1-500 | 501-588
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |                in the health and social work sector. Moreover, the performance
  2    I,     2.  3        |               contributing to irregular work remains high. Almost in
  3    I,     2.  4        |              settings (at home, school, work). Also important are the
  4    I,     2.  5        |                ageing~ ~ ~The nature of work is changing rapidly. Today’
  5    I,     2.  5        |               rapidly. Today’s world of work is unrecognisable from the
  6    I,     2.  5        |                 trends include changing work patterns (new technology,
  7    I,     2.  5        |                labour such as temporary work and fixed-term contracts. 2
  8    I,     2.  5        |                rewarding and satisfying work and a better life. For others
  9    I,     2.  5        |           managed. For example, in many work areas, job demands have
 10    I,     2.  5        |         including an intensification of work and requirements on workers
 11    I,     2.  5        |                for Safety and Health at Work, 2002).~Detecting a pattern
 12    I,     2.  5        |               for organising productive work.~ ~Growth of the service
 13    I,     2.  5        |            education; health and social work; community and personal
 14    I,     2.  5        |               of stress and violence at work. The necessity to carry
 15    I,     2.  5        |         professions such as health-care work and teaching and there has
 16    I,     2.  5        |                Agency Changing World of Work Report, several significant
 17    I,     2.  5        |         significant new developments in work organisation have emerged,
 18    I,     2.  5        |               with the aim of improving work organisation and quality
 19    I,     2.  5        |              entitledHigh performance work place practices and job
 20    I,     2.  5        |           reveals that high performance work practices do indeed have
 21    I,     2.  5        |               have a positive effect on work satisfaction (EUROFOUND,
 22    I,     2.  5.  0(2) |                for Safety and Health at Work. Research on the changing
 23    I,     2.  5.  0(2) |                on the changing world of workImplications on occupational
 24    I,     2.  5        |                 hand, and more flexible work retirement schemes on the
 25    I,     2.  5        |               number of older people in work to 50% (the Stockholm target)
 26    I,     2.  5        |                 of older people were in work in the accession countries
 27    I,     2.  5        |             have improved incentives to work but still more people need
 28    I,     2.  5        |               still more people need to work. Furthermore, they should
 29    I,     2.  5        |             strengthening incentives to work longer, provided that labour
 30    I,     2.  5        |               opportunities. Many women work in the caring services where
 31    I,     2.  5        |            factors. More women than men work in jobs where the demands
 32    I,     2.  5        |             individual control over the work.~ ~A third trend is immigration
 33    I,     2.  5        |            necessary papers to live and work in the host country and
 34    I,     2.  5        |       difficulty in obtaining visas and work permits and are concentrated
 35    I,     2.  5        |               contributing to irregular work remains high. Almost in
 36    I,     2.  5        |              this issue.~ ~New forms of work. Modern organisations are
 37    I,     2.  5        |               organisations operate and work together with others has
 38    I,     2.  5        |                 now more instability in work contracts and job descriptions.
 39    I,     2.  5        |             possibilities for people to work self-employed from home (
 40    I,     2.  5        |                for Safety and Health at Work, 2006).~Both case studies
 41    I,     2.  5        |                of information-intensive work and the learning process
 42    I,     2.  5        |          Perceived lack of control over work is a well-documented factor
 43    I,     2.  5        |             safety issues.~ ~Increasing work pace and workload. In the
 44    I,     2.  5        |                 weakened immune system. Work intensity is increasing
 45    I,     2.  5        |                Europe with more weekend work, irregular and less predictable
 46    I,     2.  5        |            hours (involuntary part-time work) and excessively long hours (
 47    I,     2.  5        |          involuntary overtime). Greater work intensity and time unpredictability
 48    I,     2.  5        |          employeesautonomy over their work. These “newrisk factors
 49    I,     2.  5        |             promoting informed choices. Work on the methodology for comparative
 50    I,     2.  5        |                the future. The world of work has radically altered in
 51    I,     2.  7        |           monographic exhibition of the work of Renzo Piano, organised
 52    I,     2.  7        |               ago it was announced that work would soon begin on one
 53    I,     2.  7        |             urban settlements. Research work mostly focuses on large
 54    I,     2.  7        |                megacities, while little work is invested in identifying
 55    I,     2. 10.  1    |            public health aspects in its work programme, while public
 56    I,     2. 10.  3    |               of capital and labour and work processes and products,
 57    I,     2. 10.  3(6) |                patterns in the world of work. International Labour Conference,
 58    I,     2. 10.  3    |            Consumer Protection's policy work. Information on these can
 59    I,     2. 10.  4    |                all stakeholders need to work to commonly agreed standards
 60    I,     2. 11        |          Research, 40, 135-155.~CEN/ISO Work on Nanotechnology, s. htt s/~
 61    I,     2. 11        |                for Safety and Health at Work (2002): Research on the
