidence rates observed; these methodological
264   II,     5.  5.  3    |         usefulness of epidemiological incidence studies.~It is widely believed
265   II,     5.  5.  3    |   longitudinal study: two-fold higher incidence in men. ILSA Working Group.
266   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Eichhorn T, Oertel WH (1994): Incidence, differential diagnosis,
267   II,     5.  5.  3    |           2003): Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease.
268   II,     5.  5.  3    |               A (2001): Estimation of incidence and prevalence of Parkinson’
269   II,     5.  5.  3    |              R (2005): Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson’s disease in
270   II,     5.  6.  3    |              in terms of definitions, incidence and prevalence; determinants;
271   II,     5.  6.  3    |           future trends. Estimates of incidence and prevalence for the major
272   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  Table 5.6.1. General Incidence and Prevalence Rates~ ~Musculoskeletal
273   II,     5.  6.  3    |           progressive joint damage.~ ~Incidence~ ~The incidence of osteoarthritis
274   II,     5.  6.  3    |             damage.~ ~Incidence~ ~The incidence of osteoarthritis is problematic
275   II,     5.  6.  3    |        criteria. An estimation of the incidence of severe osteoarthritis
276   II,     5.  6.  3    |          inter-country variation.~The incidence and rate of progression
277   II,     5.  6.  3    |           Table 5.6.2. Osteoarthritis Incidence in selected European countries~ ~
278   II,     5.  6.  3    |               5.6.5. Risk factors for incidence and progression of osteoarthritis
279   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 Future changes in the incidence and prevalence of OA are
280   II,     5.  6.  3    |              difficult to predict. As incidence and prevalence rise with
281   II,     5.  6.  3    |            Musculoskeletal Health).~ ~Incidence~ ~A review of European studies
282   II,     5.  6.  3    |               estimates of the annual incidence of RA range from 413 per
283   II,     5.  6.  3    |              from 1.7 to 4.0) .~ ~The incidence of RA in women appears to
284   II,     5.  6.  3    |               women aged 16-74.~ ~The incidence and prevalence of RA generally
285   II,     5.  6.  3    |           Table 5.6.6. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis
286   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 Future changes in the incidence and prevalence of RA are
287   II,     5.  6.  3    |               recognized among men.~ ~Incidence~ ~The incidence of osteoporosis
288   II,     5.  6.  3    |          among men.~ ~Incidence~ ~The incidence of osteoporosis is best
289   II,     5.  6.  3    |            measured indirectly as the incidence of fractures resulting from
290   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Western populations the incidence of hip fractures strongly
291   II,     5.  6.  3    |             there is a female to male incidence ratio of approximately 2:
292   II,     5.  6.  3    |            Course, 2008). The highest incidence rates have been reported
293   II,     5.  6.  3    |          There was a tendency for the incidence rate of distal forearm fracture
294   II,     5.  6.  3    |           result of osteoporosis. The incidence rates of proximal humeral,
295   II,     5.  6.  3    |         age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rates for vertebral deformity
296   II,     5.  6.  3    |               have widespread pain.~ ~Incidence~ ~There are not many studies
297   II,     5.  6.  3    |               are not many studies of incidence but a large study from the
298   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Netherlands reported an incidence of 28.0 episodes / 1000
