1-500 | 501-594
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2        |            expected to rise. A recent study estimates that the figure
  2    I,     2.  4        |        Western Europe. For example, a study looking at differences in
  3    I,     2.  5        |           life for the employees. The study, entitledHigh performance
  4    I,     2.  6        |              after varying lengths of study, according to different
  5    I,     2.  7        |         socio-economic and geographic study conducted by researchers
  6    I,     2. 10.  4    |               Spain, an Adverse Event Study indicated that 9.3% of hospital
  7    I,     2. 10.  4    |      dispensing system in May 2003. A study in the hospital pharmacy
  8    I,     2. 10.  4    |            and distributed. An EHMA16 study indicated that 30-50% of
  9   II,     4.  1        |      Community Household Panel (ECHP) study run between 1995 and 2001.
 10   II,     4.  1        |              However, the feasibility study for the adoption of the
 11   II,     4.  1        |             in EU15~ ~In summary, the study suggested a slightly slower
 12   II,     5.  1.  1    |          major risk factor for COPD.A study by Lundback (2003) showed
 13   II,     5.  2.  4    |             et al, 2004) case-control study, conducted in patients with
 14   II,     5.  2.  5    |            also confirmed by a recent study looking at the decline in
 15   II,     5.  2.  6    |          insights from the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 110: 1100-1107.~
 16   II,     5.  2.  6    |              men (the Zutphen Elderly Study). J Hypertens 14: 1159-1166.~
 17   II,     5.  2.  7    |            The Italian Progetto CUORE study [htt rg/doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.
 18   II,     5.  2.  7    |             countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet
 19   II,     5.  2.  7    |       INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 364: 937-952.~ ~ ~
 20   II,     5.  3.  2    |            Schools of Economics. This study, looking at 19 European
 21   II,     5.  3.  3    |               taken from the EUROCARE study where historically only
 22   II,     5.  3.  6    |               the largest cooperative study of population-based cancer
 23   II,     5.  3.  6    |       participating in the EUROCARE-4 study. 5-year period relative
 24   II,     5.  3.  9    |             results of the EUROCARE-4 study. Lancet Oncology 8 (9):773-
 25   II,     5.  3.  9    |              A EUROCARE Working Group Study. JCO 23(16): 3742-3751.~ ~
 26   II,     5.  4.  1    |           involving costs. The CODE-2 study has measured the health
 27   II,     5.  4.  1    |             of costs (55%). A Swedish study (Jonsson et al 2000) observed
 28   II,     5.  4.  3    |        currently being studied (TRIGR study group. 2007). A steady increase
 29   II,     5.  4.  7    |         program or an epidemiological study, that can all contribute
 30   II,     5.  4.  8    |            October 2008)~EURODIAB ACE Study Group (2000): Variation
 31   II,     5.  4.  8    |              Tayside Scotland (DARTS) study: electronic record linkage
 32   II,     5.  4.  8    |                The EURODIAB Subarea C Study Group Epidemiology.;4(5):
 33   II,     5.  4.  8    |               13225-31~TRIG p (2007): Study design of the Trial to Reduce
 34   II,     5.  5.Acr    |               Disease~ESEMeD~European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental
 35   II,     5.  5.Int    |              Global Burden of Disease Study17, judged depression in
 36   II,     5.  5.Int(19)|               Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts.
 37   II,     5.  5.  1    |             suicide. Furthermore, one study found over 50 percent of
 38   II,     5.  5.  1    |           premature loss of life. One study estimated that economic
 39   II,     5.  5.  1    |               symptoms: E.g. the HBSC study, a large survey of schoolchildren,
 40   II,     5.  5.  1    |         schoolchildren, and the SHARE study, a collaborative European
 41   II,     5.  5.  1    |        anxiety disorders~ ~The ESEMeD study is based on a sample of
 42   II,     5.  5.  1    |              during 12 months, ESEMeD Study.~ ~Anxiety and mood disorders
 43   II,     5.  5.  1    |          According to a Eurobarometer study, high psychological distress
 44   II,     5.  5.  1    |             results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental
 45   II,     5.  5.  1    |             results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental
 46   II,     5.  5.  1    |            key data from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mentl
 47   II,     5.  5.  1    |               results from the ESEMED study. Journal of Affective Disorders,
 48   II,     5.  5.  1    |              the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Göttingen:
 49   II,     5.  5.  2    |               EUROSTAT.~ ~The EURODEM study~ ~EURODEM stands for European
 50   II,     5.  5.  2    |               90-94 and 95-99).~ ~The study included people who had
 51   II,     5.  5.  2    |              countries covered in the study were Germany, France, Italy,
 52   II,     5.  5.  2    |           dementia.~ ~The Ferri et al study~ ~A second, more recent
 53   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 A second, more recent study was carried out by Ferri