 62    I,     2. 11        |                on the changing world of workImplications on occupational
 63    I,     2. 11        |                for Safety and Health at Work (2006). Research on New
 64    I,     2. 11        |                patterns in the world of work. International Labour Conference,
 65    I,     2. 11        |                   The changing world of work’, Agency conference proceedings.
 66   II,     4.  1        |              which may be available for work and hence is crucial for
 67   II,     4.  1        |             scientific community should work on second generation summary
 68   II,     5.  1.  2    |              with many aspects of life, work, family life, leisure pursuits
 69   II,     5.  1.  2    |           nurses have to understand and work taking into account all
 70   II,     5.  1.  4    |                specific disease.~ ~· At work: information about what
 71   II,     5.  1.  4    |                to deal with it while at work.~ ~· During leisure time:
 72   II,     5.  4.  2    |               will require considerable work in the future.~Nevertheless,
 73   II,     5.  4.  6    |               on diabetes to the future work of the European Commission.~·
 74   II,     5.  4.  6    |                action;~· Continuing the work on the development of a
 75   II,     5.  4.  6    |               drinks;~· Building on the work of the EU Platform for Action
 76   II,     5.  4.  7    |           regular basis”. BIRO exploits work autonomously undertaken
 77   II,     5.  5.Int    |            health as part of its policy work (e.g. on key competences
 78   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 access to treatment and work days lost in mood and anxiety
 79   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 some somatic disease as Work Days Lost (WDL).~ ~About
 80   II,     5.  5.  2    |         geographical location etc. This work, which will be carried out
 81   II,     5.  5.  2(24)|                                         Work package 4 of the EuroCoDe
 82   II,     5.  5.  2    |              have the right to live and work in other member states of
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |               health sector, coordinate work across ministries; and~·
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 influence the political work at national and international
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |      incapability to participate in the work life. Therefore, schizophrenia
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 previous year began its work.~The central aim of the
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |                The project sets out the work being developed towards
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |        practitioners; awareness-raising work with related areas including
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |               on Equal Treatment in the Work Place~ ~Council Directive
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |            people by adapting premises, work schedules or job descriptions
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |                MS are forced to give up work due to lack of support.~
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |               on equal treatment in the work place is an important basis
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |             rest periods, the necessary work adaptations and a social
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |            developments~ ~There is much work to be carried out in order
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |               PD patients were still at work compared to 81.5% of the
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |           people handling pesticides at work having a more than threefold
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 differential diagnosis, work capacity, mortality and
 98   II,     5.  6.  1    |                health problems limiting work and leading to early retirement
 99   II,     5.  6.  3    |                health problems limiting work in developed countries,
100   II,     5.  6.  3    |              impact is a consequence of work loss, and of social and
101   II,     5.  6.  3    |               play a role such as heavy work, lifting, bending, twisting,
102   II,     5.  6.  3    |      Psychosocial aspects of health and work combined with economic aspects
103   II,     5.  6.  3    |               aspects have an impact on work loss attributed to back
104   II,     5.  6.  3    |                economic consequences of work loss and social support.~ ~
105   II,     5.  6.  3    |            recurrence.~ ~Most return to work within 1 week with 90% returning
106   II,     5.  6.  3    |              the person is to return to work. After 6 months off work,
107   II,     5.  6.  3    |                work. After 6 months off work, less than 50% will return
108   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 than 50% will return to work and after 2 years absence,
109   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 pain is indirect due to work loss and disablement reflecting
110   II,     5.  6.  3    |              low frequency of return to work probably reflects that about
111   II,     5.  6.  4    |                 are indirect related to work disability and social care,
112   II,     5.  6.  4    |           conditions (Woolf, 2008). The work disability and use of health
113   II,     5.  6.  4    |               illustrated here below.~ ~Work disability~ ~In addition
114   II,     5.  6.  4    |           limitations in everyday life, work disability is a major consequence
115   II,     5.  6.  4    |          permanent or temporary loss of work ability. Permanent disability
116   II,     5.  8.  3    |        inpatient care and 28.4 for lost work days (European respiratory
117   II,     5.  8.  3    |             2003). In EU15, 41 300 lost work days per 100 000 population
118   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 and Eastern Europe lost work days due to COPD are 4300.
