1-500 | 501-596
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |                national health policies and services of European countries have
  2    I,     2.  1    |              accounted for by the financial services or the retail trade sector.
  3    I,     2.  2    |                competition for products and services feeds through into pressures
  4    I,     2.  2    |              travels, capital movements and services, in addition to offering
  5    I,     2.  3    |                     EU may impact on health services demand. Poverty and social
  6    I,     2.  3    |                    in accessing health care services, they may be unable to use
  7    I,     2.  3    |                  quality of the health care services provided to them may be
  8    I,     2.  3    |                   to and use of health care services. On the other hand, health
  9    I,     2.  3    |                status and the use of health services among immigrants may be
 10    I,     2.  3    |                interpreting and translation services. A special concern is the
 11    I,     2.  4    |             produced value of all goods and services less the value of any goods
 12    I,     2.  4    |                   the value of any goods or services used in their creation.
 13    I,     2.  4    |                  the provision of necessary services for children and their families.
 14    I,     2.  4    |                 rates, and access to health services (Report prepared by APPLICA,
 15    I,     2.  4    |             cultural barriers to the use of services. The Structural funds will
 16    I,     2.  4    |                    to care and have adapted services to reach those who have
 17    I,     2.  4    |                   in accessing conventional services due to physical or mental
 18    I,     2.  5    |                   to industrial employment, services went up as a share of global
 19    I,     2.  5    |                     in developed countries. Services include wholesale and retail
 20    I,     2.  5    |                      community and personal services and domestic service. Many
 21    I,     2.  5    |                delivering health and social services care in the community, thus
 22    I,     2.  5    |                competition for products and services feeds through into pressures
 23    I,     2.  5    |                    women work in the caring services where there are high risks
 24    I,     2.  5    |                  needs in domestic and care services are as follows:~ ~– The
 25    I,     2.  5    |                  important consumer of care servicesrepresents the fastest
 26    I,     2.  5    |                     the demand for domestic services.~ ~The impact of migration
 27    I,     2.  7    |                     adequate and accessible services, matching the respective
 28    I,     2.  7    |                    what concerns healthcare services (Marrone, 2007; Arcury et
 29    I,     2.  7    |               regions”. Many businesses and services followed and moved to greenfield
 30    I,     2.  9    |                  the quality of health care services and their ability to detect
 31    I,     2. 10.  1|           directions, e.g. as Public Health services, surveillance, the education
 32    I,     2. 10.  3|               accelerated the shift towards services and their outsourcing internationally (
 33    I,     2. 10.  3|                 delivering new products and services and on the other, the loss
 34    I,     2. 10.  3|                should provide collaboration services to allow for the development
 35    I,     2. 10.  3|                   technologies, systems and services.~- Embedded systems.~- Software
 36    I,     2. 10.  3|                     systems.~- Software and services.~- Semantic-based knowledge
 37    I,     2. 10.  3|                 roll-out of public interest services, primarily in support of
 38    I,     2. 10.  3|                   initiative. Some of these services relate to access to business
 39    I,     2. 10.  3|              e-Learning, eInclusion and SME services.~ ~E-Contentplus (2005-2008)
 40    I,     2. 10.  3|              content for innovative, online services across the EU. This information
 41    I,     2. 10.  3|                  new or improved e-Business services, including applications
 42    I,     2. 10.  3|                      including pan-European services, information infrastructures
 43    I,     2. 10.  3|                    deployment of electronic services, and support modernisation
 44    I,     2. 10.  3|                  health-related actions and services. New health-related tools
 45    I,     2. 10.  3|                   threats.~ ~On-line health services. Commission and Member States
 46    I,     2. 10.  3|                  ensure that on-line health services are provided to citizens (
 47    I,     2. 10.  3|                    and related preventative services (e.g. air and water quality
 48    I,     2. 11    |                   of a rural region. Health Services Research, 40, 135-155.~CEN/
 49    I,     2. 11    |                  disparities in health care services among indigenous populations.
 50   II,     4.  1    |                towards long term care (LTC) services than to employment rates.~ ~
 51   II,     4.  1    |                  and Jagger, 2007). Several services of the Commission (DG Heath
 52   II,     4.  3    |             mortality and morbidity. Health Services Mental Health Administration
 53   II,     4.  3    |              Department of Health and Human Services (2006): Healthy People 2010
 54   II,     4.  3    |              Department of Health and Human Services: 34.~ ~Van Oyen, H., J.
 55   II,     5.  2.  1|                   long dependence on health services and medications. The costs
 56   II,     5.  2.  1|                   to health care and social services, but are also linked to
 57   II,     5.  2.  6|                  escalating costs of health services. Therefore, we have an urgent
 58   II,     5.  3.  2|                  cancer genetic counselling services for individuals and families
 59   II,     5.  3.  6|                 improvements in health-care services in countries with poor survival,
 60   II,     5.  3.  7|              preventive and epidemiological services and improve cancer outcomes
 61   II,     5.  3.  7|               cancer outcomes with clinical services is an extremely complex
 62   II,     5.  3.  8|              variation in demand for health services as a function of cancer
 63   II,     5.  3.  8|               Europe while improving cancer services.~ ~
 64   II,     5.  4.  2|                   activities of the medical services in active partnership with
 65   II,     5.  4.  2|                 access to a range of ad hoc services.~Information on age, sex
 66   II,     5.  4.  6|                   must be ensured by health services in each country of the European
 67   II,     5.  4.  6|               access to high-quality health services for people living with diabetes
 68   II,     5.  4.  6|                     their respective health services, ethical, legal, cultural
 69   II,     5.  4.  6|                  and community care, social services and education services;~·
 70   II,     5.  4.  6|               social services and education services;~· Further development of
 71   II,     5.  5.Int|                    world14.~ ~Mental health services in Europe have been identified