 54   II,     5.  5.  2    |         International (ADI). For this study, 12 international experts
 55   II,     5.  5.  2    |              approach adopted by each study, there are differences in
 56   II,     5.  5.  2    |      prevalence rates. In the EURODEM study, for example, a prevalence
 57   II,     5.  5.  2    |            whereas in the Ferri et al study, this was not the case.
 58   II,     5.  5.  2    |               case. Also, the EURODEM study calculated separate prevalence
 59   II,     5.  5.  2    |          dementia: a Delphi consensus study. The Lancet, Vol. 366, December
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |             ILSA~Italian Longitudinal Study on Ageing~MSA~Multiple System
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |               cross-national research study carried out by the WHO Regional
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |                X~There is no national study on bulimia and anorexia
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |               exist no extra national study on bulimia and anorexia
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Europe)~ ~A third European study titled Healthy Lifestyle
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |          regard, a prospective cohort study with a 5 year follow-up
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |            making and actions, whilst study results should strongly
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |               on behalf of the HELENA Study Group (2007): Nutritional
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |            the 1996 Burden of disease study – although not congruent
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Global burden of disease study (Mathers and Loncar, 2006)
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |              A recent epidemiological study in Sweden evaluated that
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS) was also initiated.
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |      prospective trans-national field study of the prodrome and moderating
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |               treatments, because the study population is usually not
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |         strict exclusion criteria and study duration limited to some
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |           were linked to the European Study on Epidemiology of Mental
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |              findings of the European Study on Epidemiology of Mental
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |      disorders were treated. A Nordic study on people with schizophrenia
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |   schizophrenia (Sato, 2006). A pilot study recently published in Italy (
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |              relativesview: A pilot study in an Italian rehabilitation
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |           population-based controlled study.~J Gen Intern Med 21(11):
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Sweden: An epidemiological study. Nordic J. of Psychiatry
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Grobbee DE, for the EUFEST study group (2008): Effectiveness
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS): integrating early
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Sörgaard KW (2001):The Nordic Study on schizophrenic patients
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |    Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA 264 (19):2511-2518.~
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |       possible to make comparisons. A study published in 2004 (Blaxill,
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |              carried out a prevalence study in 2002. This study included
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |        prevalence study in 2002. This study included approximately 10
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |           ADDM) Network. The previous study, developed in 2000, found
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |         communities studied. The 2002 study found ASD rates ranging
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |             risk factors for ASD. The study of risk factors has contributed
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |           half of the variation among study estimates can be explained
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |              factors were whether the study was in a rural or urban
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |            planning an ASD prevalence study in Europe. This is a relevant
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |          information and this sort of study requires thorough planning
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the EAIS project is the study of the Financial Burden
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |      ascertainment or by flaws in the study design.~Based on these findings,
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |           case identification and the study design.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |            the local environment, the study design and the extent of
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |            have been observed. In one study (Cockerell et al, 1995)
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Icelandic and the French study can be mostly explained
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and Baltic countries. In a study made on children in Estonia (
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |               0 per 1,000. In another study of childhood epilepsies
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of epilepsy reports. In a study made in Wales, U.K., a strong
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |             in a Swedish case-control study (Nilsson et al, 2002), after
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 In a population-based study comparing SMR and SUDEP
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |          occurred. A population-based study done in the UK on the long-term
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Anonymous, 2003). An old study made on the Isle of Wight
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1970). A more recent UK study showed 53% of children with
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |               An international cohort study involving Western and Eastern
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |          patients. For this reason, a study of the geographic and temporal
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |          results of a European cohort study. Epilepsia 43:1076-1083.~
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |               children: a prospective studyNeurology 56:1445-1452.~
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in children: a follow-up study three years after the first
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |              with epilepsy: the Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood.
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |          prospective population-based study. Epilepsia 37:224-229.~Forsgren
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |           knowledge, private grief: a study of public attitudes to epilepsy
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |           seizure: a population-based study. Epilepsia 41:1469-1473.~
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |            epilepsy: an observational study in an unselected population
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |           seizure: a population-based study. Epilepsia 40:1388-1392.~
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Sudden death in epilepsy : a study of incidence in a young
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |       mortality in epilepsy: a cohort study of more than 9,000 patients
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |              epilepsy: a case control study. Epilepsia 43:644-651.~Nilsson
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |          seizures: a population-based study. Epilepsia 39:89-92.~Olafsson
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |         classification: a prospective study. Lancet Neurol 4:627-634.~
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepsy: an epidemiological study. Epilepsia 17:361-366.~Pedley
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |             1970): A neuropsychiatric study in childhood. Clin Dev Med
129   II,     5.  5.  3    | community-based prospective incidence study of epileptic seizures in
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |      complications: a European cohort study. Epilepsia 45: 667-672.~
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the Bologna Group for the Study of Status Epilepticus (2003):
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |                such as hospital-based study designs and under-reporting,
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |             ratio of 2.0. In the same study the total median age at
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of the assessment and the study specific purposes, only
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |          could not be included in the study estimates.~A patient with
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |             individual redress.~A new study on MS and employment in
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |               countries, with varying study designs that preclude a
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |         primary objectives of the new study are to generate data that
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |       employment. The outcomes of the study will be published on an
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |  population-based 50 year prospective study. Clinical Neurology and
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prevalence and incidence study. Acta Neurol Scand 109:378-
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |               R (2002). A prospective study of the incidence, prevalence
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |              a descriptive nationwide study. Neuroepidemiology 11:1-
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |              1998a): An epidemiologic study of multiple sclerosis in
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Hawkins SA (1998b): Clinical study of primary progressive multiple
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |         sclerosis: a population-based study. Mult Scler 7:111-117.~McGuigan
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |         sclerosis: an epidemiological study in the province of Groningen,
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |              sclerosis: a comparative study of four centres in Europe.