119   II,     5.  9. FB    |         medication and missed school or work days. Allergic rhinitis
120   II,     5.  9.  3    |             responsible for significant work impairment and more than
121   II,     5.  9.  3    |          society is represented by lost work days (indirect costs amounting
122   II,     5.  9.  4    |                farming and agricultural work, painting, cleaning work
123   II,     5.  9.  4    |                work, painting, cleaning work and plastic manufacturing.
124   II,     5. 11.  3    |                severe, and might affect work ability (C Lidén et al,
125   II,     5. 13        |            pressures can mean that both work and leisure hours offer
126   II,     5. 14.  3    |                13 295 dental hygienists work in 1998 the European Union
127   II,     5. 14.  5    |             projects and cross-sectoral work both at EU and at national
128   II,     5. 15.  4    |                 encourage continuity of work and trans-national co-operation.
129   II,     6.  3.  2    |              surveillance of AMR should work on three levels:~· following
130   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  thus, ECDC has started work to provide guidance on this
131   II,     6.  3.  3    |   anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). More work is needed to improve accessibility
132   II,     6.  3.  4    |               to three years of intense work is required by all Member
133   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 Key areas where further work is especially needed are:~ ~·
134   II,     6.  4.  1    |                 the Council and started work in 1999. The Communicable
135   II,     6.  4.  4    |             risk assessment, as well as work on laboratory issues and
136   II,     6.  4.  4    |            matrix organisation to cover work on several groups of diseases.~ ~
137   II,     7.Acr        |              Statistics on Accidents at Work~EU~European Union~EuroSafe~
138   II,     7.  1        |              settings such as the home, work place and road, and by activities,
139   II,     7.  1        |                 injuries such as roads, work places, homes, sport facilities,
140   II,     7.  2.  4    |              Statistics on Accidents at Work)~ ~European Statistics on
141   II,     7.  2.  4    |              Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) are gathered on the
142   II,     7.  2.  4    |             data refers to accidents at work resulting in more than 3
143   II,     7.  2.  4    |               than 3 daysabsence from work (serious accidents) and
144   II,     7.  2.  4    |            declarations of accidents at work, either to the public (Social
145   II,     7.  2.  4    |              insurance for accidents at work, or to another relevant
146   II,     7.  2.  4    |                system. For accidents at work data is available for all ‘
147   II,     7.  3.  4    |                   Transport / TrafficWork placeHome, leisure and
148   II,     7.  3.  4    |                Distinguished by sector, work place accidents account
149   II,     7.  3.  4    |              strong vertical sectors of work place and road safety with
150   II,     7.  3.  4    |             group and injury severity~ ~Work place~ ~According to data
151   II,     7.  3.  4    |                the WHO, more than 6 000 work place fatalities are recorded
152   II,     7.  3.  4    |              Also the rate of non-fatal work place accidents shows a
153   II,     7.  3.  4    |                 accidents~ ~Half of all work place fatalities occur in
154   II,     7.  3.  4    |            transport sector (18% of all work place fatalities) which
155   II,     7.  3.  4    |              for a close cooperation of work place and traffic safety
156   II,     7.  3.  4    |              Figure 7.11. Fatalities at work by economic activity, EU15~ ~
157   II,     7.  3.  4    |   socio-demography and circumstances of work place accidents can be found
158   II,     7.  3.  4    |              statistics on accidents at work (ESAW) and the WHO Health
159   II,     7.  3.  4    |         harmonised data on accidents at work of EU15 was collected. The
160   II,     7.  3.  4    |                  Figure 7.12. Non-fatal work place accidents by severity,
161   II,     7.  3.  4    |               the severity of non-fatal work place accidents in terms
162   II,     7.  3.  4    |                  Figure 7.12. Non-fatal work place accidents by severity,
163   II,     7.  3.  4    |                 are neither traffic nor work place accidents.~ ~Calculated
164   II,     7.  4        |              road traffic injuries and, work place injuries). In other
165   II,     7.  4.  7    |                  in institutions and at work). It undermines the social
166   II,     7.  5        |         programmes for fire prevention, work safety, traffic safety,
167   II,     7.  5        |                search for measures that work.~(ht ~ ~Support for policy
168   II,     7.  6        |          pronounced in road traffic and work place and less favourable
169   II,     7.  7        |                  Number of accidents at work by severity. EU15, 3 year
170   II,     8.  1.  2    |           health problem or disability, work limitations (regarding the
171   II,     8.  1.  2    |      limitations (regarding the kind of work or the amount of work, and
172   II,     8.  1.  2    |                of work or the amount of work, and mobility problems),
173   II,     8.  1.  2    |        assistance needed or provided to work. The results refer to persons
174   II,     8.  1.  3    |                in the kind or amount of work they can do, while about
175   II,     8.  1.  3    |                the mobility to and from work. Since these problems may
176   II,     8.  1.  3    |                 restrictions related to work are experienced by 10% of
177   II,     8.  1.  3    |           occurrence of restrictions in work ability due to LSHPD increases
178   II,     8.  1.  3    |                 restrictions related to work, 42% indicated limb, neck
179   II,     8.  1.  3    |             reported no restrictions in work activities. Considerable
180   II,     8.  1.  3    |             restrictions with regard to work were reported by 60% of
181   II,     8.  1.  3    |                 appears with respect to work activities. This difference