299   II,     5.  6.  3    |             1000 people per year; the incidence of low back pain with sciatica
300   II,     5.  6.  6    |      Osteoporosis Study Group (2002): Incidence of vertebral fractures in
301   II,     5.  6.  6    |      Rochester, Minnesota: a study of incidence, prevalence, and mortality.
302   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Cirillo PA, Walker AM (1995): Incidence of symptomatic hand, hip,
303   II,     5.  6.  6    |          Woolf AD, Wallace WA (2001): Incidence of distal forearm fracture
304   II,     5.  7.  2    |        individual patient data on the incidence and prevalence of RRT for
305   II,     5.  7.  2    | epidemiological analysis to calculate incidence, prevalence and patient
306   II,     5.  7.  2    |              together with aggregated incidence and prevalence data that
307   II,     5.  7.  2    |             the EU.~ ~For this report incidence and prevalence data on RRT
308   II,     5.  7.  3    |            description and analysis~ ~Incidence~ ~Children and adolescents~ ~
309   II,     5.  7.  3    |                Italkid) have shown an incidence rate of CKD (defined as
310   II,     5.  7.  3    |             et al, 1997). In 2005 the incidence rate of RRT for ESRD in
311   II,     5.  7.  3    |          Table 5.7.3).~ ~Adults~ ~CKD incidence in adults has been studied
312   II,     5.  7.  3    |      individuals 45-64 years old, the incidence rate of 3-5 CKD was 7.8
313   II,     5.  7.  3    |       correlation with changes in the incidence of ESRD are mainly based
314   II,     5.  7.  3    |               Norway. In the USA, the incidence of ESRD appears to be increasing
315   II,     5.  7.  3    |              This contrasts with ESRD incidence rates which are three times
316   II,     5.  7.  3    |               diabetes.~ ~In 2005 the incidence rates of RRT for ESRD ranged
317   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Just like prevalence, the incidence rate of RRT for ESRD in
318   II,     5.  7.  3    |        females (Table 5.7.3). Whereas incidence rates in Canada (160 pmp
319   II,     5.  7.  3    |           similar to those in Europe, incidence rates in US whites (286
320   II,     5.  7.  3    |             partly due to a higher US incidence rate of diabetic ESRD.~ ~
321   II,     5.  7.  3    |         diabetic ESRD.~ ~Table 5.7.3. Incidence of RRT over the 1992-2005
322   II,     5.  7.  3    |               failure.~ ~Table 5.7.4. Incidence of RRT over the 1992-2005
323   II,     5.  7.  3    |            per country~ ~Table 5.7.5. Incidence of RRT over the 2000-2005
324   II,     5.  7.  3    |              on the trends of the CKD incidence rate in children/adolescents
325   II,     5.  7.  3    |              the 1992-2005 period the incidence rate of RRT increased by
326   II,     5.  7.  3    |              was primarily due to the incidence rate in patients over 65
327   II,     5.  7.  3    |             than doubled. Whereas the incidence of RRT for diabetic and
328   II,     5.  7.  3    |             became twice as high, the incidence of RRT for ESRD due to glomerulonephritis/
329   II,     5.  7.  3    |               differences in absolute incidence rates of RRT for ESRD across
330   II,     5.  7.  3    |              a consistent increase in incidence rates in virtually all Member
331   II,     5.  7.  3    |          driven by an increase in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic
332   II,     5.  7.  3    |             al, 2005) After 2002, the incidence rates have tended to stabilize.
333   II,     5.  7.  3    |             al, 2006). The increasing incidence rates together with improvements
334   II,     5.  7.  3    |            Socioeconomic variation in incidence~ ~As for prevalence the
335   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 As for prevalence the incidence rate of RRT was higher in
336   II,     5.  7.  3    |               differences in absolute incidence rates of RRT for ESRD across
337   II,     5.  7.  3    |              a consistent increase in incidence rates in virtually all Member
338   II,     5.  7.  3    |          driven by an increase in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic
339   II,     5.  7.  3    |              al, 2005) After 2002 the incidence rates have tended to stabilize.
340   II,     5.  7.  3    |             al, 2006). The increasing incidence rates together with improvements
341   II,     5.  7.  4    |      international differences in the incidence rates of RRT for diabetic
342   II,     5.  7.  4    |            differences in the overall incidence rates of RRT between Member
343   II,     5.  7.  4    |              are largely unknown. The incidence of RRT is the outcome of
344   II,     5.  7.  5    |               initiative relating the incidence and the course of CKD. The
345   II,     5.  7.  5    |           stabilize (or decrease) the incidence of ESRD and (2) to reduce
346   II,     5.  7.  7    |              al (2004): Trends in the incidence of treated end-stage renal
347   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Shlipak MG (2004): The incidence of end-stage renal disease
348   II,     5.  7.  7    |            2007): Has the rise in the incidence of renal replacement therapy