149   II,     5.  5.  3    |             from a multinational cost study. Mult Scler 13(8):1054-64.
150   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the Italian longitudinal study on ageing (ILSA) (Baldereschi
151   II,     5.  5.  3    |               000 was obtained from a study of parkinsonism in nursing
152   II,     5.  5.  3    |             HYV, while in the English study, only 27% of patients were
153   II,     5.  5.  3    |     probability of participation in a study because they are more likely
154   II,     5.  5.  3    |             al (in which 10.2% of the study population was confined
155   II,     5.  5.  3    |         increased SMR. One Australian study, which followed PD patients
156   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Cost of illness~A recent study, which was promoted by the
157   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of the EBC pan-European study (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005)
158   II,     5.  5.  3    |             not known. In an American study, Gorell et al (1999) investigated
159   II,     5.  5.  3    |           increase considerably. In a study the projected number of
160   II,     5.  5.  3    |         population-based, prospective study. J Am Geriatr Soc 48(8):
161   II,     5.  5.  3    |        parkinsonism in a longitudinal study: two-fold higher incidence
162   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Group. Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Neurology 55(9):
163   II,     5.  5.  3    |            the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology 45(12):2143-2146.~
164   II,     5.  5.  3    |           EUROPARKINSON Collaborative Study. European Community Concerted
165   II,     5.  5.  3    |               disease: a case-control study in southeastern Sweden.
166   II,     5.  5.  3    |                The sydney multicentre study of Parkinson’s disease:
167   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2005): Sydney Multicenter Study of Parkinson’s disease:
168   II,     5.  5.  3    |                a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. Journal of
169   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Results from the German Study on Epidemiology of Parkinson170   II,     5.  5.  3    |            disease. A community-based study. Brain 123:2297-2305.~Singer
171   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Authority, United Kingdom. A study of prevalence and disability.
172   II,     5.  6.  3    |           1989).~ ~A large population study, The Calderdale study (Badley
173   II,     5.  6.  3    |      population study, The Calderdale study (Badley and Tennant, 1993),
174   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Swedish Cost of Illness Study, musculoskeletal conditions
175   II,     5.  6.  3    |              accounted for 4.8%. This study only considered medical
176   II,     5.  6.  3    |             al, 2003). For example, a study of women aged 45-65 in the
177   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Global Burden of Disease study that approximately 10% of
178   II,     5.  6.  3    |            and hip (Woolf, 2007). One study showed obesity to result
179   II,     5.  6.  3    |        severity of RA in a population study using 1987 ARA criteria
180   II,     5.  6.  3    |             65 or more. A multicentre study in the United Kingdom found
181   II,     5.  6.  3    |        European countries in the EVOS study (ONeill et al, 2001). Vertebral
182   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Prospective Osteoporosis Study (European Prospective Osteoporosis
183   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Prospective Osteoporosis Study, 2002). Similar figures
184   II,     5.  6.  3    |              of incidence but a large study from the Netherlands reported
185   II,     5.  6.  4    |            diagnosis, but a Norwegian study found that 33% of those
186   II,     5.  6.  6    |               in a Swedish population study. J Rheumatol 28:1369-1377~
187   II,     5.  6.  6    |               women: an observational study. Lancet 353:878-882~Combe
188   II,     5.  6.  6    |               1993): Population-based study of survival after osteoporotic
189   II,     5.  6.  6    |              fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
190   II,     5.  6.  6    |              Prospective Osteoporosis Study Group (2002): Incidence
191   II,     5.  6.  6    |              prospective osteoporosis study (EPOS). J Bone Miner Res
192   II,     5.  6.  6    |            Surgery: a Cross-Sectional Study. Rheumatology(Oxford) 42(
193   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Rochester, Minnesota: a study of incidence, prevalence,
194   II,     5.  6.  6    |               fracture: a prospective study. J Gerontol 45:M101-M107~
195   II,     5.  6.  6    |          Netherlands: cost of illness study. BMJ 317:111-115~Melton
196   II,     5.  6.  6    |               fracture: a prospective study over 1 year. Osteoporos
197   II,     5.  6.  6    |               criteria: The Chingford Study. Arthritis Rheum 34, S171~ ~
198   II,     5.  6.  6    |             illness: the Whitehall II Study. Soc Sci Med 40:189-197~
