1-500 | 501-605
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |          retail trade sector. Around 9% of all workers in the EU25
  2    I,     2.  5    |              will increase by almost 9% from 2005 to 2010, but
  3    I,     2.  5    |         average retirement age is 59.9 years and in 2002 only 30%
  4    I,     2.  9    |                                    2.9 Climate Changes~ ~Climate
  5    I,     2. 10.  4|           Event Study indicated that 9.3% of hospital stays incurred
  6    I,     2. 10.  4|        reduced by 67% from 2.7% to 0.9% of prescriptions12.~ ~Drug
  7    I,     3.  2    |           over 7 million immigrants (9% of all the population),
  8    I,     3.  3    |         highest dependency value (28.9), followed by Germany (26.
  9    I,     3.  3    |              rise on average from 25.9 in 2005 to 53.2 in 2050.
 10   II,     4.  1    |              live longer than men, 4.9 years on average, but more
 11   II,     4.  1    |        reaches 8.8 years for men and 9.9 years for women, representing
 12   II,     4.  1    |              8.8 years for men and 9.9 years for women, representing
 13   II,     4.  1    |              range respectively from 9.1 years to 23.6 years (14.
 14   II,     4.  2    |             increase in the 1980s (1.9 years) was lower than in
 15   II,     4.  2    |            life expectancy of men in 9 out of the 13 countries.
 16   II,     4.  2    |          respiratory diseases (cause 9 in table 3) declined in
 17   II,     4.  2    |           occurred for women even in 9 out of the 13 countries.
 18   II,     4.  2    |              of the 13 countries. In 9 of these countries the negative
 19   II,     4.  3    |       countries. Montpellier, EHEMU: 9-48.~ ~Robine, J.-M. and
 20   II,     5.  1.  1|          birth to a large baby (over 9 lbs/4 kg); or~· has experienced
 21   II,     5.  2.  1|              circulatory system (ICD 9: 390-459) consist of ischemic
 22   II,     5.  2.  1|           myocardial infarction (ICD 9: 410-414), and other diseases (
 23   II,     5.  2.  1|              and other diseases (ICD 9: 390-409 and 415-459), including
 24   II,     5.  2.  1|       including cerebral stroke (ICD 9: 430-438).~The most frequent
 25   II,     5.  2.  4|             elderly women.~Table 5.2.9 reports smoking habit collected
 26   II,     5.  2.  4|              age ranges.~ ~Table 5.2.9. Estimated prevalence of
 27   II,     5.  2.  7|     Comparisons of 15 populations in 9 countries within the WHO
 28   II,     5.  3.  5|            et al, 2007). Figures 5.3.9 show that maximum incidence
 29   II,     5.  3.  6|            diagnosed in 19831985 to 9.2% in 19921994 and from
 30   II,     5.  3.  6|           19921994 and from 8.1% to 9.8% in women (Sant et al,
 31   II,     5.  3.  9|            study. Lancet Oncology 8 (9):773-783.~ ~Boyle P, Autier
 32   II,     5.  3.  9|             data. Lancet Oncology 8 (9): 784-796.~ ~WCRF (2007):
 33   II,     5.  4.  1| Mediterranean and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population
 34   II,     5.  4.  1|          with a current figure of 40.9 million, followed by China
 35   II,     5.  4.  1|            expected 21 % increase to 9.1% (about 58.6 million people)
 36   II,     5.  4.  2|                                5.4.2.9. Conclusion~ ~Different
 37   II,     5.  4.  2|      National Registry~Acronyms:~ICD 9: Diabetes mellitus 250;
 38   II,     5.  4.  2|            by WHO/ADA criteria (1998-9), is extremely variable.~
 39   II,     5.  4.  2|           serum creatinine 400 mol/l~9~Annual incidence of amputations
 40   II,     5.  4.  2|           100,000 general population~9~Annual incidence of stroke
 41   II,     5.  4.  2|             different cut-off value (9.5%) that makes data less
 42   II,     5.  4.  3|         years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%)
 43   II,     5.  4.  3|             found a variation across 9 countries from 4 (Cyprus)
 44   II,     5.  4.  3|           2006 reports an average of 9% for the European Region
 45   II,     5.  4.  3|             measured this value over 9 countries, showing a percentage
 46   II,     5.  4.  3|  concentrations in the urine between 9%(Finland) and 41% (England),
 47   II,     5.  4.  3|             measured by EUCID across 9 countries, varies from 78 (
 48   II,     5.  4.  8|              retrieveFile?instanceid=9&itemid=2140&style=home]~(
 49   II,     5.  4.  8|       projections. Diabetes Care, 21(9):1414-31~Massi Benedetti
 50   II,     5.  5.Int|            with active epilepsy is 0.9 million (prevalence 4.5-
 51   II,     5.  5.Int|      prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million aged 20-64 (prevalence
 52   II,     5.  5.  1|             in Europe, prevalence is 9% for adult men and 17% for
 53   II,     5.  5.  1|            especially among women (1:9 for males, 1:42 for females) (
 54   II,     5.  5.  1|            Psychiatry 68(suppl 2): 3-9.~ ~Berk M, Dodd S, Henry
 55   II,     5.  5.  1|       suicide. Psychol Med 36(2):181-9.~ ~Blakely TA, Collings
 56   II,     5.  5.  1|             Bri J Psychiatry 181:193-9.~ ~T G (2008). Stigma and
 57   II,     5.  5.  1|     Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 17(1):14-9.~ ~S H et al. (2006). The
 58   II,     5.  5.  1|            Mental Health Policy Econ 9(2):87-98.~ ~S F et al. (
 59   II,     5.  5.  2|           rates for men and women in 9 different age groups (30-
 60   II,     5.  5.  3|           Palmer et al quote “that 4.9% of schizophrenics will
 61   II,     5.  5.  3|               symptomatic 1.1) and 1.9 per 100,000 for undetermined
 62   II,     5.  5.  3|              examination ~329/348 ~3.9/3.2~Eriksson and Koivikko,
 63   II,     5.  5.  3|              235~ ~81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et
 64   II,     5.  5.  3|           found to range from 1.6 to 9.3 in community-based studies
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|        community-based studies and 1.9-8.7 in institutionalised
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|             Incident cohort~149~16.1~9.3~Loiseau et al., 1999~Iceland~
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|      patients not in remission had a 9.3 RR of death (95% CI 3.