349   II,     5.  7.  7    |              al (2003): Trends in the incidence of renal replacement therapy
350   II,     5.  7.  7    |             temporal variation in the incidence of end-stage renal disease
351   II,     5.  8.  3    |                This section addresses incidence, prevalence and mortality
352   II,     5.  8.  3    |      associated to these disorders.~ ~Incidence~ ~There are limited comparable
353   II,     5.  8.  3    |        limited comparable data on the incidence of COPD in the EU, mainly
354   II,     5.  8.  3    |          Sweden, a 10-year cumulative incidence rate according to a 9-4%
355   II,     5.  8.  3    |     considered: the 7-year cumulative incidence of COPD was 11.0% according
356   II,     5.  8.  3    |             2005) reported cumulative incidence rates of GOLD-defined COPD
357   II,     5.  8.  3    |                The 25-year cumulative incidence of moderate and severe COPD
358   II,     5.  8.  3    |      malignant tumour.~ ~An increased incidence of a number of co-morbidities
359   II,     5.  8.  3    |          Table 5.8.2).~ ~Table 5.8.2. Incidence of comorbidities in COPD
360   II,     5.  8.  4    |                The 25-year cumulative incidence of moderate and severe COPD
361   II,     5.  8.  4    |         Figure 5.8.3.~ ~Figure 5.8.3. Incidence rates of COPD and smoking
362   II,     5.  8.  4    |     individuals. Some increase in the incidence of chronic phlegm was found
363   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Bakke P, Gulsvik A (2005): Incidence of GOLD-defined chronic
364   II,     5.  8.  7    |            2005): Ten-year cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors
365   II,     5.  8.  7    |                 Seven-year cumulative incidence of COPD in an age-stratified
366   II,     5.  8.  7    |                Thirty-year cumulative incidence of chronic bronchitis and
367   II,     5.  9. FB    |              dramatic increase of the incidence of allergic diseases in
368   II,     5.  9. FB    |               continuously increasing incidence of allergic diseases across
369   II,     5.  9. FB    |           significant increase of the incidence of allergic asthma, rhinitis
370   II,     5.  9. FB    |            breast-feeding reduces the incidence of allergic diseases at
371   II,     5.  9. FB    |          children, reported a reduced incidence of wheezing at the age of
372   II,     5.  9. FB    |              were found regarding the incidence of atopy and asthma. As
373   II,     5.  9. FB    |       hydrolyzed formulas reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis in
374   II,     5.  9.  3    |            description and analysis~ ~Incidence and natural history~ ~With
375   II,     5.  9.  3    |                aimed at assessing the incidence and remission of asthma
376   II,     5.  9.  3    |              2000. The average annual incidence rate for the 1953 to 2000
377   II,     5.  9.  3    |              56/1000 people per year. Incidence peaked in boys aged less
378   II,     5.  9.  4    |          Iceland and Estonia found an incidence higher among females (2.
379   II,     5.  9.  4    |              to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational
380   II,     5.  9.  7    |               7.~ ~De Marco R (2002): Incidence and remission of asthma:
381   II,     5.  9.  7    |           prospective study of asthma incidence and its predictors: the
382   II,     5.  9.  7    |         Tosca-Segura R, Arn A (2002): Incidence of allergic rhinitis in
383   II,     5. 11.  3    |            prevalence=1.7%~Cumulative incidence=2.1%)~Radulescu M, et al~ ~
384   II,     5. 11.  3    |       estimates of the prevalence and incidence of contact dermatitis in
385   II,     5. 11.  3    |              skinned populations. The incidence of skin cancer has reached
386   II,     5. 11.  3    |           studies from Australia, the incidence rate is over 2% for basal
387   II,     5. 11.  3    |       probably underestimate the true incidence, especially of NMSC (Table
388   II,     5. 11.  3    |             period 19931998) that an incidence rate of 88 per 100 000 for
389   II,     5. 11.  3    |               both men and women. Its incidence has been rising steadily
390   II,     5. 11.  3    |              1995 (Levi et al, 2001). Incidence rates increased substantially
391   II,     5. 11.  3    |               exposure and increasing incidence among the elderly (Wassberg
392   II,     5. 11.  3    |           women). During this period, incidence rates of BCC increased by
393   II,     5. 11.  3    |               and 65% in women, while incidence rates of SCC increased by
394   II,     5. 11.  3    |       countries due to the increasing incidence of NMSC.~ ~Melanoma~Melanoma
395   II,     5. 11.  3    |               of skin cancer, and its incidence has been rising steeply
396   II,     5. 11.  3    |               et al, 2001). The death incidence ratio is strikingly different
397   II,     5. 11.  3    |             Europe, during the 1990s, incidence rates were higher in northern
398   II,     5. 11.  3    |              and southern Europe both incidence and mortality are still
399   II,     5. 11.  6    |         research into the prevalence, incidence and cost of skin diseases