199   II,     5.  6.  6    |             World Health Organization Study Group. WHO Technical Report
200   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 2004). In the Swedish study (considering children and
201   II,     5.  7.  3    |            Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in the USA, a study which
202   II,     5.  7.  3    |             ARIC) Study in the USA, a study which enrolled individuals
203   II,     5.  7.  3    |               was noticed in a second study that examined NHANES data (
204   II,     5.  7.  3    |               In a recent comparative study (Hallan et al, 2006a) the
205   II,     5.  7.  7    |            adults: the AusDiab kidney study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14(
206   II,     5.  7.  7    |              of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999
207   II,     5.  7.  7    |              the pilot Spanish EPIRCE study. Kidney Int Suppl 2005 Dec;(
208   II,     5.  7.  7    |               F (2007): International Study of Health Care Organization
209   II,     5.  7.  7    |              Global Burden of Disease study. PLoS Med 1:e27.~Sarnak
210   II,     5.  8.  1    |              Global Burden of Disease study, which envisaged that COPD
211   II,     5.  8.  2    |             This was confirmed in the study by Viegi et al performed
212   II,     5.  8.  3    |           countries and Ireland. In a study by Lindberg et al. (2005),
213   II,     5.  8.  3    |              was reported. In another study by the same authors, an
214   II,     5.  8.  3    |               in smokers (18.8%).~ ~A study by Johannessen et al (2005)
215   II,     5.  8.  3    |      framework of the Seven Countries Study, the 30-year cumulative
216   II,     5.  8.  3    |               al, 2006).~ ~In another study performed in Copenhagen,
217   II,     5.  8.  3    |              frequently underlined: a study reported rates ranging from
218   II,     5.  8.  3    |          Pulmonary Disease (NICECOPD) study, assessed the prevalence
219   II,     5.  8.  3    |             Housing and Health Status Study (WHO LARES) reported a prevalence
220   II,     5.  8.  3    |              al, 2007).~ ~The IBERPOC study, carried out in 7 geographical
221   II,     5.  8.  3    |              Global Burden of Disease Study (Murray and Lopez, 1997)
222   II,     5.  8.  3    |          asthma was found in a French study exploring deaths from COPD
223   II,     5.  8.  3    |         Furhman et al, 2006). In this study, cardiovascular disease,
224   II,     5.  8.  3    |               patients with COPD in a study by Calverley and Scott (
225   II,     5.  8.  3    |              to smoking.~ ~In another study, Gudmundsson et al (2007)
226   II,     5.  8.  3    |             and Health Status (LARES) study by Boutin-Forzano et al (
227   II,     5.  8.  3    |               were reported also in a study of 45 966 COPD patients
228   II,     5.  8.  3    |    age-matched control group~ ~ ~In a study by Soriano et al (2005),
229   II,     5.  8.  3    |               The Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam by Kriegsman et
230   II,     5.  8.  3    |           co-morbidity.~ ~Moreover, a study on the prevalence of nutritional
231   II,     5.  8.  3    |        disease severity.~ ~In another study, a small Danish population
232   II,     5.  8.  3    |            COPD would be helpful.~ ~A study by Mikkelsen et al (2004)
233   II,     5.  8.  3    |         reaching 47% . Moreover, in a study by Wagena et al (2004) smoker
234   II,     5.  8.  3    |         Carrasco Garrido, 2006). In a study by Sprenkle et al (2004),
235   II,     5.  8.  3    |              diseases.~ ~In the SCOPE study, performed in France, the
236   II,     5.  8.  3    |             Jansson et al, 2002).~ ~A study on the burden of COPD and
237   II,     5.  8.  4    |      framework of the Seven Countries Study, involving US, Finland,
238   II,     5.  8.  4    |              without it.~ ~In another study performed in Copenhagen,
239   II,     5.  8.  4    |               European Countries.~ ~A study by Lundback (2003) showed
240   II,     5.  8.  4    |          Siafakas et al, 1995). But a study by Soriano et al (2000)
241   II,     5.  8.  4    |            was confirmed in the ECRHS study, which proved that the female
242   II,     5.  8.  4    |             contradicted in the ECRHS study: COPD is already present
243   II,     5.  8.  4    |     Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study high exposures to dusts
244   II,     5.  8.  5    |               2000).~ ~An interesting study performed in Poland presented
245   II,     5.  8.  5    |               In the second part, the study involved a total of 110,
246   II,     5.  8.  7    |               Denmark -- a population study of COPD patients compared
247   II,     5.  8.  7    |          prevalence of COPD (the BOLD study): a population-base prevalence
248   II,     5.  8.  7    |            population-base prevalence study. Lancet; 370: 741-750.~ ~
249   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Respiratory Health Survey Study Group. An international