182   II,     8.  1.  3    |          counterpart, to be involved in work.~Differences among countries
183   II,     8.  1.  3    |          restrictions in the ability to work and 75% for persons that
184   II,     8.  1.  3    |           limitations in the ability to work: provision of support ranges
185   II,     8.  1.  3    |              with regard to the kind of work (40%), amount of work (17%),
186   II,     8.  1.  3    |                of work (40%), amount of work (17%), general support and
187   II,     8.  1.  3    |                 in transfer to and from work more important than help
188   II,     8.  1.  3    |                than help in the kind of work, while those with limitations
189   II,     8.  1.  3    |             with the kind and amount of work more important than that
190   II,     8.  2.  1    |    communication, self care, education, work, leisure time and health.~
191   II,     8.  2.  1    |                health professionals who work with persons with intellectual
192   II,     8.  2.  1    |                 health professionals to work effectively with persons
193   II,     9            |               wellbeing, and ultimately work and lifestyle opportunities.
194   II,     9            |                 general, therapies that work in secondary prevention
195   II,     9            |               secondary prevention will work in primary prevention as
196   II,     9            |            pressures can mean that both work and leisure hours offer
197   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  but require additional work before they can be operationalised
198   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 Scandanavian Journal of Work & Environmental Health,
199   II,     9.  2.  2    |                 has sponsored important work on standardising questions
200   II,     9.  2.  2    |                 Surveys, as well as the work through EUROSTAT in standardising
201   II,     9.  2.  2    |                almost the whole of this work is still focused on the
202   II,     9.  2.  2    |           public health and statistical work.~ ~ ~
203   II,     9.  2.  3    |         environment including sport and work (Lerner et al 1976). Adolescents
204   II,     9.  2.  4    |               wellbeing, and ultimately work and lifestyle opportunities.
205   II,     9.  2.  5    |         Commission’s 2005 Public Health Work Plan, defined within the
206   II,     9.  2.  5    |          related to under-age drinking; work on obesity and prevention;
207   II,     9.  2.  5    |                 the Commission's future work to protect the interests
208   II,     9.  2.  7    |                for Safety and Health at Work: Young People. Data in Website.
209   II,     9.  3.  1    |                is hard to find research work focused on men and their
210   II,     9.  3.  1    |                predominantly taken from work produced by the European
211   II,     9.  3.  1    |               than 3 daysabsence from work (amounting to around 146
212   II,     9.  3.  1    |                for Health and Safety at Work, 2007). Injuries per 100
213   II,     9.  3.  1    |             number of physician visits, work absence and medication use.
214   II,     9.  3.  1    |              difficulties, inability to work and disability. Its prevalence
215   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 general, therapies that work in secondary prevention
216   II,     9.  3.  1    |               secondary prevention will work in primary prevention as
217   II,     9.  3.  1    |            pressures can mean that both work and leisure hours offer
218   II,     9.  3.  1    |          understanding of effects, much work remains to be done in terms
219   II,     9.  3.  1    |                for Health and Safety at Work (2007): ht p (Article online,
220   II,     9.  3.  2    |                    Morbidity~ ~Previous work to establish the level of
221   II,     9.  4.  3    |                it difficult for them to work until a later age. This
222   II,     9.  4.  5    |          between personal resources and work demand. It is also important
223   II,     9.  4.  5    |             stress-free transition from work to retirement (European
224   II,     9.  4.  5    |             opportunities for voluntary work by older volunteers could
225   II,     9.  4.  5    |               to develop the quality of work, by providing skill development
226   II,     9.  5.  1    |              men to fight in wars or to work in hazardous industries.
227   II,     9.  5.  1    |                 with whom they live and work.~ ~A reduction has been
228   II,     9.  5.  1    |              social norms about women’s work outside of the home in European
229   II,     9.  5.  1    |         responsibilities at home and at work (Lorber, 2005). For what
230   II,     9.  5.  1    |        debilitated by unshared domestic work, especially when combined
231   II,     9.  5.  2    |                predominantly taken from work produced by the World Health
232   II,     9.  5.  2    |                academic articles report work done on a smaller regional
233   II,     9.  5.  2    |                be victims too, and more work is needed to explain the
234   II,     9.  5.  2    |                2004). ECHI build on the work and activities of previous
235   II,     9.  5.  3    |                  with less advantageous work conditions, lower education
236   II,     9.  5.  3    |           Agency for Health & Safety at Work, 2004). Unshared domestic
237   II,     9.  5.  3    |                2004). Unshared domestic work can be exhausting and debilitating,
238   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 can be damaged when the work is given little recognition
239   II,     9.  5.  3    |             rules if taking time out of work to care for sick, older
240   II,     9.  5.  3    |            pressures can mean that both work and leisure hours offer
241   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 no physical activity at work.~ ~Table 9.5.8. Days of
242   II,     9.  5.  3    |               and organised around paid work.~ ~A study conducted in
243   II,     9.  5.  3    |               of hours spent in gainful work/study and domestic work
244   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 work/study and domestic work is generally higher for