400   II,     5. 11.  7    |           19531997: Rising trends in incidence and mortality but recent
401   II,     5. 11.  7    |                 GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence
402   II,     5. 11.  7    |                 Trends in Skin Cancer Incidence in Vaud: an update, 1976–
403   II,     5. 11.  7    |                Boyle P. Trends in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer
404   II,     5. 11.  7    |              et al (2001): Increasing incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma
405   II,     5. 12.  5    |               Europe, where cirrhosis incidence and mortality has been substantially
406   II,     5. 12.  7    |          Margolis HS (2000): The past incidence of hepatitis C virus infection:
407   II,     5. 15.  2    |              providing information on incidence and prevalence of RD. The
408   II,     6            |              TIME-TRENDS: PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY~ ~
409   II,     6.  3.  1    |          significant reduction in the incidence and number of cases through
410   II,     6.  3.  1    |              the 49 diseases, 21 have incidence levels that are in double
411   II,     6.  3.  1    |             diseases with the highest incidence in the EU belong to this
412   II,     6.  3.  1    |       diseases with the highest crude incidence rates in the EU (Chlamydia
413   II,     6.  3.  1    |        diseasegroups had the lowest incidence rates and also showed decreasing
414   II,     6.  3.  1    |        general trends (19952005), EU incidence (2005), main age groups
415   II,     6.  3.  1    |               on the comparability of incidence data) not to mention inherent
416   II,     6.  3.  1    |              in this report, national incidence figures thus often reflect
417   II,     6.  3.  1    |            than reflecting the ‘trueincidence of an infection.~ ~This
418   II,     6.  3.  1(3) |         clarity to actual figures for incidence, morbidity, mortality, cost,
419   II,     6.  3.  3    |             figures for prevalence or incidence. Properly designed epidemiological
420   II,     6.  3.  3    |       contrast to HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence has been declining since
421   II,     6.  3.  3    |             since 1995, when the AIDS incidence reached its peak in Europe.
422   II,     6.  3.  3    |               and Norway. The highest incidence rate was reported by Iceland
423   II,     6.  3.  3    |                Belgium and Sweden the incidence appeared to decline during
424   II,     6.  3.  3    |             22 countries. The highest incidence rate was observed in the
425   II,     6.  3.  3    |            inappropriate. The highest incidence rates were observed in the
426   II,     6.  3.  3    |              24 age group , while the incidence was 4.5 times higher in
427   II,     6.  3.  3    |             In the last 10 years, the incidence decreased steadily after
428   II,     6.  3.  3    |             Lithuania) where syphilis incidence was very high in the early
429   II,     6.  3.  3    |            1995), a sharp decrease in incidence was observed from 1996 to
430   II,     6.  3.  3    |         Slovenia and Poland) syphilis incidence remained below 10 cases
431   II,     6.  3.  3    |             24 countries. The highest incidence rates were still recorded
432   II,     6.  3.  3    |           group as the most affected. Incidence was higher in men than in
433   II,     6.  3.  3    |           have reported an increasing incidence since the late 1990s. Of
434   II,     6.  3.  3    |             26 countries, the highest incidence rates were reported by Iceland (
435   II,     6.  3.  3    |            Latvia (7.37 per 100 000). Incidence was higher in men than women (
436   II,     6.  3.  3    |            had any noticeable effect, incidence of acute hepatitis B infection
437   II,     6.  3.  3    |          period during 19952000, the incidence in Europe has increased
438   II,     6.  3.  3    |             24 countries. The highest incidence rates per 100 000 per year
439   II,     6.  3.  4    |                The overall decline in incidence also implies that several
440   II,     6.  3.  4    |      legionellosis 1995 - 2004.~ ~The incidence of legionellosis increased
441   II,     6.  3.  4    |               the EU. Since 2002, the incidence has remained stable at around
442   II,     6.  3.  4    |             23 countries. The highest incidence of 3.36 per 100 000 per
443   II,     6.  3.  5    |              more complex: overall EU incidence seems to be rising slightly,
444   II,     6.  3.  5    |             000) reported the highest incidence rates. Incidence rates were
445   II,     6.  3.  5    |              highest incidence rates. Incidence rates were the highest in
446   II,     6.  3.  5    |               per 100 000), while the incidence rate in the five to 24 year-olds
447   II,     6.  3.  5    |            After 25 years of age, the incidence rates increased with age.~ ~ ~
448   II,     6.  3.  5    |        Ireland, that experienced high incidence, show a sustained decrease
449   II,     6.  3.  5    |               countries, the reported incidence varied below 2/100 000 per