250   II,     5.  8.  7    |                SCOPE Group. The SCOPE study: health-care consumption
251   II,     5.  8.  7    |            disease: a cross sectional study. Respir Med 2007; 101: 177-
252   II,     5.  8.  7    |                the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Epidemiol
253   II,     5.  8.  7    |             COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population.
254   II,     5.  8.  7    |               from a population-based study. Arch Bronconeumol 40: 72-
255   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 349: 1498–1504.~ ~
256   II,     5.  8.  7    |       population sample: the NICECOPD study. Eur J Epidemiol 2005; 20:
257   II,     5.  8.  7    |       Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Study. Chest 2007; 131: 29-36.~ ~
258   II,     5.  8.  7    |          cross sectional case finding study. BMJ 2002; 324: 1370-1374.~ ~
259   II,     5.  8.  7    |               on behalf of the COSMIC Study Group. Prevalence of nutritional
260   II,     5.  8.  7    |        population-based observational study on prevalence and the relationship
261   II,     5.  8.  7    |                Antó Jm, and The ECRHS Study Group (2001): Occupation,
262   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Adults . An International Study Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care
263   II,     5.  9.Acr    |            Asthma~ISAAC~International Study of Asthma and Allergies
264   II,     5.  9.Acr    |               Childhood~ISAYA~Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults~
265   II,     5.  9.Acr    |              MAS~Multicentric Allergy Study~PASTURE~Protection Against
266   II,     5.  9. FB    |        development of atopy. A recent study made in Great Britain reported
267   II,     5.  9. FB    |       contrary, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (
268   II,     5.  9. FB    |          large randomized prospective study (the German Infant Nutrition
269   II,     5.  9. FB    |         Infant Nutrition Intervention Study) reported that extensively
270   II,     5.  9.  1    |          ECRHS) and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies
271   II,     5.  9.  2    |          results of a cross-sectional study by the World Allergy Organization (
272   II,     5.  9.  2    |              one is the International Study of Asthma and Allergies
273   II,     5.  9.  3    |             those obtained in another study (de Marco et al, 2002),
274   II,     5.  9.  3    |       representative, cross-sectional study carried out in Italy from
275   II,     5.  9.  3    |          participating to the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (
276   II,     5.  9.  3    |         wheeze at any time during the study period was reported. It
277   II,     5.  9.  3    |              costs in the future.~ ~A study on burden of COPD and asthma
278   II,     5.  9.  4    |             the sex ratio, a Scottish study questionnaire survey was
279   II,     5.  9.  4    |           manufacturing. The ECRHS-II study (The European Community
280   II,     5.  9.  4    |               per year.~ ~The SCARPOL Study (Swiss Study on Childhood
281   II,     5.  9.  4    |              The SCARPOL Study (Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and
282   II,     5.  9.  4    |          another survey, the PARSIFAL study (Alf T et al, 2006). Growing
283   II,     5.  9.  4    |              of house dust mites (MAS study, Multicentric Allergy Study).
284   II,     5.  9.  4    |           study, Multicentric Allergy Study). For cat epithelium, this
285   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Bousquet, 2007) The same study showed a substantial geographical
286   II,     5.  9.  4    |         European countries. The Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung
287   II,     5.  9.  4    |       epithelia (3.8%).~A very recent study investigated the prevalence
288   II,     5.  9.  4    |  questionnaire adopted in the Italian Study of Respiratory Disorders
289   II,     5.  9.  4    |          common allergens. An Italian study emphasized that Albanian
290   II,     5.  9.  4    |               A large cross-sectional study (SIDRIA II study, (Migliore
291   II,     5.  9.  4    |      cross-sectional study (SIDRIA II study, (Migliore et al, 2007)
292   II,     5.  9.  4    |             hazard of PM. The present study also showed that by clustering
293   II,     5.  9.  4    |         systemic allergy. The present study showed that biological effect
294   II,     5.  9.  4    |          human cell model in which to study the genotoxicity of complex
295   II,     5.  9.  4    |              European epidemiological study, partners are sampling and
296   II,     5.  9.  7    |             lifestyle -- the PARSIFAL study. Allergy. 2006 Apr;61(4):
297   II,     5.  9.  7    |              III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies
298   II,     5.  9.  7    |                       2002): The AIRE Study: data analysis of 753 European
299   II,     5.  9.  7    |               asthma: a retrospective study on the natural history of
300   II,     5.  9.  7    |          factors - a population-based study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol.
301   II,     5.  9.  7    |             Genetics in Asthma (INGA) Study Group. GSF-National Research
302   II,     5.  9.  7    |                 European birth cohort study on asthma and atopic diseases :
303   II,     5.  9.  7    |            diseases : I.Comparison of study design - a GA2LEN initiative.
304   II,     5.  9.  7    |               the results of SIDRIA-2 study. Allergy 2007; 62:293-300~ ~
305   II,     5.  9.  7    |               K (2004): A prospective study of asthma incidence and
306   II,     5.  9.  7    |             its predictors: the RHINE study. Eur Respir J 2004; 24:
307   II,     5.  9.  7    |           Spain), following the ISAAC study. An Pediatr (Barc). 2007
308   II,     5.  9.  7    |     increasing? Results of an Italian study. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
309   II,     5. 10.  2    |                a multicenter research study funded by the European Commission (
310   II,     5. 11.  3    |     dermatological diseases~ ~DISEASE~STUDY POPULATION~PREVALENCE~AUTHORS~
311   II,     5. 11.  3    | population-based, nested case-control study)~Prevalence=40% (any contact