245   II,     9.  5.  3    |                Spain and Hungary. Women work the longest hours in Lithuania
246   II,     9.  5.  3    |               time than men on domestic work, while the reverse is true
247   II,     9.  5.  3    |             reverse is true for gainful work and study.~ ~In the Member
248   II,     9.  5.  4    |               policy and planning. Much work remains to be done in others.
249   II,     9.  5.  6    |                for Safety and Health at Work (2003): Gender issues in
250  III,    10.  1        |                 mothers use pesticides, work in sprayed fields, or work
251  III,    10.  1        |              work in sprayed fields, or work near spraying operations.~ ~
252  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 9% at home and 20.6% at work. At the follow up, ten years
253  III,    10.  2.  1    |        prevalence of passive smoking at work decreased by 10.9% (Ja ~ ~
254  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 total ban on smoking in work and public places, including
255  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 places that include all work places, health and educational
256  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 net increases in police work, emergency room admissions
257  III,    10.  2.  1    |               starts an adult life with work and family). However, the
258  III,    10.  2.  1    |             brisk walking or cycling to work, school or shopping, swimming,
259  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  at home, at school, at work and so on – often discourages
260  III,    10.  2.  1    |              and environment sectors to work together to achieve healthier
261  III,    10.  2.  1    |            spirit of the platform is to work under the leadership of
262  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 health, sport, leisure, work or education sectors. It
263  III,    10.  2.  1    |                infections and decreased work performance. Causes for
264  III,    10.  2.  1    |            reduced physical activity at work and during leisure time.~ ~
265  III,    10.  2.  1    |               as more mothers go out to work and spend less time on food
266  III,    10.  2.  1    |            spirit of the platform is to work under the leadership of
267  III,    10.  2.  1    |       preparation of the proposal, this work has been entrusted to an
268  III,    10.  2.  1    |               based on existing premier work~Option 3Supporting initiatives.
269  III,    10.  2.  1    |                family planning centres, work place programmes or supermarkets (
270  III,    10.  2.  4    |      rare diseases; further legislative work may be needed as more knowledge
271  III,    10.  2.  4    |                is no longer possible to work with “simplemessages which
272  III,    10.  3.  1    |           instead of the building. This work is inconvenient and often
273  III,    10.  3.  1    |              are common reasons why the work is never carried out. With
274  III,    10.  3.  1    |             workers exposed to radon at work places.~ ~UV radiation~ ~
275  III,    10.  3.  1    |                 and poor performance at work or school. In spite of the
276  III,    10.  3.  1    |               table 10.3.1.1). Physical work load is reported differently
277  III,    10.  3.  1    |            forced body positions, heavy work and repetitive movements.
278  III,    10.  3.  1    |              women. With respect to the work tasks standing or walking,
279  III,    10.  3.  1    |                physical risk factors at work in the EU 25, by economic
280  III,    10.  3.  1    |            sources (including radon) in work places, laid down in Title
281  III,    10.  3.  2    |              exceeded. Important policy work on mercury has been performed
282  III,    10.  3.  2    |              Statistical and Analytical Work to Develop Appropriate Environmental
283  III,    10.  4.  1    |           restricted activity; days off work (PM,O3 )~o Days with symptoms (
284  III,    10.  4.  2    |               in all of the Authority’s work. For example, EFSA undertakes
285  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 risk communication. Its work is undertaken in response
286  III,    10.  4.  2    |        influenza and Bluetongue. EFSA’s work also includes the development,
287  III,    10.  4.  2(34)|               Member State will have to work towards reducing the number
288  III,    10.  4.  2    |               to a 2000 baseline and to work towards the elimination
289  III,    10.  4.  2    |          programme have been adopted to work towards a common strategy
290  III,    10.  4.  2    |         importance to carry out further work to develop a methodology
291  III,    10.  4.  2    |                it undertakes scientific work on its own initiative. This
292  III,    10.  4.  2    |              the EU legislation).~ ~The work is, then, shared at EU level
293  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 Panel started a rolling work programme to revise existing
294  III,    10.  4.  2    |               that were prioritised for work on CRA (dose-addition) are:
295  III,    10.  5.  1    |              Although the school is the work environment for teachers
296  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 Public Health Programme work plan 2005 identified the
297  III,    10.  5.  1    |         international group has started work on the development of a
298  III,    10.  5.  1    |                classroom noise, Scand J Work Environ Health. 2007 Aug.~ ~
299  III,    10.  5.  2    |                the urban-rural dynamics work towards the reduction of
300  III,    10.  5.  2    |                emergency/minor casualty work ~• difficulties associated
301  III,    10.  5.  2    |                absence and out-of-hours work.~ ~The BMA therefore suggests
302  III,    10.  5.  3    |     Introduction~ ~In modern societies, work is the source of most individual,
303  III,    10.  5.  3    |          community wealth. The world of work therefore is particularly
304  III,    10.  5.  3    |                widely recognised is how work itself can make people ill,
305  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 changes in the world of work, regional health and safety
306  III,    10.  5.  3    |                improvement of health at work requires a holistic approach,
307  III,    10.  5.  3    |              which is focused mainly on work accidents and occupational
308  III,    10.  5.  3    |               the burden of diseases on work is provided followed by
309  III,    10.  5.  3    |                presenting the impact of work on health. Furthermore,
310  III,    10.  5.  3    |              report Hearts and Minds at Work in Europe (Bödeker and Klindworth
311  III,    10.  5.  3    |               health problems caused by work are reported. All information
312  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    Data on accidents at work are available from the Eurostat
313  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 covers all accidents at work which involve absence of
314  III,    10.  5.  3    |            fatal accidents occurring at work. The data collection was
315  III,    10.  5.  3    |              Statistics on Accidents at Work”. Eurostat receives the
316  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 of data on accidents at work. These data are based on
317  III,    10.  5.  3    |         countries. Data on accidents at work can be stratified according
318  III,    10.  5.  3    |              and non fatal accidents at work.~The Eurostat Online Database
319  III,    10.  5.  3    |             being caused by a factor at work. Since the recognition practices
320  III,    10.  5.  3    |              dealing with self-reported work related problems are the
321  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 caused or made worse by work. However, given the rapid
322  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 changes of the world of work, these sources are rather
323  III,    10.  5.  3    |                diseases to the world of work~ ~This chapter presents
324  III,    10.  5.  3    |               the impact of diseases on work. This relationship is usually
325  III,    10.  5.  3    |            exclusively on the impact of work on diseases. However, private
326  III,    10.  5.  3    |            disease related absence from work, early retirement and costs
327  III,    10.  5.  3    |               presented.~ ~Absence from work~According to the fourth
328  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 workers are absent from work due to health problems at
329  III,    10.  5.  3    |              engaged in health & social work.~ ~Table 10.5.3.1. Absence
330  III,    10.  5.  3    |            Table 10.5.3.1. Absence from work in last 12 month due to
331  III,    10.  5.  3    |              are caused by absence from work due to diseases and by reduced
332  III,    10.  5.  3    |            alcohol, drugs).~ ~Impact of work on mortality, morbidity
333  III,    10.  5.  3    |             this chapter, the impact of work on disease is highlighted
334  III,    10.  5.  3    |               occupational diseases and work accidents. This is then
335  III,    10.  5.  3    |              Council (Walters, 2007).~ ~Work Accidents.~ ~European Statistics
336  III,    10.  5.  3    |              Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) refer to accidents
337  III,    10.  5.  3    |             ESAW) refer to accidents at work resulting in more than 3
338  III,    10.  5.  3    |               than 3 daysabsence from work (serious accidents) (Table
339  III,    10.  5.  3    |            Table 10.5.3.5. Incidence of work accidents EU 15~ ~In 2004,
340  III,    10.  5.  3    |         approximately 4 million serious work accidents were reported
341  III,    10.  5.  3    |               reduction of accidents at work took place compared to 1998
342  III,    10.  5.  3    |               increasing index figures.~Work accidents occur very differently
343  III,    10.  5.  3    |                the rate of accidents at work increased.~ ~Table 10.5.
344  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 of serious accidents at work per 100 thousand persons
345  III,    10.  5.  3    |          incidence rate of accidents at work in EU15 by economic activity (
346  III,    10.  5.  3    |            workers)~ ~Perception of the work impact on health~ ~According
347  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 of women perceive their work affects their health. Furthermore,
348  III,    10.  5.  3    |                at risk because of their work (table 10.5.3.8). This perceived
349  III,    10.  5.  3    |                This perceived impact of work on health differs remarkably
350  III,    10.  5.  3    |                their health affected by work, this applies to less than
351  III,    10.  5.  3    |           safety at risk because of his work.~When asked how their health
352  III,    10.  5.  3    |              engaged in health & social work report more often headache
353  III,    10.  5.  3    |                a health impact of their work.~ ~Table 10.5.3.8. Perceived
354  III,    10.  5.  3    |                3.8. Perceived impact of work on health per country~ ~
355  III,    10.  5.  3    |                3.9. Perceived impact of work on health per symptoms.~ ~
356  III,    10.  5.  3    |               by structural elements of work economies. Figure 10.5.3.
357  III,    10.  5.  3    |            inactive.~ ~Figure 10.5.3.1. Work status of people aged 15
358  III,    10.  5.  3    |           striking result the perceived work intensity has increased
359  III,    10.  5.  3    |              deadlines”. This perceived work intensity has increased,
360  III,    10.  5.  3    |            importance of organisational work load factors.~ ~Work organisational
361  III,    10.  5.  3    |     organisational work load factors.~ ~Work organisational risk factors~
362  III,    10.  5.  3    |              Other stressing factors at work include fear of loosing
363  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 changes in the world of work; regional health and safety
364  III,    10.  5.  3    |                improvement of health at work requires a holistic approach,
365  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 autonomy and control at work (Karasek & Theorell, 1990)
366  III,    10.  5.  3    |               good health remain in the work force, while those who have
367  III,    10.  5.  3    |           proportion reported having to work ‘at very high speed’ - more
368  III,    10.  5.  3    |               tasks.~ ~Table 10.5.3.11. Work organisational risks factors
369  III,    10.  5.  3    |         organisational risks factors at work per gender~ ~A lack of job
370  III,    10.  5.  3    |      proportions report no control over work methods or pace. One-third
371  III,    10.  5.  3    |        particularly male workers. Shift work affects 17% of the workforce
372  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 methods and rate of the work. Furthermore, there is a
373  III,    10.  5.  3    |              relationship between shift work and the perceived difficulty
374  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 difficulty of balancing work and other commitments.~More
375  III,    10.  5.  3    |                is not well paid for the work he does and almost two-thirds
376  III,    10.  5.  3    |         repetitive tasks and monotonous work, especially in manufacturing
377  III,    10.  5.  3    |       communication.~ ~Table 10.5.3.12. Work organisational risks factors
378  III,    10.  5.  3    |         organisational risks factors at work per economic sector~ ~Workers
379  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 managers who most often work ten hours a day. Shift work
380  III,    10.  5.  3    |             work ten hours a day. Shift work is most common among employees
381  III,    10.  5.  3    |         bullying and harassment.~ ~High work intensity, indicated by
382  III,    10.  5.  3    |              while monotonous tasks and work shifts are more widespread
383  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 highest rates for shift work were found in Slovenia (
384  III,    10.  5.  3    |              women.~With respect to the work tasks standing or walking,
385  III,    10.  5.  3    |            moving heavy loads.~Physical work load is reported differently
386  III,    10.  5.  3    |            forced body positions, heavy work and repetitive movements.
387  III,    10.  5.  3    |               Physical risks factors at work per gender.~ ~Table 10.5.
388  III,    10.  5.  3    |               Physical risks factors at work per economic sector.~ ~The
389  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   The changing world of work~The nature of work is changing
390  III,    10.  5.  3    |             world of work~The nature of work is changing rapidly. Today’
391  III,    10.  5.  3    |               rapidly. Today’s world of work is unrecognisable from the
392  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 trends include changing work patterns (new technology,
393  III,    10.  5.  3    |                labour such as temporary work and fixed-term contracts (
394  III,    10.  5.  3    |                rewarding and satisfying work and a better life. For others
395  III,    10.  5.  3    |           managed. For example, in many work areas, job demands have
396  III,    10.  5.  3    |         including an intensification of work and requirements on workers
397  III,    10.  5.  3    |               for organising productive work.~ ~Information and communication
398  III,    10.  5.  3    |               of capital and labour and work processes and products and
399  III,    10.  5.  3    |                of information-intensive work and the learning process
400  III,    10.  5.  3    |            education; health and social work; community and personal
401  III,    10.  5.  3    |               of stress and violence at work. The necessity to carry
402  III,    10.  5.  3    |         professions such as health-care work and teaching and there has
403  III,    10.  5.  3    |              community, thus more staff work away from a fixed workplace (
404  III,    10.  5.  3    |                Agency Changing World of Work report, several significant
405  III,    10.  5.  3    |         significant new developments in work organisation have emerged,
406  III,    10.  5.  3    |               with the aim of improving work organisation and the quality
407  III,    10.  5.  3    |           reveals that high performance work practices do indeed have
408  III,    10.  5.  3    |               have a positive effect on work satisfaction. Key factors
409  III,    10.  5.  3    |               opportunities. Many women work in the caring services where
410  III,    10.  5.  3    |            factors. More women than men work in jobs where demands are
411  III,    10.  5.  3    |             individual control over the work.~A third trend is immigration
412  III,    10.  5.  3    |            necessary papers to live and work in the host country and
413  III,    10.  5.  3    |       difficulty in obtaining visas and work permits and are concentrated
414  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 workers.~ ~New forms of work~Modern organisations are
415  III,    10.  5.  3    |               organisations operate and work together with others has
416  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 now more instability in work contracts and job descriptions.
417  III,    10.  5.  3    |             possibilities for people to work self-employed from their
418  III,    10.  5.  3    |          Perceived lack of control over work is a well-documented factor
419  III,    10.  5.  3    |             safety issues.~ ~Increasing work pace and workload~Work intensity
420  III,    10.  5.  3    |       Increasing work pace and workload~Work intensity is increasing
421  III,    10.  5.  3    |                Europe with more weekend work, irregular and less predictable
422  III,    10.  5.  3    |            hours (involuntary part-time work) and excessively long hours (
423  III,    10.  5.  3    |          involuntary overtime). Greater work intensity and time unpredictability
424  III,    10.  5.  3    |          employeesautonomy over their work. These “newrisk factors
425  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 the future~The world of work has radically altered in
426  III,    10.  5.  3    |            understood that returning to work after sickness absence can
427  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 individual returning to work is influenced by factors
428  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 are most effective when work health and public health
429  III,    10.  5.  3    |           together for creating healthy work and work environments.~ ~
430  III,    10.  5.  3    |               creating healthy work and work environments.~ ~Promoting
431  III,    10.  5.  3    |               diseases and returning to work~ ~Concerns about workplace
432  III,    10.  5.  3    |             However, the full impact of work accidents and occupational
433  III,    10.  5.  3    |              the conditions under which work is carried out and is therefore
434  III,    10.  5.  3    |        accidents and diseases caused by work and there is not yet a systematic
435  III,    10.  5.  3    |                been focused on reducing work accidents and occupational
436  III,    10.  5.  3    |      sustainable. In this broader view, work is an important setting
437  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 well-being of people at work. This can be achieved through
438  III,    10.  5.  3    |            combination of improving the work organisation and the working
439  III,    10.  5.  3    |              and reducing the impact of work related ill health in the
440  III,    10.  5.  3    |      Legislation~ ~Health and Safety at work has been one of the main
441  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 on health and safety at work (Dir ), laying down a series
442  III,    10.  5.  3    |                to the changing world of work and its more flexible nature (