 72   II,     5.  5.Int|                   burden, mental healthcare services are often inadequate, outdated,
 73   II,     5.  5.Int|                   policies and provision of services are urgently needed to ensure
 74   II,     5.  5.Int|                 chance to access integrated services while using inpatient beds
 75   II,     5.  5.  1|                  contact with formal health services in the previous year (Alonso
 76   II,     5.  5.  1|          productivity. Use of formal health services is low. About one person
 77   II,     5.  5.  1|                  reported to contact health services (Alonso et al., 2004b).~ ~
 78   II,     5.  5.  1|                    organising mental health services and in national health information
 79   II,     5.  5.  1|                    treatment and healthcare services. The survey data were gathered
 80   II,     5.  5.  1|            health promotion, prevention and services.~o The establishment of
 81   II,     5.  5.  1|                2004b). Use of mental health services in Europe: results from
 82   II,     5.  5.  1|              Differences in lifetime use of services for mental health problems
 83   II,     5.  5.  1|             European countries. Psychiatric Services 58: 213-220.~ ~L . (2007).
 84   II,     5.  5.  2|                 organising the provision of services.~ ~For this reason, Alzheimer
 85   II,     5.  5.  2|                   or through social welfare services. In some countries, social
 86   II,     5.  5.  2|                     health care and support services, but on the other hand,
 87   II,     5.  5.  2|                   task by allowances and by services and support provided to
 88   II,     5.  5.  2|                treatments, efficient health services, prevention and early diagnosis,
 89   II,     5.  5.  3|               community based mental health services were not provided (WHO,
 90   II,     5.  5.  3|                    contact with psychiatric services of patients with the diagnosis
 91   II,     5.  5.  3|               especially in non-psychiatric services – with respect to the stigmatizing
 92   II,     5.  5.  3|                therapy and in mental health services, this mortality gap has
 93   II,     5.  5.  3|                  Intercontinental Marketing Services) based on the 1st quarter
 94   II,     5.  5.  3|                 personnel for mental health services are an important resource
 95   II,     5.  5.  3|                    proper use of a range of services. Several European countries
 96   II,     5.  5.  3|               reported a need for help from services clearly exceeding the actual
 97   II,     5.  5.  3|          discrimination in the provision of services for physical illness in
 98   II,     5.  5.  3|                    to different health care services, reflect the practice of
 99   II,     5.  5.  3|                     necessary mental health services and providers;~· facilitate
100   II,     5.  5.  3|                 have less access to medical services for their patients? J Ment
101   II,     5.  5.  3|                     in countries where such services exist, often in the private
102   II,     5.  5.  3|                   very few or no diagnostic services for ASD exist. ~ ~Although
103   II,     5.  5.  3|                    personnel and the health services structure and whether or
104   II,     5.  5.  3|                    for education and health services for people and families
105   II,     5.  5.  3|                  tests], non-medical costs [services, and investments] and informal
106   II,     5.  5.  3|                    the total costs). Social services only represent 7% of total
107   II,     5.  5.  3|                     their respective health services, as well as in relation
108   II,     5.  5.  3|                   treatments, therapies and services, research, employment, and
109   II,     5.  5.  3|                    treatment, therapies and services in the management of Multiple
110   II,     5.  5.  3|           Recommendations on Rehabilitation Services for People with Multiple
111   II,     5.  5.  3|                     possible rehabilitation services at every stage of their
112   II,     5.  5.  3|             palliative care assessments and services.~· National Institute for
113   II,     5.  5.  3|                  Excellence Guideline on MS Services (UK)~The National Institute
114   II,     5.  5.  3|                     way to organise complex services.~· Principles to promote
115   II,     5.  5.  3|               development and evaluation of services that are provided by governments,
116   II,     5.  5.  3|                 no-profit health and social services providers, employers and
117   II,     5.  5.  3|               access thereto and quality of services for EU citizens affected
118   II,     5.  5.  3|           Recommendations on Rehabilitation Services for Persons with Multiple
119   II,     5.  5.  3|                  individual, family, health services and society, ii) the cost
120   II,     5.  5.  3|                  for community care. Social services and private expenses make
121   II,     5.  6.  4|                  1997.~ ~Use of health care services~ ~About one-quarter of all
122   II,     5.  6.  4|                total direct cost for health services due to musculoskeletal conditions
123   II,     5.  6.  6|             Department of Health and Social Services, UK (1989): OPCS Surveys
124   II,     5.  6.  6|                  2006): The Musculoskeletal Services Framework. Available at
125   II,     5.  6.  6|                  provision of physiotherapy services in primary healthcare. Physiother
126   II,     5.  6.  6|                      2007): What healthcare services do people with musculoskeletal
127   II,     5.  7.  5|                     audit measures in Renal Services. The NHS in England and
128   II,     5.  7.  5|                 service framework for renal services. Although CKD has hitherto
129   II,     5. 11.  6|                 that future demand for skin services is likely to increase due
130   II,     5. 11.  6|                     plan appropriate health services.~The second gap could be
131   II,     5. 11.  6|                    the increased demand for services.~ ~
132   II,     5. 14.  1|                 facilitate access to dental services for children and adults
133   II,     5. 14.  2|                     integral part of health services system. In Denmark, an advanced
134   II,     5. 14.  2|             recorded the number and type de services provided i.e. the number
135   II,     5. 14.  2|                     approach to periodontal services, in order to rationally
136   II,     5. 14.  3|                   provided by public health services and most countries of the
137   II,     5. 14.  3|                   established school dental services. Since 1989, privatization
138   II,     5. 14.  3|             decentralization of oral health services has been taking place and
139   II,     5. 14.  3|                  utilization of oral health services. Figure 5.14.3 illustrates
140   II,     5. 14.  3|                     obtaining needed dental services.~Several national surveys
141   II,     5. 14.  5|                      can access oral health services. Although meticulous oral
142   II,     5. 14.  5|              indicators overwhelming health services personnel in charge of epidemiological
143   II,     5. 14.  5|                 prevention into oral health services. Interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral
144   II,     5. 14.  5|                     reorienting oral health services towards primary oral health
145   II,     5. 14.  5|                primary oral health care and services that may better diminish
146   II,     5. 14.  5|                 facilitate access to dental services for children and adults
147   II,     5. 14.  5|               enrolled in primary oral care services, expanding the scope of
148   II,     5. 14.  5|                    activities. Primary care services need to be accessible to
149   II,     5. 14.  5|                    oral health service care services for vulnerable and underserved
150   II,     5. 14.  7|                       Access to oral health services is limited by factors such
151   II,     5. 15.  1|                 organisation of health care services, a condition is considered “
152   II,     5. 15.  5|                     health care and medical services in the field of rare diseases,
153   II,     5. 15.  5|                 range of highly specialised services of the highest quality.~ ~
154   II,     5. 15.  5|                   must remember that health services and medical care are not
155   II,     6.  3.  1|                     heterogeneity in health services organisation, in the way
156   II,     6.  3.  1|                     annual costs for health services for treating communicable
157   II,     6.  3.  2|                 participating hospitals and services as a measure of own performance
158   II,     6.  3.  3|                     on how to improve these services in the EU.~ ~
159   II,     6.  3.  3|                coverage with antenatal care services and supervised labour care
160   II,     6.  3.  4|                     direct impact on health services, the epidemic caused significant
161   II,     6.  4.  3|                     transport and essential services paralysed, heavy economic
162   II,     7.  1    |                    facilities, products and services, as well as the rules of
163   II,     7.  1    |              appliances, safety labels) and services (e.g. playgrounds, skiing
164   II,     7.  2    |                    policy and accounting of services e.g. – and with a specific
165   II,     7.  4    |             Injuries caused by products and services;~· Self-harm; and~· Interpersonal
166   II,     7.  4.  4|                 rules, training methods and services (Working Group of Governmental
167   II,     7.  4.  5|             injuries caused by products and services~ ~Ensuring high standards
168   II,     7.  4.  5|                    products and/or consumer services (i.e. tourism services,
169   II,     7.  4.  5|             consumer services (i.e. tourism services, sports and leisure services)
170   II,     7.  4.  5|                services, sports and leisure services) are numerous. Given the
171   II,     7.  4.  5|                   of safety of products and services.~ ~This information can
172   II,     7.  4.  5|                  the safety of products and services can be found at the web
173   II,     7.  4.  7|                  equitable access to goods, services and opportunities. (WHO,
174   II,     7.  5    |                environment and products and services safer, as well as by regulating
175   II,     7.  5    |                     administrationHealth services: Not all accidents and injuries
176   II,     7.  5    |                     care and rehabilitation services play a decisive role in
177   II,     7.  5    |             injuries caused by products and services; self-harm; interpersonal
178   II,     7.  5    |                sport injuries, products and services, suicide & self-harm, interpersonal
179   II,     7.  5    |                    activities, products and services (emergency room surveys),
180   II,     7.  5    |                     systems on products and services, in order to serve the needs
181   II,     8.  1.  5|                    quality support and care services, fostering accessibility
182   II,     8.  1.  5|                  accessibility of goods and services, and increasing the EU's
183   II,     8.  1.  5|                     accessibility of goods, services and infrastructures, and
184   II,     8.  2.  1|                     and deprived of minimum services and dignity. These persons
185   II,     8.  2.  1|                basic health and educational services, and excluded from ordinary
186   II,     8.  2.  1|                    absence of resources and services for this population does
187   II,     8.  2.  1|                 persons not known to formal services, those with mild levels
188   II,     8.  2.  1|                  outcomes and use of health services may be compared with those
189   II,     8.  2.  1|                     status or use of health services over time.~An emerging perspective
190   II,     8.  2.  1|                   to utilise generic health services, omission from public health
191   II,     8.  2.  1|                   generic health and social services as they age. Improving access
192   II,     8.  2.  2|              inability to afford refractive services for testing; insufficient
193   II,     8.  2.  2|                   medical and allied health services, pharmaceuticals, research
194   II,     8.  2.  2|               comprehensive eye health-care services are integrated into well
195   II,     9        |                     also impacts the use of services and intervention during
196   II,     9        |                 antenatal preventive health services. Finally, perinatal health
197   II,     9.  1.  1|                    risk factors; and health services. Core indicators are defined
198   II,     9.  1.  1|               country of origin~Health care services~C: Distribution of births
199   II,     9.  1.  1|                 quality of perinatal health services between countries. Paediatr
200   II,     9.  1.  1|            comparaison de l'experience de 9 services de gyneco-obstetrique situes
201   II,     9.  1.  2|                      social and educational services to improve the participation
202   II,     9.  1.  2|         rehabilitative research, policy and services.~ ~
203   II,     9.  1.  2|                     also impacts the use of services and intervention during
204   II,     9.  1.  2|                 antenatal preventive health services. Finally, perinatal health
205   II,     9.  1.  2|              procedures and organization of services within centres of excellence
206   II,     9.  1.  2|                   put changes in the health services into effect.~ ~However,
207   II,     9.  1.  2|                    the quality of screening services within Europe requires further
208   II,     9.  2.  1|                    society for provision of services including education and
209   II,     9.  2.  1|              including education and health services and wider facilities such
210   II,     9.  2.  2|                   and related pressures and services, it is therefore necessary