312   II,     5. 11.  3    |               simple treatments. In a study of 695 school children in
313   II,     5. 11.  3    |               atopic eczema. A recent study has found that the prevalence
314   II,     5. 11.  3    |               a national birth cohort study (the National Child Development
315   II,     5. 11.  3    |            National Child Development Study or NCDS) pointed to considerable
316   II,     5. 11.  3    |            and K Norberg, 2005). In a study published in 2003, nickel
317   II,     5. 11.  3    |             1447-1461.~Boc A. A pilot study on the content and the release
318   II,     5. 11.  3    |               Finland – a multicentre study, Contact Dermatitis, 2005;
319   II,     5. 11.  3    |            thiosulfate. A comparative study, Contact Dermatitis, 1997;
320   II,     5. 11.  3    |            with contact dermatitis: a study using scanning electron
321   II,     5. 11.  3    |              are not available, but a study suggested that around 1%
322   II,     5. 11.  3    |           recorded separately in that study, while clinically significant
323   II,     5. 11.  3    |               of disease. The Lambeth study found a bimodal distribution
324   II,     5. 11.  3    |                Rea et al, 1976). This study did not distinguish between
325   II,     5. 11.  3    |              contact dermatitis and a study in Sweden found that 9%
326   II,     5. 11.  3    |           distribution to the Lambeth study probably corresponding to
327   II,     5. 11.  3    |              age group (Rea, 1976).~A study of an unselected population
328   II,     5. 11.  3    |        positive responses. In another study from Denmark, after validation
329   II,     5. 11.  3    |               Norwegian questionnaire study, the highest reported incidences
330   II,     5. 11.  3    |               health perspective. The study of such rare skin diseases
331   II,     5. 11.  7    |         population-based case-control study. Acta Derm Venereol 2001;
332   II,     5. 11.  7    |            dermatitis in Leicester: a study of methodology and examination
333   II,     5. 11.  7    |               in Lambeth: a community study of prevalence and use of
334   II,     5. 11.  7    |              Practice. Third National Study (1981-82). London: HMSO,
335   II,     5. 14.  2    |             criteria that differ from study to study, but a fall in
336   II,     5. 14.  2    |             that differ from study to study, but a fall in the prevalence
337   II,     5. 14.  3    |             Rock, 2004a). In the same study the authors found significant
338   II,     5. 15.  3    |           morbidity and mortality., A study was performed in 2001 (Drummond
339   II,     5. 15.  3    |              a precise ICD code. This study demonstrated that 75% of
340   II,     5. 15.  3    |              published an independent study on the price of orphan drugs (
341   II,     5. 15.  3    |             of orphan drugs (OD). The study, conducted by Alcimed, looks
342   II,     5. 15.  3    |        inequitable and unethical. The study stresses that “the 180 day
343   II,     5. 15.  6    |          References~ ~ALCIMED (2004): Study on Orphan Drugs. Published
344   II,     6.  3.  1    |              included. Also, a recent study in the Netherlands has estimated
345   II,     6.  3.  1    |              other than health). This study showed that for the Netherlands (
346   II,     8.  2.  1    |             areas (UK DoH, 2001).~ ~A study of two cohorts of children (
347   II,     8.  2.  1    |             had been found in another study carried out in a cohort
348   II,     8.  2.  1    |             an epidemiological census study among children under 15
349   II,     8.  2.  1    |        Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities.
350   II,     8.  2.  2    |          visual loss in the Ponza Eye Study, Italy. Eye 19:175-82~Pascolini
351   II,     8.  2.  3    |           been estimated as 0.1% in a study carried out in the Trent
352   II,     8.  2.  3    |              Table 8.5. An additional study carried out in 590 randomly
353   II,     9            |            medical genetics”, but the study of socioeconomic differences
354   II,     9            |             particularly difficult to study, as the drug use may be
355   II,     9            |              disability.~ ~The SENECA study demonstrated that a healthy
356   II,     9            |           reduced mortality risk. The study showed that even at ages
357   II,     9.  1.  1    |             EURO-PERISTAT feasibility study showed that these data are
358   II,     9.  1.  1    |       referral hospitals: descriptive study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod
359   II,     9.  1.  1    |           outcome: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;
360   II,     9.  1.  1    |            years prospective regional study in The Netherlands. Eur
361   II,     9.  1.  1    |               region: a retrospective study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod
362   II,     9.  1.  1    |        retrospective population based study. Bmj 1999;319(7217):1093-
363   II,     9.  1.  1    |                A Canadian multicentre study. Bjog 2002;109(7):740-5.~ ~
364   II,     9.  1.  1    |               Fetal and Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal
365   II,     9.  1.  1    |               Fetal and Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal
366   II,     9.  1.  1    |             Denmark: population based study. Bmj 2006;332(7547):937-
367   II,     9.  1.  1    |          European centres: a database study. Lancet 2007;369(9555):43-
368   II,     9.  1.  1    |               results from the MOSAIC study. Pediatrics 2007;120(4):
369   II,     9.  1.  1    |      extremely preterm birth. EPICure Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000;
370   II,     9.  1.  2    |            medical genetics”, but the study of socioeconomic differences
371   II,     9.  1.  2    |             particularly difficult to study, as the drug use may be
372   II,     9.  1.  2    |              Europe: Population Based Study", British Medical Journal,
373   II,     9.  1.  2    |         Arteries - A Population Based Study", Congenital Heart Diseases,
374   II,     9.  1.  2    |             European Population Based Study of Epidemiology, Prenatal