443  III,    10.  5.  3    |            employment such as temporary work, teleworking etc.), and
444  III,    10.  5.  3    |           Agency for Health & Safety at Work, 2007). Almost 24% of the
445  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 655/EEC: suitability of work equipment~- 89/656/EEC:
446  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 safety requirements for work with display screen equipment~-
447  III,    10.  5.  3    |           Agency for Health & Safety at Work, 2005).~Employers are required
448  III,    10.  5.  3    |                to noise~- the choice of work equipment emitting the least
449  III,    10.  5.  3    |                maintenance programs for work equipment, the workplace
450  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 of the exposure through work scheduling~ ~The main relevant
451  III,    10.  5.  3    |                the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and
452  III,    10.  5.  3    |            related to noise exposure at work, setting a new daily exposure
453  III,    10.  5.  3    |         manufacturing through to office work resulting in more than 3
454  III,    10.  5.  3    |                than 3 days absence from work (European Agency for Health &
455  III,    10.  5.  3    |           Agency for Health & Safety at Work, 2000,2001).~ ~Requirements
456  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 of Health and Safety at Work Directives 89/391 (Framework),
457  III,    10.  5.  3    |               654 (Workplaces), 89/655 (Work Equipment), 89/656 (Personal
458  III,    10.  5.  3    |            Commission found out that EU work safety legislation has greatly
459  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 adequate legislation on work safety. In Austria, France,
460  III,    10.  5.  3    |              rate of fatal accidents at work in the EU15 fell by 17%,
461  III,    10.  5.  3    |              are highly effective. UK’s work safety policy is mainly
462  III,    10.  5.  3    |        fatalities and major injuries at work by 10% till 2010. However,
463  III,    10.  5.  3    |                The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.~ ~
464  III,    10.  5.  3    |            simple facts:~- the world of work affects health and is itself
465  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 changes in the world of work~- regional health and safety
466  III,    10.  5.  3    |                aimed at ensuring decent work.~- promoting the collaboration
467  III,    10.  5.  3    |                improvement of health at work requires a holistic approach,
468  III,    10.  5.  3    |              2007): Hearts and minds at work in Europe. A European work-related
469  III,    10.  5.  3    |                and health of workers at work. Brussels. Available at: htt ML~
470  III,    10.  5.  3    |                the Health and Safety at Work Directives 89/391 (Framework),
471  III,    10.  5.  3    |              654 (Work-places), 89/655 (Work Equipment), 89/656 (Personal
472  III,    10.  5.  3    |             quality and productivity at work - Community strategy 2007-
473  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 on health and safety at work. Communication from the
474  III,    10.  5.  3    |                for Safety and Health at Work (OSHA) (2002): Research
475  III,    10.  5.  3    |                for Safety and Health at Work (OSHA) (2003): Research
476  III,    10.  5.  3    |                on the changing world of workImplications on occupational
477  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        EUROSTAT (2000): Work and Health in the EU. A
478  III,    10.  5.  3    |                patterns in the world of work. International Labour Conference,
479  III,    10.  5.  3    |            Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and
480  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 and health: the role of work and employment. In Siegrist
481  III,    10.  5.  3    |               statistics of injuries At Work~EWCS~European Working Condition
482  III,    10.  5.  3    |               HSWA~Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974~ILO~International
483  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 enhance health, further work is needed to deepen our
484  III,    10.  6.  1    |              dose of interventions that work, as well as the characteristics
485  III,    10.  6.  2    |              settings (at home, school, work). Also important are the
486  III,    10.  6.  2    |                level~At this level, the work of the Commission on Social
487  III,    10.  6.  2    |              guiding principles for the work made within the various
488  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 policy developments.~ ~ Work: ‘Environment Task Force’
489  III,    10.  6.  2    |               generations. Participants work on a daily basis and carry
490  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 network based on shared work experience.~· Education:
491  III,    10.  6.  3    |                  in institutions and at work) and undermines social and
492   IV,    11.  1.  3    |        attention since Thomas McKeown’s work in the 1970s (McKeown, 1979).
493   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                performance, but further work should provide some insight
494   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             fee-for-service for private work.~100% by salary for public
495   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             fee-for-service for private work)~Pediatricians – same as
496   IV,    11.  1.  6    |  fee-for-service for additional private work)~*Information as communicated
497   IV,    11.  4        |             policy world and base their work processes on methods and
498   IV,    11.  4        |              and methodologies that can work trans-nationally. See www. eu
499   IV,    11.  4        |       sustainable network for HTA. This work involved HTA agencies, Ministries
500   IV,    11.  5.  4    |           activities in this field. The work of the Council of Europe,