450   II,     6.  3.  5    |             000) reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~Invasive infection
451   II,     6.  3.  5    |           Most countries had a stable incidence rate over the past five
452   II,     6.  3.  5    |          Estonia reported the highest incidence rate, with 1.48 per 100
453   II,     6.  3.  5    |              years, an overall higher incidence has been observed in the
454   II,     6.  3.  5    |          other countries, the general incidence was lower. A slight decrease
455   II,     6.  3.  5    |              By contrast, the overall incidence rate in the EU was 4.10
456   II,     6.  3.  5    |               been most affected. The incidence in Latvia peaked in 1995 (
457   II,     6.  3.  5    |           reported cases (20) with an incidence of 0.87 per 100 000.~ ~Tetanus~ ~
458   II,     6.  3.  5    |            between 2001 and 2003. The incidence rates were always below
459   II,     6.  3.  5    |            new Member States, tetanus incidence rates were below 0.35 per
460   II,     6.  3.  5    |             except for Slovenia where incidence was at 0.45 per 100 000
461   II,     6.  3.  5    |             all cases and the highest incidence rates were in Malta (0.25
462   II,     6.  3.  5    |               vaccination policy, the incidence of measles in Europe has
463   II,     6.  3.  5    |          France and in Italy, but the incidence has decreased greatly in
464   II,     6.  3.  5    |                Germany and Italy. The incidence in these countries has fluctuated
465   II,     6.  3.  5    |               In the other countries, incidence has fluctuated between one
466   II,     6.  3.  5    |             from Germany. The overall incidence in the EU was 0.28 per 100
467   II,     6.  3.  5    |              were able to maintain an incidence rate below one per 1 000
468   II,     6.  3.  5    |            was a generally decreasing incidence until 2002, but since then
469   II,     6.  3.  5    |        countries experienced peaks in incidence over this 10-year period,
470   II,     6.  3.  5    |         Iceland, reported the highest incidence rates (77.24 and 28.95 per
471   II,     6.  3.  5    |             young adults. The overall incidence in the reporting countries
472   II,     6.  3.  5    |             22 countries. The overall incidence was 0.51 per 100 000 per
473   II,     6.  3.  6    |               an increase in reported incidence reflects a genuine increase
474   II,     6.  3.  6    |            with infected animals.~The incidence of campylobacteriosis showed
475   II,     6.  3.  6    |            reported, with the highest incidence reported by the Czech Republic (
476   II,     6.  3.  6    |             After a peak in 1995, the incidence of salmonellosis in Europe
477   II,     6.  3.  6    |              a 5% or more increase in incidence since 2004 . This could
478   II,     6.  3.  6    |           countries, with the highest incidence reported in the Czech Republic (
479   II,     6.  3.  6    |             per 100 000). The highest incidence was reported in the age
480   II,     6.  3.  6    |           food hygiene.~ ~The overall incidence rate of typhoid/paratyphoid
481   II,     6.  3.  6    |             000, reported the highest incidence rate, followed by the UK (
482   II,     6.  3.  6    |            who have sex with men.~The incidence has been declining over
483   II,     6.  3.  6    |               countries. The European incidence rate was 1.82 per 100 000,
484   II,     6.  3.  6    |             100 000, with the highest incidence in children less than five
485   II,     6.  3.  6    |         reported the highest national incidence rates. As shigellosis is
486   II,     6.  3.  6    |             In the last 10 years, the incidence has more than doubled, rising
487   II,     6.  3.  6    |             000) reported the highest incidence. A total of six outbreaks
488   II,     6.  3.  6    |             In the last 10 years, the incidence rate of reported cases has
489   II,     6.  3.  6    |            000) reporting the highest incidence rates. The overall incidence
490   II,     6.  3.  6    |          incidence rates. The overall incidence in the EU was 2.23 per 100
491   II,     6.  3.  6    |          years old having the highest incidence (30.4 per 100 000 per year).~ ~
492   II,     6.  3.  6    |               the risks.~ ~The annual incidence in Europe decreased between
493   II,     6.  3.  6    |       sustained increasing trend. The incidence in 2004 (0.28 per 100 000
494   II,     6.  3.  6    |             000) reported the highest incidence rates. More than half the
495   II,     6.  3.  6    |              in 2005, with an overall incidence of 0.31 per 100 000. Portugal (
496   II,     6.  3.  6    |             000) reported the highest incidence rates.~ ~Botulism~ ~Botulism
497   II,     6.  3.  6    |       Lithuania reporting the highest incidence (0.15 per 100 000).~ ~Cholera~ ~
498   II,     6.  3.  6    |             000 per year. The highest incidence was seen in children under
499   II,     6.  3.  6    |           1996, following the highest incidence observed in 1995 (1.68 per
500   II,     6.  3.  6    |            000) reporting the highest incidence. As toxoplasmosis is a very