375   II,     9.  1.  2    |             Ireland: population-based study. BMJ. 2006 July 22; 333(
376   II,     9.  1.  2    |               7560): 177.~MRC Vitamin Study Research Group (1991): Prevention
377   II,     9.  1.  2    |              Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 338: 131-7.~Schaefer
378   II,     9.  2.  3    |             such as the International Study of Asthma and Allergies
379   II,     9.  2.  3    |            People’s Health in Context study (HBSC, 2004) bullying occurring
380   II,     9.  2.  3    |          European data sets. The HBSC study covers aspects of feelings
381   II,     9.  2.  3    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study, covering the 11-15 years
382   II,     9.  2.  3    |      pressures on modern society, the study identifies that a worrying
383   II,     9.  2.  6    |         children.~It is a priority to study the pattern of health of
384   II,     9.  2.  7    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from
385   II,     9.  2.  7    |            School-aged Children. HBSC study: 2001/2002. Edited by Candace
386   II,     9.  2.  8    |            Europe~ISAAC~International Study of Asthma and Allergies
387   II,     9.  3.  1    |               there has only been one study made on the status of men’
388   II,     9.  3.  1    |              health. To date the only study that has looked at men’s
389   II,     9.  3.  1    |            Bank’s “Burden of Diseases Study”.~ ~Determining the prevalence
390   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Bank’s Burden of Diseases Study, judged depression in women
391   II,     9.  3.  1    |         stress and depression.~ ~In a study on patterns of mortality,
392   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Massachusetts Male Ageing Study (MMAS). From this data source
393   II,     9.  3.  1    |         International Society for the Study of Ageing Male (ISSAM) and
394   II,     9.  3.  1    |             medication use. A Swedish study has found that the highest
395   II,     9.  3.  1    |            according to one Norwegian study it can reach an incidence
396   II,     9.  3.  1    |          therapy in the Million Women Study. The Lancet; 362; 9382;
397   II,     9.  3.  1    |              L, Lee C. and the UrEpik Study Group (2003) The prevalence
398   II,     9.  3.  1    |              four centres: the UREPIK study. BJU International 92. 943 –
399   II,     9.  3.  1    |          European Association for the Study of Obesity, London.~ ~Jackson,
400   II,     9.  3.  1    |  papillomavirus in a population-based study of vulvar cancer. J Natl
401   II,     9.  3.  1    |               WC (2006): Longitudinal Study on the Role of Body Size
402   II,     9.  3.  1    |            European cancer registries study on cancer patientssurvival
403   II,     9.  3.  2    |      EURO-PERISTAT in its feasibility study (Breart et al, 2003). More
404   II,     9.  3.  2    |       referral hospitals: descriptive study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod
405   II,     9.  3.  2    |           outcome: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;
406   II,     9.  3.  2    |            years prospective regional study in The Netherlands. Eur
407   II,     9.  3.  2    |               region: a retrospective study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod
408   II,     9.  3.  2    |        retrospective population based study. Bmj 1999;319(7217):1093-
409   II,     9.  3.  2    |                A Canadian multicentre study. Bjog 2002;109(7):740-5.~ ~
410   II,     9.  3.  2    |               Fetal and Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal
411   II,     9.  3.  2    |             Denmark: population based study. Bmj 2006;332(7547):937-
412   II,     9.  3.  2    |          European centres: a database study. Lancet 2007;369(9555):43-
413   II,     9.  3.  2    |               results from the MOSAIC study. Pediatrics 2007;120(4):
414   II,     9.  3.  2    |      extremely preterm birth. EPICure Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000;
415   II,     9.  3.  3    |              supported publication of study on teenage sexual and reproductive
416   II,     9.  3.  3    |               Bajos et al, 2003). The study data are based on national
417   II,     9.  3.  3    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study that is a cross-national
418   II,     9.  3.  3    |             participating in the HBSC study range from 15% in Poland
419   II,     9.  3.  3    |              al, 2007). Also the HBSC study indicates that in several
420   II,     9.  3.  3    |         partners than the Finnish sex study made in 1999 (Nikula et
421   II,     9.  3.  3    |           Amaro et al, 2004). Another study in Finland reported that
422   II,     9.  3.  3    |                According to the Irish Study of Sexual Health and Relationships,
423   II,     9.  3.  3    |            School-aged Children(HBSC) study: international report from
424   II,     9.  3.  3    |            Conroy R (2006): The Irish Study of Sexual Health and Relationships.
425   II,     9.  3.  3    |     behaviours in a large behavioural study. Prev Med 41:247-52.~Weiss,
426   II,     9.  3.  3    |               in Czech language). The study was carried out by administering
427   II,     9.  3.  3    |               in School-aged Children study~ISSHR~The Irish Study of
428   II,     9.  3.  3    |        Children study~ISSHR~The Irish Study of Sexual Health and Relationships~
429   II,     9.  4.  3    |             of age. A recent European study showed that the prevalence
430   II,     9.  4.  3    |        younger counterparts. A recent study of stroke care for older
431   II,     9.  4.  3    |              70 years of age) (DECODE Study Group, 2003). In 70 to 79
432   II,     9.  4.  3    |           International Breast Cancer Study Group trial, carried out
433   II,     9.  4.  3    |               six-year, retrospective study of 239 new patients, 60
434   II,     9.  4.  4    |              disability.~ ~The SENECA study demonstrated that a healthy
435   II,     9.  4.  4    |           reduced mortality risk. The study showed that even at ages
436   II,     9.  4.  5    |              countries in the PROCARE study are experiencing common
437   II,     9.  4.  7    |    longitudinal results of the SENECA study, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med