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|           the SMR (all causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|             9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.4) in non-surgical
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|             5-year remission rate at 9 years of age (Cockerell
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|            cohort study of more than 9,000 patients once hospitalized
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|              6.5) and severe (7.0 to 9.5).~Based on the clinical
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|           mean annual incidence of 0.9 for Romania. Prevalence
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|   Netherlands) for severe MS (EDSS 7-9.5)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.6. Proportion
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|          needed to walk 20 m; 7.0 to 9.5 refers to patients restricted
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|           Williams. Health Economics 9:69-82.~Myhr KM, Grytten
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|   epidemiological survey. Mult Scler 9:387-392.~Robertson NP, Deans
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|            prevalence (MSA:1.86 to 4.9/100.000, PSP: 2.5 to 7.5/
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|          increased mortality (SMR: 2.9) was reported compared to
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|     healthcare cost, estimated at €1.9 billion. However, these
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|          disabled PD patients reach9,200 per patient (HY IV).~ ~ ~
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|             compared to a mean of 57.9 years for the healthy population.
 83   II,     5.  5.  3|            2030 to results in 8.7 to 9.3 million (Dorsey et al,
 84   II,     5.  5.  3|         Study on Aging. Neurology 55(9):1358-1363.~Benito-Leon
 85   II,     5.  5.  3|              disease. Drugs Aging 23(9):693-721.~Eichhorn T, Oertel
 86   II,     5.  5.  3|          Environ Health Perspect 113(9):1234-1238.~McCrone P, Allcock
 87   II,     5.  5.  3|          disease. Trends Neurosci 27(9):561-568.~Riedel O, Klotsche
 88   II,     5.  6.  3|            for OA: 4.5 for farming 1-9 years and 9.3 for farming
 89   II,     5.  6.  3|            for farming 1-9 years and 9.3 for farming ten years
 90   II,     5.  6.  3|           found annual incidences of 9 and 37 per 10 000 men and
 91   II,     5.  6.  3|          risk of fracture (Table 5.6.9). There are some semi-independent
 92   II,     5.  6.  3|              the Elderly~ ~Table 5.6.9. Risk factors for bone loss,
 93   II,     5.  6.  6|            localization. Clin J Pain 9:174-182~Arnett FC, Edworthy
 94   II,     5.  6.  6|           Bull World Health Organ 81(9):646-56~Woolf AD and Akesson
 95   II,     5.  7.  1|             mL/min per 1.73 m2 )~ICD 9 CM Code~ ~Treatment~ ~1~
 96   II,     5.  7.  2|          from 16 renal registries in 9 EU-15 Member States (Austria,
 97   II,     5.  7.  3|            Hsu et al, 2004). Indeed, 9 new cases of ESRD developed
 98   II,     5.  7.  5|        points in QOF, with a further 9 for diabetes directly related
 99   II,     5.  7.  6|         rates ( see also the Chapter 9.2. on Transplants).~ ~
100   II,     5.  7.  7|           Nephrol 2006 Mar;21(3):394-9.~Gansevoort RT, van der
101   II,     5.  7.  7|          Dial Transplant 2003 Sep;18(9):1824-33.~Stevens PE, O'
102   II,     5.  7.  7|         Kidney Int 2007 Jul;72(1):92-9.~Stewart JH, McCredie MR,
103   II,     5.  8.  2|              8~ ~Other emphysema~J43.9~ ~Emphysema, unspecified~ ~ ~
104   II,     5.  8.  2|     respiratory infection ( J4 )~J44.9~ ~Chronic obstructive pulmonary
105   II,     5.  8.  3|        incidence rate according to a 9-4% GOLD criteria27 in persistent
106   II,     5.  8.  3|               in never smokers, in a 9-year follow-up of a general
107   II,     5.  8.  3|              for male never smokers (9% in women). The 25-year
108   II,     5.  8.  3|            estimated a prevalence of 9.2% using a spirometric definition
109   II,     5.  8.  3|           between 40 and 69 years is 9.1% (Sobradillo Pena et al,
110   II,     5.  8.  3|             2001) and by 50% (from 1.9 to 2.9 per 1 000) in males
111   II,     5.  8.  3|            and by 50% (from 1.9 to 2.9 per 1 000) in males and
112   II,     5.  8.  3|            in females (from 1.0 to 2.9 per 1 000) from 2000 to
113   II,     5.  8.  3|            al, 2005) in males and 3..9, 8.1, 2.3, 0.4, respectively,
114   II,     5.  8.  3|             and an average FEV of 35.9 ± 10% (Carrasco Garrido,
115   II,     5.  8.  3|    ambulatory care, 2.7 for drugs, 2.9 for inpatient care and 28.
116   II,     5.  8.  4|              for male never smokers (9% in women) to 41% for male
117   II,     5.  8.  5|             1% former smokers and 10.9% lifelong non-smokers. In
118   II,     5.  8.  5|              in 6.7% and severe in 5.9%). AL was found in 23% of
119   II,     5.  8.  6|          long-term home care (26% vs 9.7%, p<0.05), but were much
120   II,     5.  8.  7|              J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9: 926-932.~ ~Jorgensen NR,
121   II,     5.  9    |                                    5.9. Asthma and allergic rhinitis~ ~ ~ ~
122   II,     5.  9. FB|                                 5.FB.9. References~ ~Plumb J, Brawer
123   II,     5.  9.  1|                                    5.9.1. Introduction~ ~Asthma
124   II,     5.  9.  2|                                    5.9.2. Data sources~ ~ ~The
125   II,     5.  9.  2|       chapter, with reference to ICD 9:~· Extrinsic asthma 493.
126   II,     5.  9.  2|              Allergic asthma SAI 493.9~Detergent asthma 507.8~Wood
127   II,     5.  9.  2|             seasonal) (seasonal) 477.9Allergic rhinitis, cause
128   II,     5.  9.  2|      rhinitis, cause unspecified 477.9~ ~An interesting survey (
129   II,     5.  9.  2|   determinants in children aged from 9 to 11 years. ISAAC Phase
130   II,     5.  9.  2|           and 15 June 2004 (tables 5.9.5 to 5.9.7). Twenty studies
131   II,     5.  9.  2|              2004 (tables 5.9.5 to 5.9.7). Twenty studies have
132   II,     5.  9.  3|                                    5.9.3. Data description and
133   II,     5.  9.  3|              age at onset (7.8 vs 15.9 years, P 001) and a shorter
134   II,     5.  9.  3|            and childhood.~ ~Figure 5.9.1. Wheeze in last 12 months
135   II,     5.  9.  3|              I by country~ ~Figure 5.9.2. Asthma ever in ECHRS
136   II,     5.  9.  3|             I by country.~ ~Figure 5.9.3. Asthma by age 14 years
137   II,     5.  9.  3|              I by country~ ~Figure 5.9.4. Hay fever in ECHRS and
138   II,     5.  9.  3|           the mean age at diagnosis (9.6 years) and the predominance
139   II,     5.  9.  3|              available indicate a 12.9% of prevalence in children,
140   II,     5.  9.  3|             was recorded), Bulgaria (9% in the total population),
141   II,     5.  9.  3|              6-7 years of age and 16.9% in children of 13.14 years
142   II,     5.  9.  3|           Romania (7%), Switzerland (9.1% in children and 6.8%
143   II,     5.  9.  3|              5% and 23.6% (median 18.9%) in 19982000. The AllergyNet
144   II,     5.  9.  3|             allergic rhinitis was 15.9% according to the European
145   II,     5.  9.  3|       Hertzen and Haahtela (tables 5.9.1 to 5.9.3) identified that
146   II,     5.  9.  3|          Haahtela (tables 5.9.1 to 5.9.3) identified that in 13
147   II,     5.  9.  3|       Germany, Australia).~ ~Table 5.9.1. Summary of data on stable
148   II,     5.  9.  3|       prevalence of asthma~ ~Table 5.9.2. Summary of data on continuously
149   II,     5.  9.  3|       prevalence of asthma~ ~Table 5.9.3. Summary of studies showing
150   II,     5.  9.  3|         observed since 1994(Figure 5.9.5.)~ ~ ~ ~The costs of health
151   II,     5.  9.  3|         indirect costs amounting to €9.8 billion) (Lung Health
152   II,     5.  9.  3|              of stay in hospital was 9.85 days and the cost of
153   II,     5.  9.  4|                                    5.9.4. Risk factors~ ~Data show
154   II,     5.  9.  4|              in school-children aged 9-11. Over these 15 years
155   II,     5.  9.  4|              higher among females (2.9 cases.1000 person-yrs(-1))
156   II,     5.  9.  4|             for the whole sample was 9%, without differences between
157   II,     5.  9.  4|           hay-fever 18.3%, of asthma 9.1%).~ ~These findings are
158   II,     5.  9.  4|            were identified (Tables 5.9.4 to 5.9.6). The lowest
159   II,     5.  9.  4|        identified (Tables 5.9.4 to 5.9.6). The lowest sensitization
160   II,     5.  9.  4|             between centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively).
161   II,     5.  9.  4|             pollen counts.~ ~Table 5.9.4. Highest, median and lowest
162   II,     5.  9.  4|             by skin tests.~ ~Table 5.9.5. High or low prevalence
163   II,     5.  9.  4|             w1, ragweed.~ ~ ~Table 5.9.6. Standardized (age, gender)
164   II,     5.  9.  4|       followed by house dust mite (8.9%), silver birch pollen (
165   II,     5.  9.  4|               silver birch pollen (7.9%) and cat epithelia (3.8%).~
166   II,     5.  9.  4|        asthmatic bronchitis (OR = 31.9) and atopic eczema (OR =
167   II,     5.  9.  4|            lifetime asthma: 5.4% and 9.7% respectively, P <0.001;
168   II,     5.  9.  4|           current wheeze: 5.2% and 6.9%, respectively, P = 0.04).
169   II,     5.  9.  5|                                    5.9.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
170   II,     5.  9.  6|                                    5.9.6. Future Developments~ ~
171   II,     5.  9.  7|                                    5.9.7. References~ ~Alfvén T (
172   II,     5.  9.  7|               Eur Respir J. 2006 Apr;9(4):636-42~ ~Bj P (2007):
173   II,     5.  9.  7|         2007b): Ge I. Allergy 62:301-9.~ ~Braido F, Baiardini I,
174   II,     5.  9.  7|             Air. 2005;15 Suppl 10:33-9.~ ~European Community Respiratory
175   II,     5.  9.  7|        Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008 Mar;9(1):39-44. Epub 2008 Feb
176   II,     5. 10.  2|              1~Asthma, intrinsic~493.9~Asthma, unspecified~495.
177   II,     5. 10.  2|              Asthma, unspecified~495.9~Unspecified allergic alveolitis~
178   II,     5. 10.  7|           World Health Organization, 9 June 2006. htt ~ ~Knibb
179   II,     5. 10.  7|             Mol Nutr Food Res 50:604-9. The InformAll Database.
180   II,     5. 10.  7|               1116-22. Epub 2007 Jan 9.~ ~Woods RK, Abramson M,
181   II,     5. 11.  3|             Italian school children (9 yrs)~Lifetime prevalence=
182   II,     5. 11.  3|      prevalence=3%,1-year prevalence=9%~Mortz C, et al~Psoriasis~
183   II,     5. 11.  3|      percentage positive for nickel (9.7%) were reported in the
184   II,     5. 11.  3|              3% in Sheffield (UK) to 9.1% in Liverpool (UK) (The
185   II,     5. 11.  3|          significantly from 24.8% to 9.2% over a 12-year period (
186   II,     5. 11.  3|          women below 30 years over a 9-year period (A Schnuch,
187   II,     5. 11.  3|          percentages of 20.8% and 21.9 % for nickel allergy, thus
188   II,     5. 11.  3|       medical care with 7.3%, 3.4% 8.9% and 3.8% in the following
189   II,     5. 11.  3|           study in Sweden found that 9% of school girls had nickel
190   II,     5. 11.  3|              have been in Denmark (2.9%) and the Faeroe Islands (
191   II,     5. 11.  7|             Acad Dermatol 1994;30:35-9.~ ~Larsson-Stymne B, Widstrom
192   II,     5. 11.  7|        London: Springer-Verlag, 1991,9.~ ~Van Coevorden AM, Coenraads
193   II,     5. 12.  3|             Italy (35.0), France (30.9), as well as in Austria (
194   II,     5. 12.  3|       Austria (34.5) and Hungary (33.9), while the lowest ones
195   II,     5. 12.  3|              and Wales from 3.6 to 8.9, Scotland from 7.8 to 20.
196   II,     5. 12.  3|               Poland from 13.0 to 15.9, and mainly Hungary, where
197   II,     5. 12.  3|          from cirrhosis rose from 33.9 in 1980-82 to 67.3 in 1990-
198   II,     5. 12.  3|          followed by Hungary with 20.9, and the lowest ones, below
199   II,     5. 12.  3|             values for women were 53.9/100,000 in Hungary and 44.
200   II,     5. 12.  3|           England and Wales, around +9% in men and +7% in women
201   II,     5. 12.  3|            from Scotland and around +9% in men and +4% in women
202   II,     5. 14.  3|             falls in the middle with 9.3% of the GDP devoted to
203   II,     5. 15.  3|             confidence interval of 1-9. This estimation is lower
204   II,     5. 15.  3|         before the age of 1 year, to 9.6% of deaths between the
205   II,     5. 15.  6|           Dis. 2006 Jul-Aug;37(1):46-9. Epub 2006 Jul 7.~McCabe
206   II,     5. 15.  6|           2005 Oct 29;331(7523):1016-9.~McKusick VA (2007): Mendelian
207   II,     6.  3.  3|           000 per year in 2001, to 7.9 per 100 000 per year in
208   II,     6.  3.  6|                followed by Slovakia (9.51 per 100 000) reported
209   II,     6.  3.  6|        countries notified a total of 9 564 cases of human yersiniosis
210   II,     6.  3.  6|              25 countries. Slovakia (9.81 per 100 000) and Latvia (
211   II,     6.  3.  6|             per 100 000) and the UK (9.26 per 100 000) reporting
212   II,     7.  2.  9|                                  7.2.9. Other studies and projects~ ~
213   II,     7.  3.  4|            slight injuries (Figure 7.9).~ ~Figure 7.9. Nonfatal
214   II,     7.  3.  4|              Figure 7.9).~ ~Figure 7.9. Nonfatal road traffic
215   II,     8.  1.  3|              in the age group 16-24, 9% in the age group 25-54
216   II,     8.  2.  1|             in 18%. Among all cases, 9% had SPID as the only associated
217   II,     8.  2.  1|              Disability Research 50 (9), 667–677.~Emerson, E. (
218   II,     8.  2.  3|         about 553000 children aged 0-9 years (Fortnum and Davis,
219   II,     8.  2.  3|       Arlinger, 2003) showed that 16.9% subjects showed no hearing
220   II,     8.  2.  3|         males/females in the range 0.9-1.2), with some evidence
221   II,     8.  2.  3|         Audiology 1996;Supplement 42:9-13~ ~Uimonen S, Huttunen
222   II,     8.  2.  3|        Journal of Audiology 33(1):53-9.~ ~WHO (1997): Report on
223   II,     9        |                                      9.~MAIN HEALTH ISSUES AND
224   II,     9        |            summarized in Tables from 9.1.a to 9.1.d.~ ~Table 9.
225   II,     9        |              in Tables from 9.1.a to 9.1.d.~ ~Table 9.1a. Main
226   II,     9        |              9.1.a to 9.1.d.~ ~Table 9.1a. Main risk factors for
227   II,     9        |         Garite et al, 2004). Figures 9.T1.1 and 9.T1.2. present
228   II,     9        |            2004). Figures 9.T1.1 and 9.T1.2. present data on the
229   II,     9        |      Olausson et al, 1997).~ ~Figure 9.T1.1. Percentage of mothers
230   II,     9        |             across Europe, as Figure 9.1c illustrates. This information
231   II,     9        |              to almost 25%.~ ~Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among
232   II,     9        |      anomalies are listed in Chapter 9.1.2; references cited in
233   II,     9        |     paragraphs are listed in Chapter 9.1.1~ ~ ~ ~Table 9.1b. Main
234   II,     9        |            Chapter 9.1.1~ ~ ~ ~Table 9.1b. Main risk factors for
235   II,     9        |          table are listed in Chapter 9.2~ ~ ~Table 9.1c. Main risk
236   II,     9        |             in Chapter 9.2~ ~ ~Table 9.1c. Main risk factors for
237   II,     9        |         ischaemic heart disease (Fig.9.T1.4).~ ~ ~Figure 9.T1.4.
238   II,     9        |              Fig.9.T1.4).~ ~ ~Figure 9.T1.4. Relationship between
239   II,     9        |          table are listed in Chapter 9.3.1~ ~ ~Table 9.1d. Main
240   II,     9        |              Chapter 9.3.1~ ~ ~Table 9.1d. Main risk factors for
241   II,     9        |          table are listed in Chapter 9.4~ ~ ~ ~
242   II,     9.  1    |                                      9.1. Newborns and perinatal
243   II,     9.  1    |            of the cases (see chapter 9.3.2).~ ~This burden of death
244   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1. Foetal, neonatal and
245   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.1. Introduction~ ~The
246   II,     9.  1.  1|              EU Member States. Table 9.1.1.1 provides definitions
247   II,     9.  1.  1|     countries and over time.~ ~Table 9.1.1.1. Definitions of foetal,
248   II,     9.  1.  1|           neonatal mortality~ ~Table 9.1.1.2. Births, deaths and
249   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.2. Data sources~ ~
250   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.2. Information Sources~ ~
251   II,     9.  1.  1|           the member states.~ ~Table 9.1.1.2.1. EURO-PERISTAT Indicators
252   II,     9.  1.  1|  Reproduction and Embryology). Table 9. 1. 1. 2. 1 indicates in
253   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.3. Data presentation
254   II,     9.  1.  1|             infant mortality~ ~Table 9.1.1.2 provides rates of
255   II,     9.  1.  1|         EUROSTAT data, while Figures 9.1.1.1 and 9.1.1.2 show the
256   II,     9.  1.  1|            while Figures 9.1.1.1 and 9.1.1.2 show the evolution
257   II,     9.  1.  1|         mortality~As shown in Figure 9.1.1.1, there has been a
258   II,     9.  1.  1|              they ranged from 1.6 to 9.5 per 1 000 births. Neonatal
259   II,     9.  1.  1|           Foetal mortality~As Figure 9.1.1.2 illustrates, foetal
260   II,     9.  1.  1|     mortality, as explained in Table 9.1.1.1. In addition, data
261   II,     9.  1.  1|          rate of foetal mortality (3.9 per 1 000 births) between
262   II,     9.  1.  1|             however, was higher at 6.9 per 1 000 births.~ ~F ~ ~
263   II,     9.  1.  1|          first year of life.~ ~Table 9.1.1.3. Infant mortality
264   II,     9.  1.  1|          malformations~ ~See Chapter 9.1.2 for a detailed and specific
265   II,     9.  1.  1|            preterm delivery~ ~Figure 9.1.1.3 presents rates of
266   II,     9.  1.  1|             in the EU. Between 4 and 9% of all live births have
267   II,     9.  1.  1|        normal birth weight.~ ~Figure 9.1.1.3. Percentage of live
268   II,     9.  1.  1|            births. As shown in Table 9.1.1.4, this rate varies
269   II,     9.  1.  1|             United Kingdom).~ ~Table 9.1.1.4. Cerebral palsy rates
270   II,     9.  1.  1|        impairment. As shown in Table 9.1.1.5, these proportions
271   II,     9.  1.  1|             this rate of CP.~ ~Table 9.1.1.5. Proportion of severe
272   II,     9.  1.  1|          born in the covered area of 9 different European countries
273   II,     9.  1.  1|              1998. As shown in Table 9.1.1.6, this rate varies
274   II,     9.  1.  1|          Platt et al, 2007).~ ~Table 9.1.1.6. CP rates among VLBW
275   II,     9.  1.  1|           rates among VLBW babies in 9 European countries, birth
276   II,     9.  1.  1|        available knowledge see Table 9.1 and the section on maternal
277   II,     9.  1.  1|           Member States. See Chapter 9.3.2 for more information.~ ~ ~
278   II,     9.  1.  1|              is presented in Chapter 9.3.2~ ~
279   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.4. References~ ~Ananth
280   II,     9.  1.  1|            Reprod Biol 2000;88(1):65-9.~ ~Doyle LW (2001): Outcome
281   II,     9.  1.  1|           Engl J Med 1989;321(4):233-9.~ ~Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ,
282   II,     9.  1.  1|         System. Jama 2000;284(7):843-9.~Jackson RA, Gibson KA,
283   II,     9.  1.  1|              System. Jama 284(7):843-9.~ ~Kramer MS, Seguin L,
284   II,     9.  1.  1|       comparaison de l'experience de 9 services de gyneco-obstetrique
285   II,     9.  1.  1|               Bmj 2006;332(7547):937-9.~ ~Lin HC, Xirasagar S (
286   II,     9.  1.  1|              artefact? Bjog 2007;114(9):1097-103.~ ~Zeitlin J,
287   II,     9.  1.  1|                                      9.1.1.5. Acronyms~ ~APGAR~
288   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2. Congenital Malformations~ ~ ~
289   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.1. Introduction~ ~Collectively,
290   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.2. Data sources~ ~EUROCAT (
291   II,     9.  1.  2|              20 countries (see Table 9.1.2.2.1), covering in total
292   II,     9.  1.  2|          membership in 2009.~ ~Table 9.1.2.2.1. Coverage of the
293   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.3. Data description
294   II,     9.  1.  2|          births for 2000-2004 (Table 9.1.2.1). Total prevalence
295   II,     9.  1.  2|          live-birth prevalence is 19.9 per 1 000 births.~ ~Table
296   II,     9.  1.  2|            per 1 000 births.~ ~Table 9.1.2.1. Prevalence per 1
297   II,     9.  1.  2|             Europe is shown in Table 9.1.2.1. The prevalence of
298   II,     9.  1.  2|              the data shown in Table 9.1.2.1, these cases have
299   II,     9.  1.  2|            births are shown in Table 9.1.2.1.~ ~There has been
300   II,     9.  1.  2|     congenital heart disease (Figure 9.1.2.1), but an overall improvement
301   II,     9.  1.  2|              has increased.~ ~Figure 9.1.2.1. Trends in the total
302   II,     9.  1.  2|              per 1 000 births (Table 9.1.2.2). The main congenital
303   II,     9.  1.  2|   chromosomal anomalies (21%) (Table 9.1.2.2).~ ~Chromosomal anomalies
304   II,     9.  1.  2|             both categories.~ ~Table 9.1.2.2. Perinatal mortality
305   II,     9.  1.  2|            varies per country (Table 9.1.2.3). The lowest rates
306   II,     9.  1.  2|       mortality statistics).~ ~Table 9.1.2.3. Ratio of Terminations
307   II,     9.  1.  2|          Portugal, Denmark).~ ~Table 9.1.2.3 shows TOPFA before
308   II,     9.  1.  2|            congenital anomaly (Table 9.1.2.3). Up to 0.8% (Switzerland)
309   II,     9.  1.  2|             a rate above 0.5% (Table 9.1.2.3). The differences
310   II,     9.  1.  2|              per 1 000 births (Table 9.1.2.1), the largest group
311   II,     9.  1.  2|              been increasing (Figure 9.1.2.1), probably associated
312   II,     9.  1.  2|      documented in Chapter 8. Figure 9.1.2.2 shows the resulting
313   II,     9.  1.  2|              3.4 per 1 000.~ ~Figure 9.1.2.2. Trends in the total
314   II,     9.  1.  2|            slightly declined (Figure 9.1.2.2) to 1.0 per 1 000
315   II,     9.  1.  2|          Ireland and Malta).~ ~Table 9.1.2.4. Total and live birth
316   II,     9.  1.  2|            subsequent decade (Figure 9.1.2.3). This has represented
317   II,     9.  1.  2|          preventive policy.~ ~Figure 9.1.2.3. Trends in the total
318   II,     9.  1.  2|           per 1 000 in Poland (Table 9.1.2.4).~ ~Orofacial clefts~ ~
319   II,     9.  1.  2|              births in Europe (Table 9.1.2.1). Cleft lip with or
320   II,     9.  1.  2|           births in 2000-2004 (Table 9.1.2.1). It is associated
321   II,     9.  1.  2|              per 1 000 births (Table 9.1.2.1). Individual registries
322   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.4. Risk factors~ ~For
323   II,     9.  1.  2|          main risk factors see Table 9.1a.~ ~Table 9.1a. Main risk
324   II,     9.  1.  2|              see Table 9.1a.~ ~Table 9.1a. Main risk factors for
325   II,     9.  1.  2|         Garite et al, 2004). Figures 9.T1.1 and 9.T1.2. present
326   II,     9.  1.  2|            2004). Figures 9.T1.1 and 9.T1.2. present data on the
327   II,     9.  1.  2|      Olausson et al, 1997).~ ~Figure 9.T1.1. Percentage of mothers
328   II,     9.  1.  2|            most recent year~ ~Figure 9.T1.2a. Percent of mothers
329   II,     9.  1.  2|             EU15 and Norway~ ~Figure 9.T1.2b. Percent of mothers
330   II,     9.  1.  2|             across Europe, as Figure 9.1c illustrates. This information
331   II,     9.  1.  2|              to almost 25%.~ ~Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among
332   II,     9.  1.  2|      anomalies are listed in Chapter 9.1.2; references cited in
333   II,     9.  1.  2|     paragraphs are listed in Chapter 9.1.1~ ~ ~ ~ ~
334   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.5. Control tools and
335   II,     9.  1.  2|              as presented in section 9.1.2.3. Comparisons of the
336   II,     9.  1.  2|              been presented in Table 9.1a. The following would
337   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.6. Future developments~ ~
338   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.7. References~ ~Abramsky
339   II,     9.  1.  2|                                      9.1.2.8. Acronyms~ ~TOPFA
340   II,     9.  2    |                                      9.2. Children and adolescents (
341   II,     9.  2.  1|                                      9.2.1. Introduction~ ~Children
342   II,     9.  2.  2|                                      9.2.2. Data Sources~ ~In the
343   II,     9.  2.  2|                                      9.2.2.1. Issues related to
344   II,     9.  2.  3|                                      9.2.3. Data description and
345   II,     9.  2.  3|          well as leukaemias (Figures 9.2.1a and b). Leukaemia is
346   II,     9.  2.  3|        treated in children.~ ~Figure 9.2.1a. Age-standardised mortality
347   II,     9.  2.  3|            CountriesBoys~ ~Figure 9.2.1b. Age-standardised mortality
348   II,     9.  2.  3|             of age. Every year, some 9.000 children and young people
349   II,     9.  2.  3|             can be found in chapter9.3.3. Sexual health”~ ~Sexually
350   II,     9.  2.  3|              2005c)(see also Chapter 9.3).~ ~The incidence rate
351   II,     9.  2.  3|              terms of weight (Figure 9.2.2). Girls often perceive
352   II,     9.  2.  3|           weight or height.~ ~Figure 9.2.2. Young people dissatisfied
353   II,     9.  2.  4|                                      9.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A number
354   II,     9.  2.  4|           children health (see Table 9.1b.). Equally important -
355   II,     9.  2.  4|           and legislation.~ ~ ~Table 9.1b. Main risk factors for
356   II,     9.  2.  4|          table are listed in Chapter 9.2~ ~ ~
357   II,     9.  2.  5|                                      9.2.5. Control tools and policies~ ~ ~
358   II,     9.  2.  6|                                      9.2.6. Future developments~ ~
359   II,     9.  2.  7|                                      9.2.7. References~ ~Alexander
360   II,     9.  2.  7|    Eurobarometer Issue No. 246 p 13. 9 November, 2006~ ~European
361   II,     9.  2.  7|             2003-2008), OJ No L 271, 9 October 2002.~ ~European
362   II,     9.  2.  7|         Adolescent Health; 35(5):350-9, November 2004~ ~Ozanne
363   II,     9.  2.  8|                                      9.2.8. Acronyms~ ~CEHAPE~Children’
364   II,     9.  3    |                                      9.3. Adults~ ~
365   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1 General health conditions~ ~
366   II,     9.  3.  1|             this Chapter see Chapter 9.5.~ ~ ~
367   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~For
368   II,     9.  3.  1|         women is provided in chapter 9.5.~ ~As compared to women,
369   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~Sources
370   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.3. Data description
371   II,     9.  3.  1|          injury and poisoning (Table 9.3.1.1). For men who survive
372   II,     9.  3.  1|       smaller than at birth.~ ~Table 9.3.1.1 Premature mortality
373   II,     9.  3.  1|            with active epilepsy is 0.9 million children and adolescents (
374   II,     9.  3.  1|      prevalence 4.55.0 per 1000), 1.9 million aged 2064 (prevalence
375   II,     9.  3.  1|              121.1) and at 15-19 (25.9). The rates are consistently
376   II,     9.  3.  1|            15-24 age group (median 3.9 per 100 000 population),
377   II,     9.  3.  1|        deaths whereas Latvia had 169.9 deaths in the 35-44 age
378   II,     9.  3.  1|              rate in men aged 30-39, 9.5% aged 40-49, 15.7% aged
379   II,     9.  3.  1|            over from 4.2% in 1995 to 9.5% in 2025. The most commonly
380   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.4. Risk factors~ ~The
381   II,     9.  3.  1|              are summarized in Table 9.1c.~ ~Table 9.1c. Main risk
382   II,     9.  3.  1|    summarized in Table 9.1c.~ ~Table 9.1c. Main risk factors for
383   II,     9.  3.  1|         ischaemic heart disease (Fig.9.T1.4).~ ~Figure 9.T1.4.
384   II,     9.  3.  1|       disease (Fig.9.T1.4).~ ~Figure 9.T1.4. Relationship between
385   II,     9.  3.  1|          table are listed in Chapter 9.3.1~ ~ ~ ~
386   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.5. Control tools and
387   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~
388   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.7. References~ ~Arber
389   II,     9.  3.  1|             April 2005 , pp. 245-253(9)~ ~Gabriel P, Liimatainen
390   II,     9.  3.  1|      paperback) ISBN 978-952-00-2270-9 (PDF)~ ~Mental Health Europe (
391   II,     9.  3.  1|       Affective Disorders, 71(1-3):1-9.~ ~NIH Consensus Development
392   II,     9.  3.  1|             of Internal Medicine 148(9): 680-W137.~ ~Shah, J., (
393   II,     9.  3.  1|                The Lancet Oncology 8(9): 784-796.~ ~Verlato G,
394   II,     9.  3.  1|                                      9.3.1.8. Acronyms~ ~ADAM~Androgen
395   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2. Maternal health~ ~
396   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.1. Introduction~ ~Every
397   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.2. Data sources~Data
398   II,     9.  3.  2|            been presented in Chapter 9.1.1.2.~ ~
399   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.3. Data presentation
400   II,     9.  3.  2|          2002).~ ~As shown in Figure 9.3.2.1. the maternal mortality
401   II,     9.  3.  2|       countries~ ~As shown in Figure 9.3.2.2., which gives the
402   II,     9.  3.  2|  statistically significant.~ ~Figure 9.3.2.2. Maternal mortality
403   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.4. Risk factors~ ~In
404   II,     9.  3.  2|        available knowledge see Table 9.1a.~ ~The EURO-PERISTAT
405   II,     9.  3.  2|              reproductive age (Table 9.1a) using data from EUROSTAT,
406   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.5. Care during pregnancy,
407   II,     9.  3.  2|            Caesarean Delivery~Figure 9.3.2.3. shows an increasing
408   II,     9.  3.  2|             as illustrated in Figure 9.3.2.4. However, as these
409   II,     9.  3.  2|         follow-up services.~ ~Figure 9.3.2.4. Evolution of length
410   II,     9.  3.  2|            EU Member States.~ ~Table 9.3.2.1. Percentage of babies
411   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.6. Future developments~ ~
412   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.7. References~ ~ ~Alexander
413   II,     9.  3.  2|            Reprod Biol 2000;88(1):65-9.~ ~Doyle LW (2001): Outcome
414   II,     9.  3.  2|           Engl J Med 1989;321(4):233-9.~ ~Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ,
415   II,     9.  3.  2|         System. Jama 2000;284(7):843-9.~ ~Kramer MS, Platt RW,
416   II,     9.  3.  2|       comparaison de l'experience de 9 services de gyneco-obstetrique
417   II,     9.  3.  2|               Bmj 2006;332(7547):937-9.~ ~Le Fort L (1866) : Des
418   II,     9.  3.  2|              artefact? Bjog 2007;114(9):1097-103.~ ~Zeitlin J,
419   II,     9.  3.  2|                                      9.3.2.8. Acronyms~ ~IVF In-Vitro
420   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3. Sexual health~ ~
421   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.1. Introduction~ ~Human
422   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.2. Data sources~ ~Still
423   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.3. Data presentation
424   II,     9.  3.  3|              age of twenty.~ ~Figure 9.3.3.1. Young people who
425   II,     9.  3.  3|        positive responses range from 9.2 in Poland to 40.4% in
426   II,     9.  3.  3|          2003 from about 11 to about 9 for men and has slightly
427   II,     9.  3.  3|              Spain for girls (Figure 9.3.3.2). In almost all countries
428   II,     9.  3.  3|          Belgium (Flemish).~ ~Figure 9.3.3.2. Young people who
429   II,     9.  3.  3|            at least once, and only 0.9% said they had sexual relations
430   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.4. Control tools and
431   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.5. Future developments~ ~
432   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.6. References~ ~Amaro
433   II,     9.  3.  3|             France and Britain. AIDS 9:735-43.~Bajos N, Guillaume
434   II,     9.  3.  3|          starting point? Aids 18:805-9~Grier S, Bryant CA (2005):
435   II,     9.  3.  3|                                      9.3.3.7. Acronyms~ ~BZgA~Bundeszentrale
436   II,     9.  4    |                                      9.4. Elderly~ ~
437   II,     9.  4.  1|                                      9.4.1. Introduction~ ~Ageing
438   II,     9.  4.  2|                                      9.4.2. Data sources~ ~Policy
439   II,     9.  4.  2|      supporting this theory.~ ~Table 9.4.1. General Physical Health
440   II,     9.  4.  2|              interventions.~ ~Figure 9.4.1. Ability to carry out
441   II,     9.  4.  3|                                      9.4.3. Data description and
442   II,     9.  4.  3|             related to falls (Figure 9.4.2). As much as about 30%
443   II,     9.  4.  3|             WHO/HEN, 2004).~ ~Figure 9.4.2. Fatal injuries by causes
444   II,     9.  4.  3|     in-hospital delirium from 15% to 9%, with concomitant savings
445   II,     9.  4.  3|         estimates for 1996).~ ~Table 9.4.2. Most common causes
446   II,     9.  4.  4|                                      9.4.4. Risk factors~ ~Main
447   II,     9.  4.  4|              are summarized in Table 9.1d.~ ~Table 9.1d. Main risk
448   II,     9.  4.  4|    summarized in Table 9.1d.~ ~Table 9.1d. Main risk factors for
449   II,     9.  4.  4|          table are listed in Chapter 9.4~ ~ ~ ~
450   II,     9.  4.  5|                                      9.4.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
451   II,     9.  4.  5|        already a large employer with 9.7% of the total employment
452   II,     9.  4.  6|                                      9.4.6. Future developments~ ~
453   II,     9.  4.  7|                                      9.4.7. References~ ~Bhalla
454   II,     9.  4.  7|            Menopause Society, Volume 9, Number 4, December 2003 ,
455   II,     9.  4.  8|                                      9.4.8. Acronyms~ ~AD~Alzheimer’
456   II,     9.  5    |                                      9.5. Special gender-related
457   II,     9.  5.  1|                                      9.5.1. Introduction~ ~“Gender”
458   II,     9.  5.  2|                                      9.5.2. Data sources~ ~ ~Sources
459   II,     9.  5.  2|         Accidents).~See also section 9.2 for additional data sources. ~ ~
460   II,     9.  5.  3|                                      9.5.3. Data description and
461   II,     9.  5.  3|            risk behaviours.~ ~Figure 9.5.1. Percentage of deaths
462   II,     9.  5.  3|          Commission, 2006).~ ~Figure 9.5.2. Unemployed persons
463   II,     9.  5.  3|     isolation (Doyal, 1998).~ ~Table 9.5.1. Sex differences in
464   II,     9.  5.  3|         longevity of women~ ~ ~Table 9.5.2. Prevalence of depression
465   II,     9.  5.  3|      epidemiological studies~ ~Table 9.5.3. Suicide Rates~ ~Gender
466   II,     9.  5.  3|             Eurostat, 2006).~ ~Table 9.5.4. Percentage of 25-64
467   II,     9.  5.  3|          On-line, 2007). (See Figure 9.5.3) Carers can often be
468   II,     9.  5.  3|            Concern, 2007b).~ ~Figure 9.5.3. Percentage of people
469   II,     9.  5.  3|       sources, are reported in Table 9.5.5.~ ~Table 9.5.5. Violence
470   II,     9.  5.  3|              in Table 9.5.5.~ ~Table 9.5.5. Violence against women~ ~ ~ ~
471   II,     9.  5.  3|            16 reported being raped9.4% reported almost being
472   II,     9.  5.  3|           Wales) b ( 2000 data )~· 4.9% of women have reported
473   II,     9.  5.  3|           there were an estimated 12.9 million incidents of domestic
474   II,     9.  5.  3|             problems represent about 9% of the disease burden in
475   II,     9.  5.  3|             Jernigan, 2001).~ ~Table 9.5.6 below illustrates drinking
476   II,     9.  5.  3|              UK and Ireland.~ ~Table 9.5.6. Drinking patterns among
477   II,     9.  5.  3|          European countries~ ~Figure 9.5.4. Girls who drink any
478   II,     9.  5.  3|             health problems.~ ~Table 9.5.7. Percentage of Female
479   II,     9.  5.  3|           fully understood.~ ~Figure 9.5.5. Adults (15+) selecting480   II,     9.  5.  3|   physical activity at work.~ ~Table 9.5.8. Days of vigorous physical activity
481   II,     9.  5.  3|              days per gender~ ~Table 9.5.9. Time spent on vigorous
482   II,     9.  5.  3|          days per gender~ ~Table 9.5.9. Time spent on vigorous
483   II,     9.  5.  3|        States: the United Kingdom (1.9%) had the lowest percentage,
484   II,     9.  5.  3|              of the scale, Malta (45.9%), followed by Ireland (
485   II,     9.  5.  4|                                      9.5.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
486   II,     9.  5.  4|           tools and policies~ ~Table 9.5.10. European Parliament
487   II,     9.  5.  5|                                      9.5.5. Future developments~ ~“
488   II,     9.  5.  6|                                      9.5.6. References~ ~Age Concern (
489   II,     9.  5.  7|                                      9.5.7. Acronyms~ ~AD~Alzheimer490  III,    10.  1.  3|              Acta Paediatr Suppl 404:9-13.~Wood PD (1994): Physical activity,
491  III,    10.  2.  1|              the EU27 ranges from 15.9% in Sweden to 37.6% in Greece.
492  III,    10.  2.  1|         between sexes in Europe - 19.9% among boys, and 15.7% among
493  III,    10.  2.  1|              the global average of 8.9% (Warren et al, 2006).~ ~
494  III,    10.  2.  1|         smoking in nonsmokers was 17.9% at home and 20.6% at work.
495  III,    10.  2.  1|              at work decreased by 10.9% (Ja ~ ~Objective biomarkers
496  III,    10.  2.  1|            2nd edition: data updated 9 December 2005). Available
497  III,    10.  2.  1|             2006.~ ~Nearly all (over 9 in 10) 15-16 year-old students
498  III,    10.  2.  1|            child abuse / neglect~- 5-9 million children living
499  III,    10.  2.  1|             be around 1.1 million (0.91.3 million) injectors
500  III,    10.  2.  1|             2004, from 6 500 to over 9 000 deaths were reported