211   II,     9.  2.  2|                  public views on Commission services, it can now be used to assess
212   II,     9.  2.  2|           perceptions of safety of hospital services is one such example. The
213   II,     9.  2.  3|                  lists for child psychiatry services of various types. Equally
214   II,     9.  2.  3|               mental health and counselling services – in many locations a crisis
215   II,     9.  2.  3|                access to good mental health services when they need it, and indeed
216   II,     9.  2.  3|                     mental health needs and services, there is clearly a long
217   II,     9.  2.  3|                  reducing the suicide rate. Services and staff in many countries
218   II,     9.  2.  5|                Chapter 10.~ ~Healthcare and services~ ~Obviously, neither infants,
219   II,     9.  2.  5|              subsidiary principal of health services, there are many different
220   II,     9.  2.  6|                    health sector and health services are not the only determinants
221   II,     9.  2.  7|                     EU. European Commission Services Working Paper. DG Health
222   II,     9.  3.  1|                 chance to access integrated services while using inpatient beds
223   II,     9.  3.  1|               flossing; professional dental services, including oral examination,
224   II,     9.  3.  1|                    issues concerning health services see Chapter 11.~ ~
225   II,     9.  3.  1|                    which add value to their services, while bringing those services
226   II,     9.  3.  1|              services, while bringing those services to a measurable common European
227   II,     9.  3.  1|                 quality research and health services will be obtained at European
228   II,     9.  3.  2|                  Descriptions of healthcare services must measure interventions
229   II,     9.  3.  2|                   more information on other services provided to pregnant women
230   II,     9.  3.  2|                  care and routine follow-up services.~ ~Figure 9.3.2.4. Evolution
231   II,     9.  3.  2|                   and supply of infertility services explain the large differences
232   II,     9.  3.  2|                 quality of perinatal health services between countries. Paediatr
233   II,     9.  3.  2|            comparaison de l'experience de 9 services de gyneco-obstetrique situes
234   II,     9.  3.  3|              modernisation of sexual-health services, reduced waiting times in
235   II,     9.  4.  3|                diseases~ ~Preventive health services such as immunisation must
236   II,     9.  4.  5|                      i.e. medical or social services. Only one-third of such
237   II,     9.  4.  5|                  medical and long-term care services, the costs of which often
238   II,     9.  4.  5|                   to provide quality health services. In June 2001, the Gothenburg
239   II,     9.  4.  5|                 provide more cost-effective services? The Member States' replies
240   II,     9.  4.  5|               provisions and long-term care services for the elderly. Achieving
241   II,     9.  4.  5|           employment. The health and social services sector is already a large
242   II,     9.  4.  5|             well-being. Equity of access to services is critical. It is often
243   II,     9.  4.  5|             innovative, ICT-based products, services and systems for Europe's
244   II,     9.  4.  5|                 with more accessible online services; and to enjoy a healthier
245   II,     9.  4.  5|                    of innovative integrated services in each partner country
246   II,     9.  4.  7|                     for liaison psychiatric services for older adults. Age and
247   II,     9.  5.  2|                     and women access health services. The Report , due to be
248   II,     9.  5.  2|                   of health and social care services;~- Provide an evidence base
249   II,     9.  5.  3|             domestic violence to the health services appears to be high. Victims
250   II,     9.  5.  3|                     gardening, shopping and services, construction and repairs.
251   II,     9.  5.  4|                frequently, workplace health services are likely to offer strong
252  III,    10.  1    |                   finds access to essential services; 5) overarching determinants
253  III,    10.  1.  3|               alcohol and domestic violence services. Recent Dev Alcohol 13:387-
254  III,    10.  2.  1|                health care and nursing home services) for smoking related diseases
255  III,    10.  2.  1|                     costs related to social services). A more comprehensive estimate
256  III,    10.  2.  1|              inclusion of tobacco cessation services in national health programmes,
257  III,    10.  2.  1|                     on tobacco packaging;~· Services to treat tobacco dependence
258  III,    10.  2.  1|              Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
259  III,    10.  2.  1|                  environment and the health services available to treat problem
260  III,    10.  2.  1|                 designated drivers and ride services, such as the BOB campaign.
261  III,    10.  2.  1|                    for those providing drug services. This ’widening of brief’
262  III,    10.  2.  1|               social situation. Many health services in Europe have developed
263  III,    10.  2.  1|                 disease is only possible if services are oriented towards primary
264  III,    10.  2.  1|                     delivery of oral health services in countries and communities
265  III,    10.  2.  1|                   oral health education and services should be created and maintained (
266  III,    10.  2.  1|                   be integrated across food services, health education, physical
267  III,    10.  2.  1|           representatives of the Commission services concerned.~ ~Since it was
268  III,    10.  2.  1|                     on Community Preventive Services (2005): Public health strategies
269  III,    10.  2.  1|                     on Community Preventive Services. Mortality and Morbidity
270  III,    10.  2.  4|            harmonisation of genetic testing services in the EU” (Ibarreta et
271  III,    10.  2.  4|                  pharmaceuticals and health services the “Health in all Policies”
272  III,    10.  2.  4|                disease, the organisation of services and the communications with
273  III,    10.  2.  4|            harmonisation of genetic testing services in the EU, www ~ ~Khoury
274  III,    10.  3.  2|                     and European Commission Services.~ ~· European Chemicals
275  III,    10.  3.  4|                large share of the ecosystem services will be adversely impacted
276  III,    10.  3.  4|                  patients seeking emergency services . Toxic gaseous and particulate
277  III,    10.  4.  1|                     the European Commission Services.~ ~WHO EURO, within it’s
278  III,    10.  4.  2|                Member States and Commission services to take coordinated measures
279  III,    10.  4.  2|              consumers where goods, people, services and money are guaranteed
280  III,    10.  4.  2|              Together with other Commission services, the FVO evaluates the action
281  III,    10.  4.  4|                    products and/or consumer services (i.e. tourism services,
282  III,    10.  4.  4|             consumer services (i.e. tourism services, sports and leisure services)
283  III,    10.  4.  4|                services, sports and leisure services) are numerous. Given the
284  III,    10.  4.  4|                    the area of products and services safety. This information
285  III,    10.  4.  4|                  the safety of products and services can be found at the web
286  III,    10.  5.  1|                  technological advances and services that are supportive to health (
287  III,    10.  5.  1|                heating technologies; health services; etc.). However, human settlement
288  III,    10.  5.  1|                provide adequate shelter and services to the household members.
289  III,    10.  5.  1|                    out by the Public Health Services found that water in 70%
290  III,    10.  5.  1|                  the provision of shops and services. The major benefits of such
291  III,    10.  5.  1|               conditions, infrastructure or services. The directives relate to
292  III,    10.  5.  2|                     space, the provision of services and infrastructures or the
293  III,    10.  5.  2|               adequate heath care and other services as the area’s populations
294  III,    10.  5.  2|                  demand for health and care services within rural settings. Finally,
295  III,    10.  5.  2|                   challenge to rural health services. Mostly, this increased
296  III,    10.  5.  2|                provision of adequate health services. According to Eurofound (
297  III,    10.  5.  2|                   Problems accessing health services in urban and rural areas (
298  III,    10.  5.  2|                    accessibility of medical services, and that this challenge
299  III,    10.  5.  2|                    the provision of medical services.~Lopez-Abuin et al. (2005)
300  III,    10.  5.  2|                  are related to distance to services, lack of specialists and
301  III,    10.  5.  2|                 equipment, and the need for services out-of-hour times. The British
302  III,    10.  5.  2|                     the provision of health services in rural settings. Based
303  III,    10.  5.  2|               extensive provision of health services compared to the urban settlers.
304  III,    10.  5.  2|                      This lack of access to services is a frequent problem identified
305  III,    10.  5.  2|                  more on the lack of health services than on the lack of good
306  III,    10.  5.  2|                   even identify the lack of services as a causal factor for increased
307  III,    10.  5.  2|                   less sophisticated health services in rural settings, while
308  III,    10.  5.  2|                   relevance of rural health services, but there are no clear
309  III,    10.  5.  2|               stabilization of rural health services. However, to some extent,
310  III,    10.  5.  2|                   extent, health and health services may be part of general European
311  III,    10.  5.  2|                    health status and health services per settlement categories
312  III,    10.  5.  2|                     of primary medical care services and population health and
313  III,    10.  5.  2|           indicators in England. BMC Health Services Research 2004, 4:12.~[http://
314  III,    10.  5.  2|             Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research (NIVEL) (2006):
315  III,    10.  5.  2|             Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research, Utrecht) at the
316  III,    10.  5.  2|             Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research~NRHA~National Rural
317  III,    10.  5.  3|                     in access to preventive services (especially with respect
318  III,    10.  5.  3|                 companies as well as public services are affected by diseases
319  III,    10.  5.  3|                    the access to preventive services (especially with respect
320  III,    10.  5.  3|               accelerated the shift towards services and their outsourcing at
321  III,    10.  5.  3|                 delivering new products and services and on the other hand, the
322  III,    10.  5.  3|                   to industrial employment, services went up as a share of global
323  III,    10.  5.  3|                     in developed countries. Services include wholesale and retail
324  III,    10.  5.  3|                      community and personal services and domestic service.~Many
325  III,    10.  5.  3|                delivering health and social services care in the community, thus
326  III,    10.  5.  3|                competition for products and services feeds through into pressures
327  III,    10.  5.  3|                    women work in the caring services where there are high risks
328  III,    10.  5.  3|                     the Occupational Health Services Convention (ILO- No:C161),
329  III,    10.  5.  3|                 develop occupational health services for all workers. However,
330  III,    10.  5.  3|                   basic occupational health services (WHO, 2007). WHO Member
331  III,    10.  5.  3|               access to occupational health services; provide and communicate
332  III,    10.  5.  3|                  external experts, e.g. OSH services, or assign OSH duties to
333  III,    10.  5.  3|                 preventive workplace health services in Europe.~The concept of
334  III,    10.  5.  3|              behaviour and access to health services. Therefore, further improvement
335  III,    10.  5.  3|                     in access to preventive services, especially with respect
336  III,    10.  6.  2|                     housing and health care services are obvious prerequisites
337  III,    10.  6.  2|                     Accessibility of health services~ ~While health care systems
338  III,    10.  6.  2|                 rates, and access to health services.~ ~A major challenge is
339  III,    10.  6.  2|             cultural barriers to the use of services. The Structural funds will
340  III,    10.  6.  2|                    to care and have adapted services to reach those who have
341  III,    10.  6.  2|                   in accessing conventional services due to physical or mental
342  III,    10.  6.  2|                 children. Originally, these services aimed at evaluating the
343  III,    10.  6.  2|                  early detection and on the services available. All children
344  III,    10.  6.  3|                  equitable access to goods, services and opportunities.~ ~The
345   IV               |                   DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES~ ~
346   IV,    11        |                                  11. HEALTH SERVICES~ ~
347   IV,    11.  1    |                   the performance of health services~ ~ ~
348   IV,    11.  1.  1|             resources; financing; providing services; and stewardship. The objectives
349   IV,    11.  1.  1|                    care represent important services in European health and social
350   IV,    11.  1.  3|                    responsibility of health services away from central government
351   IV,    11.  1.  4|             delivery of high quality health services to their populations. Indeed,
352   IV,    11.  1.  4|                    or utilization of health services by factors unrelated to
353   IV,    11.  1.  4|              comprehensive basket of health services has been achieved in all
354   IV,    11.  1.  4|                    Europe, many health care services are free at the point of
355   IV,    11.  1.  4|               including the distribution of services and individualsmobility
356   IV,    11.  1.  4|                 insurance to access certain services more quickly than those
357   IV,    11.  1.  4|                      awareness of available services, knowledge of and ability
358   IV,    11.  1.  4|                 equity in the use of health services tend to show a disproportionate
359   IV,    11.  1.  4|                   in a year. For specialist services, however, most countries
360   IV,    11.  1.  4|                    provision of health care services are more effective (Mackenbach
361   IV,    11.  1.  4|                Section 11.4.2 Public Health Services).~ ~
362   IV,    11.  1.  5|          technologies. Process measures the services actually provided or administered.
363   IV,    11.  1.  5|           information and clinical pharmacy services are needed in the hospital
364   IV,    11.  1.  5|                    and medicine information services based in hospitals have
365   IV,    11.  1.  5|                  experiences and additional services. Each indicator is weighed,
366   IV,    11.  1.  5|                    to a specified volume of services. Similarly, outcomes targets
367   IV,    11.  1.  5|                  half for health and social services. The highest ratings of
368   IV,    11.  1.  5|                   of health and also social services can be seen in Austria.
369   IV,    11.  1.  5|                 Perceived quality of public services~ ~Patient safety~ ~Patient
370   IV,    11.  1.  6|                  are committed to providing services. The number of patients
371   IV,    11.  1.  6|                    number of patients seen, services provided, and the cost of
372   IV,    11.  1.  6|                   provided, and the cost of services do not affect the payment.
373   IV,    11.  1.  6|                   salaries remain linked to services as they must come from the
374   IV,    11.  1.  6|                     provider to insure that services are provided to the user
375   IV,    11.  1.  6|                agrees to provide all agreed services and bares the risk that
376   IV,    11.  1.  6|                 agrees to obtain the agreed services only from the designated
377   IV,    11.  1.  6|                activity increased by adding services to existing patients, not
378   IV,    11.  1.  6|                     GPs were taking on more services previously provided by specialists (
379   IV,    11.  1.  6|              fee-for-service for preventive services).~Fee-for-service.~Salary,
380   IV,    11.  1.  6|              fee-for-service for preventive services, not exceeding 7% of annual
381   IV,    11.  1.  6|                fee-for-service for selected services, target payments for immunization),
382   IV,    11.  1.  6|                      plus fees for specific services (surgery and prevention) (
383   IV,    11.  1.  6|                     provision of preventive services, improve clinical outcomes
384   IV,    11.  1.  6|                 system for funding hospital services. Many countries currently
385   IV,    11.  1.  6|                 savings. In Italy, costs of services have fallen along with the
386   IV,    11.  2    |                    for acute care (personal services) and preventive care (public
387   IV,    11.  2    |                     the provision of health services include the shifting of
388   IV,    11.  2.  1|                            11.2.1. Personal services~ ~Primary care is the first
389   IV,    11.  2.  1|             populations, and to make health services more accessible to the public (
390   IV,    11.  2.  1|                   specialist and diagnostic services, while others offer direct
391   IV,    11.  2.  1|                    with more duplication of services and lower levels of equity
392   IV,    11.  2.  2|                       11.2.2. Public health services~ ~Public health can be defined
393   IV,    11.  2.  2|                      It differs from health services in its focus on the population
394   IV,    11.  3    |                  regulation and delivery of services. The resources a system
395   IV,    11.  4    |               professional aspectsHealth services researchOrganisational
396   IV,    11.  5.  4|               countries with well-developed services, there are considerable
397   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  population, and purchasing services (Kutzin 2001). The methods
398   IV,    11.  6.  2|               pooling and purchasing health services vary across Europe and have
399   IV,    11.  6.  2|                 private insurance generally services richer and better educated
400   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  systems), cost sharing for services in the public benefits package (
401   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  verify the users of health services had paid their contributions (
402   IV,    11.  6.  2|                additional or higher quality services than offered through the
403   IV,    11.  6.  2|                insurance provides cover for services excluded or not fully covered
404   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  for co-payments for public services.~ ~Since 2000, PHI has grown
405   IV,    11.  6.  2|                     unofficial payments for services that should be fully funded
406   IV,    11.  6.  2|                excess utilization of health services by creating price signals
407   IV,    11.  6.  2|                     first forego the use of services that are either harmful
408   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  necessary from unnecessary services (Abel-Smith, 1994; Kutzin,
409   IV,    11.  6.  2|                 place some cost sharing for services covered by the benefits
410   IV,    11.  6.  2|                    for ambulatory physician services and inpatient care. Among
411   IV,    11.  6.  2|                      In Portugal, physician services are free at the point of
412   IV,    11.  6.  2|                   sharing for at least some services, as noted above, certain
413   IV,    11.  6.  2|                   reduced rates for certain services or for all covered medical
414   IV,    11.  6.  2|                     for all covered medical services. These special rates typically
415   IV,    11.  6.  2|                    Type of drug~ ~Pregnancy services:~- Estonia~- Finland~- Italy~-
416   IV,    11.  6.  2|                     for Policies and Health Services revealed that 39% of people
417   IV,    11.  6.  2|                   fees or gifts for medical services in 2001, while 33% of people
418   IV,    11.  6.  2|                  access the same quality of services, or have to wait longer
419   IV,    11.  6.  3|              equally entitled to healthcare services, regardless of previous
420   IV,    11.  6.  3|                  also skew the provision of services to favour the higher income
421   IV,    11.  6.  4|                    which to purchase health services for their population; and
422   IV,    11.  6.  4|                health boards~No capitation. Services funded based on DRGs~Italy~
423   IV,    11.  6.  4|                   purchasers of health care services.~ ~Defining benefits and
424   IV,    11.  6.  4|                extending coverage to health services to the whole population.
425   IV,    11.  6.  4|                   many and expensive health services are increasing. Defining
426   IV,    11.  6.  4|                     a population for health services has been characterized in
427   IV,    11.  6.  4|                    character of the covered services; and height – the level
428   IV,    11.  6.  4|                sharing in the system; where services are not fully reimbursed
429   IV,    11.  6.  4|                   entitlement to healthcare services. Benefits packages are an
430   IV,    11.  6.  4|                  seen in England, where all services should be required as considered
431   IV,    11.  6.  4|                     and medically necessary services, so far no country has been
432   IV,    11.  6.  4|                  Switzerland, and for other services in ‘social courts’ in Austria
433   IV,    11.  6.  4|                developed and used to define services negatively or positively.~ ~
434   IV,    11.  6.  4|                     review existing and new services which will lead to an enhanced
435   IV,    11.  6.  4|                     accessibility to health services and on management costs,
436   IV,    11.  6.  5|                    of access to health care services: theory and evidence from
437   IV,    11.  6.  5|                     cost sharing for health services in the European Union. Euro
438   IV,    11.  6.  5|                    know." Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 4(2):
439   IV,    11.  6.  5|                 Finland." Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 3(1):
440   IV,    11.  6.  5|             Avoidablemortality and health services:a review of aggregate data
441   IV,    11.  6.  5|            Physician Organizations." Health Services Research 39(5): 1589-606.~ ~
442   IV,    11.  6.  5|                     The Supply of Physician Services in OECD Countries. Paris,
443   IV,    11.  6.  5|                  scheme?" Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6: 145-
444   IV,    11.  6.  5|                     Cost sharing for health services in the European Union. Brussels,
445   IV,    12.  1    |                  market for goods, persons, services and capitals is one of the
446   IV,    12.  1    |                delivery of their own health services and medical care (Article
447   IV,    12.  1    |            professionals;~ ~Art. 49 and 50 (services, including medical and sanitary
448   IV,    12.  1    |              including medical and sanitary services)~ ~Art. 95 (3), (6) and (
449   IV,    12.  1    |                 policy, stating that health services~“…shall fall within the
450   IV,    12.  1    |         organisation and delivery of health services and medical care. In particular,
451   IV,    12.  1    |                     co-ordinating of health services received E112 etc) Co-ordinating
452   IV,    12.  1    |               choice'~ ~Internal Market~and Services~Freedom to~provide and~consume
453   IV,    12.  1    |              Freedom to~provide and~consume services~Directive on Services~common
454   IV,    12.  1    |               consume services~Directive on Services~common internal~market rules~ ~
455   IV,    12.  2    |              preventive and epidemiological services, and to improve cancer outcomes
456   IV,    12.  2    |               cancer outcomes with clinical services. It involves a wide range
457   IV,    12.  2    |               access to high-quality health services for people living with diabetes
458   IV,    12.  2    |              inclusion of tobacco cessation services in national health programmes,
459   IV,    12.  2    |              warnings on tobacco packaging;~Services to treat tobacco dependence
460   IV,    12.  2    |                 environment, and the health services available to treat problem
461   IV,    12.  2    |                 designated drivers and ride services, such as the BOB campaign.
462   IV,    12.  3    |                  files and the “ Smart Open Servicesproject.~ ~Moreover, the
463   IV,    12.  4    |           disabilities to social and health services;~European Social Fund; Open
464   IV,    12.  4    |            deployment of e-Health tools and services.~JLS~Illegal Drugs; Immigration
465   IV,    12.  4    |          negotiations re: Health and social services and services of health~Professionals~
466   IV,    12.  4    |                     and social services and services of health~Professionals~
467   IV,    12.  4    |              strategic advice to Commission services. Following the mad cow crisis,
468   IV,    12.  4    |                  High Level Group on Health Services and Medical Care established
469   IV,    12.  4    |           information strategies for health services;~· hospital performances (
470   IV,    12.  5    |                    mental health and health services). A Network of Competent
471   IV,    12.  6    |                together with the Commission services, in charge of the preparation
472   IV,    12.  8    |        collaboration between the Commission services, EFTA countries, the Council
473   IV,    12.  8    |                    health-related goods and services, and the environment.~ ~
474   IV,    12.  8    |                     the European Commission services meet regularly to agree
475   IV,    12. 10    |              European cooperation on health services~High~National/Regional~Yes~
476   IV,    12. 10    |               screening visits, consultancy services and the Smiley scheme, mental
477   IV,    12. 10    |                 rehabilitative measures are services of the German social insurance
478   IV,    12. 10    |                     level of health related services or products is addressed
479   IV,    12. 10    |                    Act; Act on primary care services which should alleviate inequalities
480   IV,    12. 10    |                  State law on Public Health Services. A law on prevention currently
481   IV,    12. 10    |                     annual National Hygiene~Services Quality Review~(last review
482   IV,    12. 10    |                      monitoring and support services.~Poverty~High~ ~ No specific
483   IV,    12. 10    |                   in 2007~(Interim National Services Users Executive)~ ~Introduction
484   IV,    12. 10    |                  Action Plan for the health services up to 2010~http ~ ~European
485   IV,    12. 10    |                     Presenting to Treatment~Services with Serious Drug Problems~
486   IV,    12. 10    |                re-orientating its addiction services~to meet changing patterns
487   IV,    12. 10    |              European cooperation on health services~Intermediate~Specific specialities
488   IV,    12. 10    |                     within the Irish health services would have formal and informal
489   IV,    12. 10    |              informal contacts with similar services in other EU member states
490   IV,    12. 10    |                     by the State, purchases services either at home or abroad,
491   IV,    12. 10    |             delivery of some hospital based services to Irish citizens.~Patients
492   IV,    12. 10    |                   very limited numbers seek services~abroad outside of these
493   IV,    12. 10    |               Executive (HSE) on how health services are been delivered and managed.~ ~ ~ ~
494   IV,    12. 10    |                  health and personal social services – it replaced and assumed
495   IV,    12. 10    |                     formalised for planning services and monitoring activity
496   IV,    12. 10    |                  health and personal social services by setting and monitoring
497   IV,    12. 10    |                   Chief Inspector of Social Services which has specific statutory
498   IV,    12. 10    |                   and Improvement of health services~Some Key Policy /Service
499   IV,    12. 10    |              strategic policy direction for services for children;~· Monitoring
500   IV,    12. 10    |                   expansion of primary care services and the development of Primary