438   II,     9.  4.  7    |                12), p.1277-84.~DECODE study group on behalf of the European
439   II,     9.  5.  3    |              per year~Irelanda ( 2002 study )~· 20.4% of women have
440   II,     9.  5.  3    |              as adults~Latviab ( 1998 study )~· 5.2% women reported
441   II,     9.  5.  3    |      dehydrogenase activity. A recent study has shown that in the UK
442   II,     9.  5.  3    |       organised around paid work.~ ~A study conducted in 2001 by the
443   II,     9.  5.  3    |           hours spent in gainful work/study and domestic work is generally
444   II,     9.  5.  3    |             true for gainful work and study.~ ~In the Member States
445   II,     9.  5.  6    |          therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 362 419427.~ ~Bonté
446   II,     9.  5.  6    |     differences in health: a Canadian study of the psychosocial, structural
447   II,     9.  5.  6    |      selection in a 14-year follow-up study - a question of gendered
448   II,     9.  5.  6    |            Income Older Women. Income Study Working Paper Series. Luxembourg~ ~
449   II,     9.  5.  6    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study: 2001/2002. (Edited by:
450   II,     9.  5.  7    |             Culture: An International Study~HBSC~Health Behaviour in
451   II,     9.  5.  7    |           School-aged Children (a WHO study)~OECD~Organization for Economic
452  III,    10.  1.  1    |           should be controlled for by study design and analysis: e.g.
453  III,    10.  1.  1    |          Inconsistent and conflicting study results reflect the complexity
454  III,    10.  1.  1    |              publication bias and low study quality (Gil-González, 2006).
455  III,    10.  1.  3    |       behaviors in a large behavioral study Prev Med 41(1):247-52.~Titchenal
456  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Swedish snuff (SCE ). A recent study, however, reported an increased
457  III,    10.  2.  1    |            the MONICA Augsburg cohort study 1984-1992. Eur Heart J,
458  III,    10.  2.  1    |                a retrospective cohort study. Lancet, 2007; 369: 2015-
459  III,    10.  2.  1    |          European Comparative Alcohol Study~ELSA~Enforcement of national
460  III,    10.  2.  1    |          European Comparative Alcohol Study (ECAS) reports (2001-2)~ ~
461  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Comparative Risk Assessment Study, carried out within the
462  III,    10.  2.  1    |         behaviour. It is difficult to study the relationship between
463  III,    10.  2.  1    |               as the BOB campaign. No study has evaluated whether the
464  III,    10.  2.  1    |             The community based Malmö study, undertaken during the 1970s,
465  III,    10.  2.  1    |             users12~ ~A multi-country study found that mortality among
466  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Finnish Adolescent Lifestyle Study in 2001, 2005 and 2007 were
467  III,    10.  2.  1    |     Gingivitis varies widely from one study to another. Such differences
468  III,    10.  2.  1    |              the Adolescent~Lifestyle Study in Finland 2007. Unpublished
469  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Survey, a cross-sectional study carried out by WHO (2002-
470  III,    10.  2.  1    |              intervals. The 2001/2002 study was the sixth and most recent
471  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Federation. Data from this study will be used for this chapter (
472  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  European Youth Heart study (Riddoch CJ et al., 2004):
473  III,    10.  2.  1    |             al., 2004): International study measuring CVD risk factors
474  III,    10.  2.  1    |              al. 2006): International study monitoring health-related
475  III,    10.  2.  1    |     Brettschneider WD, Naul R (2004): Study on young people’s lifestyles
476  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Baltic countries: the FINBALT study, HBSC and other surveys
477  III,    10.  2.  1    |              well-being: a population study in Finland. Preventive Medicine,
478  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Collaborative Cross-national Study. Edinburgh, 2002 (htt l,
479  III,    10.  2.  1    |          countries: the Eurobarometer study. Journal of Public Health,
480  III,    10.  2.  1    |           School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from
481  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2006).~ ~The Pro Children study collected in 2003 parental
482  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Yngve, 2005). The HBSC study conducted in 20012002 gathered
483  III,    10.  2.  1    |               al, 2000). A validation study conducted in Wales among
484  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Individual food consumption study~SISP04~2003 - 2004~1751~
485  III,    10.  2.  1    |             The National FINDIET 2002 Study~FINDIET~2002~2007~25-65~
486  III,    10.  2.  1    |         patterns in Italy: the INN-CA Study 1994-1996. Eur. J. Clin.
487  III,    10.  2.  1    |           European prospective cohort study combining epidemiological
488  III,    10.  2.  1    |               and validated. The EPIC study offers the opportunity to
489  III,    10.  2.  1    |             offers the opportunity to study the diversity of food habits
490  III,    10.  2.  1    |               in the EPIC calibration study from 27 study centres in
491  III,    10.  2.  1    |             calibration study from 27 study centres in 10 European countries (
492  III,    10.  2.  1    |            consumption data from this study were collected with the
493  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2003).~ ~The Pro Children study (Yngve, 2005) showed a greater
494  III,    10.  2.  1    |             further corroborated by a study in Austrian elderly showing
495  III,    10.  2.  1    |             collected within the EPIC study have been published in a
496  III,    10.  2.  1    |          cohorts included in the EPIC study.~ ~Although the nutritional
497  III,    10.  2.  1    |      population-based cross-sectional study. Archives of Disease in
498  III,    10.  2.  1    |          school-aged children (HBSC): study: international report from
499  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Bueno M, for the AVENA study group (2005): Overweight,
500  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism