1-500 | 501-538
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     4.  1    |             reducing the consumption of alcohol, drugs and tobacco and reducing
  2   II,     4.  2    |              larger than that on women. Alcohol related mortality (cause
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|               factors, such as smoking, alcohol use, obesity, excessive
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|             smoking habit and excessive alcohol consumption have a major
  5   II,     5.  1.  1|           trans-unsaturated fats, salt, alcohol, free sugar and low consumption
  6   II,     5.  1.  1|                lifestyle factors (diet, alcohol, ecc) that modify endogenous
  7   II,     5.  1.  1|                Certain factors, such as alcohol intake and cigarette smoking,
  8   II,     5.  1.  1|                 overweight and limiting alcohol intake, may also contribute
  9   II,     5.  1.  1|              HBV and HCV) infection and alcohol drinking.~Dermatological
 10   II,     5.  1.  1|                  tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and
 11   II,     5.  2.  2|             smoking habit and excessive alcohol consumption have a major
 12   II,     5.  2.  3|             smoking habit and excessive alcohol consumption. Thus, overall
 13   II,     5.  2.  4|           trans-unsaturated fats, salt, alcohol, free sugar and low consumption
 14   II,     5.  2.  4|            diabetes mellitus, excessive alcohol consumption and psychosocial
 15   II,     5.  2.  4|                 Interestingly, moderate alcohol intake (20-30 g/day in men
 16   II,     5.  2.  4|   hyperlipidemia, diabetes, overweight, alcohol use, physical activity,
 17   II,     5.  2.  6|              such as physical activity, alcohol, water, environment), strengthening
 18   II,     5.  3.  4|                e.g. unbalanced diet and alcohol) that modify endogenous
 19   II,     5.  3.  7|           smoking, avoidance of harmful alcohol use, diet improvement and
 20   II,     5.  5.Int|            drugs and the harm caused by alcohol. Initiatives under the Community’
 21   II,     5.  5.  1|                 Kessler et al 1996) and alcohol misuse (Sullivan et al,
 22   II,     5.  5.  1|                prevalence and impact of alcohol problems in major depression:
 23   II,     5.  5.  2|                Certain factors, such as alcohol intake and cigarette smoking,
 24   II,     5.  5.  2|                 overweight and limiting alcohol intake, may also contribute
 25   II,     5.  5.  3|              depression in third place, alcohol use disorders sixth rank,
 26   II,     5.  5.  3|                 7% of YLDs, followed by alcohol use disorder accounting
 27   II,     5.  5.  3|           schizophrenia are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or cannabis (Regier
 28   II,     5.  5.  3|          nicotine) or the liver (due to alcohol consumption). The underlying
 29   II,     5.  5.  3|                of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results
 30   II,     5.  5.  3|                 psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse. Psychiatric comorbidity,
 31   II,     5.  5.  3|               to 64, organic psychoses, alcohol dependence and hysteria
 32   II,     5.  5.  3|                patients aged 65 or more alcohol dependence was the most
 33   II,     5.  5.  3|                of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in 144 PD patients and
 34   II,     5.  5.  3|           lowest risk in heavy smokers. Alcohol intake, however, was not
 35   II,     5.  6.  3|               fractures, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, inactivity,
 36   II,     5.  6.  5|         physical exercise, avoidance of alcohol excess, of tobacco smoking,
 37   II,     5. 10.  5|             making distillates or ethyl alcohol of a agricultural origin
 38   II,     5. 10.  5|             making distillates or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin for
 39   II,     5. 10.  5|             making distillates or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin for
 40   II,     5. 12.  1|              HBV and HCV) infection and alcohol drinking: the control of
 41   II,     5. 12.  1|                drinking: the control of alcohol drinking is the most immediate
 42   II,     5. 12.  2|                Cancer Institute, 2005).~Alcohol consumption data (litres
 43   II,     5. 12.  4|                 see also Chapter 6) and alcohol drinking (Corrao and Aricò,
 44   II,     5. 12.  4|              changes in the patterns of alcohol consumption in several countries.
 45   II,     5. 12.  4|              most countries, changes in alcohol consumption were followed
 46   II,     5. 12.  4|             following sudden changes in alcohol consumption have been described
 47   II,     5. 12.  4|                 World War II, when both alcohol consumption and cirrhosis
 48   II,     5. 12.  4|                 with the extremely high alcohol consumption in these countries
 49   II,     5. 12.  4|                 followed the decline of alcohol consumption observed thereafter (
 50   II,     5. 12.  4|           hepatitis and the quantity of alcohol consumption, but also to
 51   II,     5. 12.  4|                meal) and to the type of alcohol consumed. In these countries,
 52   II,     5. 12.  4|               substantial proportion of alcohol derives from fruit (plums,
 53   II,     5. 12.  4|                 on potential changes in alcohol consumption in those centres
 54   II,     5. 12.  4|           mainly due to recent rises in alcohol consumption in these populations (
 55   II,     5. 12.  4|            there is no doubt that total alcohol consumption is a major determinant
 56   II,     5. 12.  5|     transmission (see Chapter 6) and of alcohol drinking.~ ~Thus, control
 57   II,     5. 12.  5|            drinking.~ ~Thus, control of alcohol drinking is the most immediate
 58   II,     5. 12.  5|             what concerns prevention of alcohol drinking .~Universal vaccination
 59   II,     5. 12.  5|               reduction or avoidance of alcohol drinking.~Control of alcohol
 60   II,     5. 12.  5|            alcohol drinking.~Control of alcohol drinking is also the key
 61   II,     5. 12.  5|              decades.~Since the rise of alcohol drinking in those countries
 62   II,     5. 12.  5|           policies to rise the price of alcohol should be adopted, together
 63   II,     5. 12.  6|          European countries, changes in alcohol drinking appear to well
 64   II,     5. 12.  6|                 follow rapid changes in alcohol consumption in periods of
 65   II,     5. 12.  7| age-period-cohort analysis and changing alcohol consumption. Int J Epidemiol
 66   II,     5. 12.  7|         hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol consumption on the risk
 67   II,     5. 12.  7|                    La Vecchia C (2001): Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet:
 68   II,     5. 12.  7|           Ramstedt M (2001): Per capita alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis
 69   II,     5. 12.  7|                  2006a): Health topics. Alcohol drinking. Available at: htt ~ ~
 70   II,     5. 14.  4|                  tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and
 71   II,     5. 14.  5|                the control of excessive alcohol consumption see Chapter
 72   II,     7.  4.  6|              depression, schizophrenia, alcohol and other drug use, and
 73   II,     8.  2.  1|                are Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and fragile X
 74   II,     8.  2.  1|               help early in life. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a highly common
 75   II,     8.  2.  1|            damaging effects of drinking alcohol during pregnancy and should
 76   II,     9        |                 of Pregnancy~ ~Drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Prenatal
 77   II,     9        |         pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can be associated with a
 78   II,     9        |               numbers. Trends regarding alcohol drinking among young women
 79   II,     9        |                factors such as smoking, alcohol, poor nutrition and other
 80   II,     9        |                in Cyprus (1993 data).~ ~Alcohol. Despite Europeans being
 81   II,     9        |            world’s highest consumers of alcohol, most national and cross-cultural
 82   II,     9        |          difference. The consumption of alcohol in society is related to
 83   II,     9        |        different cultural beliefs about alcohol itself, expectancies regarding
 84   II,     9        |          beliefs and expectancies about alcohol experience significantly
 85   II,     9        |                  Regular consumption of alcohol is increasing in young people,
 86   II,     9        |                 also be influential. ~ ~Alcohol. The Charter establishing
 87   II,     9        |               establishing the European Alcohol and Health Forum notes that
 88   II,     9        |                of harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption and that alcohol
 89   II,     9        |            alcohol consumption and that alcohol contributes to about 25%
 90   II,     9        |             death as a result of excess alcohol consumption (Britton & McKee,
 91   II,     9        |                 Britton & McKee, 2000). Alcohol exacerbates financial difficulties,
 92   II,     9        |              may include regular use of alcohol (especially if combined
 93   II,     9        |                the reduction of harmful alcohol consumption among older
 94   II,     9        |        including those in later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which
 95   II,     9        |             DiseaseReport states that alcohol use is the leading cause
 96   II,     9.  1.  2|                 of Pregnancy~ ~Drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Prenatal
 97   II,     9.  1.  2|         pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can be associated with a
 98   II,     9.  1.  2|               numbers. Trends regarding alcohol drinking among young women
 99   II,     9.  1.  2|                factors such as smoking, alcohol, poor nutrition and other
100   II,     9.  1.  2|                 the population, such as alcohol, recreational drugs, smoking
101   II,     9.  2.  1|                 more often than girls), alcohol consumption, tobacco use,
102   II,     9.  2.  2|                School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD):
103   II,     9.  2.  2|             young people with regard to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
104   II,     9.  2.  2|           nutrition, physical exercise, alcohol consumption patterns, sexual
105   II,     9.  2.  2|                health outcome. Food and alcohol consumption are examples.
106   II,     9.  2.  3|                 behaviour as well as of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drug
107   II,     9.  2.  4|                in Cyprus (1993 data).~ ~Alcohol. Despite Europeans being
108   II,     9.  2.  4|            world’s highest consumers of alcohol, most national and cross-cultural
109   II,     9.  2.  4|          difference. The consumption of alcohol in society is related to
110   II,     9.  2.  4|        different cultural beliefs about alcohol itself, expectancies regarding
111   II,     9.  2.  4|          beliefs and expectancies about alcohol experience significantly
112   II,     9.  2.  4|                  Regular consumption of alcohol is increasing in young people,
113   II,     9.  3.  1|        accidents, violence, suicide and alcohol, the overall rate is much
114   II,     9.  3.  1|                addiction to smoking and alcohol, and overweight and obesity.~ ~
115   II,     9.  3.  1|           tobacco use and moderation in alcohol intake are obvious. A decade
116   II,     9.  3.  1|              habits, such as smoking or alcohol, greatly affect the decline
117   II,     9.  3.  1|                 also be influential. ~ ~Alcohol. The Charter establishing
118   II,     9.  3.  1|               establishing the European Alcohol and Health Forum notes that
119   II,     9.  3.  1|                of harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption and that alcohol
120   II,     9.  3.  1|            alcohol consumption and that alcohol contributes to about 25%
121   II,     9.  3.  1|             death as a result of excess alcohol consumption (Britton & McKee,
122   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Britton & McKee, 2000). Alcohol exacerbates financial difficulties,
123   II,     9.  3.  1|              may include regular use of alcohol (especially if combined
124   II,     9.  3.  1|             2000): The relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease
125   II,     9.  3.  1|              2002~ ~WHO/GENACIS (2005): Alcohol, gender and drinking problems:
126   II,     9.  3.  3|             health determinants such as alcohol consumption, drugs and substance
127   II,     9.  3.  3|               perception of risk may be alcohol consumption prior to having
128   II,     9.  3.  3|         behaviours (especially drug and alcohol use), school and community
129   II,     9.  3.  3|                The relationship between alcohol use and risk-taking sexual
130   II,     9.  4.  4|                the reduction of harmful alcohol consumption among older
131   II,     9.  4.  4|        including those in later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which
132   II,     9.  4.  4|             DiseaseReport states that alcohol use is the leading cause
133   II,     9.  4.  5|              topics, such as nutrition, alcohol and the achievement of the
134   II,     9.  5.  3|               the law (FIDH, 2006).~ ~ ~Alcohol misuse~ ~Alcohol related
135   II,     9.  5.  3|             2006).~ ~ ~Alcohol misuse~ ~Alcohol related problems represent
136   II,     9.  5.  3|               metabolisms as related to alcohol dehydrogenase activity.
137   II,     9.  5.  3|               to cultural beliefs about alcohol, expectancies regarding
138   II,     9.  5.  3|                regarding the effects of alcohol and social norms regarding
139   II,     9.  5.  3|              detract from the fact that alcohol exacerbates financial difficulties,
140   II,     9.  5.  3|               mortality associated with alcohol (European Commission, 2002).~ ~
141   II,     9.  5.  3|           report lifetime experience of alcohol misuse or dependence. Some
142   II,     9.  5.  3|            million Europeans experience alcohol problems at some time in
143   II,     9.  5.  3|            Europe either suffering from alcohol problems or afflicted by
144   II,     9.  5.  3|           between domestic violence and alcohol. High proportions of perpetrators
145   II,     9.  5.  3|               or under the influence of alcohol at the time of the assault.
146   II,     9.  5.  3|             also under the influence of alcohol at the time of the assault (
147   II,     9.  5.  3|               mortality associated with alcohol (European Commission, 2002).
148   II,     9.  5.  3|           needed on the contribution of alcohol to divorce, family break-up,
149   II,     9.  5.  3|              may include regular use of alcohol (especially if combined
150   II,     9.  5.  3|               number of girls who drink alcohol weekly rises sharply between
151   II,     9.  5.  4|                 the association between alcohol use and violence, is the
152   II,     9.  5.  4|                caused by harmful use of alcohol (WHA58.26[53]) of 2005,
153   II,     9.  5.  4|      consequences associated to harmful alcohol use, and requests Member
154   II,     9.  5.  4|          diseases, health determinants (alcohol, smoking, obesity) and major
155   II,     9.  5.  6|                   Global Status Report: Alcohol and Young People. World
156   II,     9.  5.  6|                   Global Status Report: Alcohol and Young People. World
157   II,     9.  5.  6|              151.~ ~WHO/GENACIS (2005): Alcohol, gender and drinking problems:
158   II,     9.  5.  6|              Interpersonal violence and alcohol policy briefing. Undated.~
159   II,     9.  5.  6|           Intimate partner violence and alcohol Fact Sheet.~Available at:~htt f (
160   II,     9.  5.  7|                project)~GENACIS~Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International
161  III,    10.  1.  1|                 lifestyle determinants: alcohol consumption and psychosocial
162  III,    10.  1.  1|                  2004) (Figure 10.1.2). Alcohol consumption is linked to
163  III,    10.  1.  1|        dependency are other reasons for alcohol consumption; social networks
164  III,    10.  1.  1|           lifestyle changes. Concerning alcohol consumption, core relationships
165  III,    10.  1.  1|               1984). On the other hand, alcohol consumption impacts on psychosocial
166  III,    10.  1.  1|                 psychosocial factors of alcohol consumption include early
167  III,    10.  1.  1|       expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption, heavy social
168  III,    10.  1.  1|                 and a family history of alcohol dependence. Reinforcing
169  III,    10.  1.  1|           drinks as well as the cost of alcohol are examples of enabling
170  III,    10.  1.  1|                 factors and barriers of alcohol use (Green and Potvin, 2004).~ ~
171  III,    10.  1.  1|               The evidence linking male alcohol consumption to intimate
172  III,    10.  1.  1|            psychosocial consequences of alcohol consumption include interpersonal
173  III,    10.  1.  1|        Pohorecky, 1991; Thakker, 1998). Alcohol consumption is also important
174  III,    10.  1.  1|               and family life influence alcohol consumption. It has been
175  III,    10.  1.  1|               It has been reported that alcohol plays an adaptive role in
176  III,    10.  1.  1|          families with higher levels of alcohol consumption. These associations
177  III,    10.  1.  1|                predominant predictor of alcohol consumption (Kuntsche and
178  III,    10.  1.  1|               an individual engaging in alcohol use depends on the stress
179  III,    10.  1.  1|          contributor to continuation of alcohol misuse and to relapse in
180  III,    10.  1.  1|                to relapse in recovering alcohol misusers. Again, heavy drinking
181  III,    10.  1.  1|              both increase and decrease alcohol consumption depending on
182  III,    10.  1.  1|                 the association between alcohol consumption and stress is
183  III,    10.  1.  1|                 are affected and affect alcohol consumption~ ~ ~ ~ ~For
184  III,    10.  1.  1|               concerns interventions on alcohol consumption, it is critically
185  III,    10.  1.  1|                 influential in reducing alcohol consumption in British men.
186  III,    10.  1.  1|               perception of risk may be alcohol consumption prior to having
187  III,    10.  1.  3|             limit revisited. Recent Dev Alcohol 5:373-402.~Beaglehole R (
188  III,    10.  1.  3|                Barry KL (2004): Role of alcohol in late-life suicide. Alcohol
189  III,    10.  1.  3|           alcohol in late-life suicide. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28(5) Suppl:
190  III,    10.  1.  3|                   The role of stress in alcohol use, alcoholism treatment,
191  III,    10.  1.  3|                 treatment, and relapse. Alcohol Res Health 23(4):263-271.~
192  III,    10.  1.  3|                Issues in the linkage of alcohol and domestic violence services.
193  III,    10.  1.  3|           violence services. Recent Dev Alcohol 13:387-405.~Dahlgren, G. &
194  III,    10.  1.  3|                  Rehm J (2003): Harmful alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health
195  III,    10.  1.  3|             2003): Harmful alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health 27(1):52-62.~
196  III,    10.  1.  3|             critical review. Recent Dev Alcohol 7:147-164.~Jebb SA, Moore
197  III,    10.  1.  3|            Jordan MD (2006): Adolescent alcohol and cannabis use in relation
198  III,    10.  1.  3|               multilevel analyses. Drug Alcohol Depend 84(2):167-174.~Kuntsche
199  III,    10.  1.  3|                 risk factors predicting alcohol use in adolescence. Subst
200  III,    10.  1.  3|             1990): The relation between alcohol problems and the anxiety
201  III,    10.  1.  3|          treatment of social phobia and alcohol abuse. Bull Menninger Clin
202  III,    10.  1.  3|                 GG (1993): Adolescents, alcohol and aggression. J Stud Alcohol
203  III,    10.  1.  3|          alcohol and aggression. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 11:53-61.~Miller NS,
204  III,    10.  1.  3|                associated with drug and alcohol addiction. Cleve Clin J
205  III,    10.  1.  3|                associated with drug and alcohol dependence. J Addict Dis
206  III,    10.  1.  3|                 SP, Chermack ST (1993): Alcohol, drugs and human physical
207  III,    10.  1.  3|             physical aggression. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 11:78-88.~Thakker
208  III,    10.  1.  3|            health risks and benefits of alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin
209  III,    10.  1.  3|                 of alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22(7):285S-298S.~
210  III,    10.  1.  3|                The relationship between alcohol use and risk-taking sexual
211  III,    10.  1.  3|                 between life-events and alcohol use in the general population.
212  III,    10.  1.  3|                 the general population. Alcohol Alcohol 41(4):455-463.~Velleman
213  III,    10.  1.  3|             general population. Alcohol Alcohol 41(4):455-463.~Velleman
214  III,    10.  1.  3|           relationship between parental alcohol problems and family disharmony
215  III,    10.  1.  3|            disharmony in the genesis of alcohol and other problems. I: The
216  III,    10.  1.  3|            intergenerational effects of alcohol problems. Int J Addict 27(
217  III,    10.  1.  3|           relationship between parental alcohol problems and family disharmony
218  III,    10.  1.  3|            disharmony in the genesis of alcohol and other problems. II:
219  III,    10.  2.  1|               than AIDS, car accidents, alcohol, homicides, illegal drugs,
220  III,    10.  2.  1|            present and future. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2006; 25: 59-71~ ~
221  III,    10.  2.  1|                               10.2.1.2. Alcohol~ ~
222  III,    10.  2.  1|                          Acronyms~ ~APN~Alcohol Policy Network~BAC~Blood
223  III,    10.  2.  1|                Policy Network~BAC~Blood Alcohol Concentration~CHD~Coronary
224  III,    10.  2.  1|                 the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine~ECAS~European
225  III,    10.  2.  1|               ECAS~European Comparative Alcohol Study~ELSA~Enforcement of
226  III,    10.  2.  1|            advertising and marketing of Alcohol~ESPAD~European Schools Project
227  III,    10.  2.  1|             European Schools Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs~FAO~Food
228  III,    10.  2.  1|        Statistical Division~FASD~Foetal Alcohol Syndrome~GBD~Global Burden
229  III,    10.  2.  1|                 2.1.2.1. Introduction~ ~Alcohol can affect almost every
230  III,    10.  2.  1|               with increasing levels of alcohol consumption. Alcohol is
231  III,    10.  2.  1|                 of alcohol consumption. Alcohol is a health determinant,
232  III,    10.  2.  1|                States to manage~harmful alcohol use.~ ~Alcohol-related harm
233  III,    10.  2.  1|               societal levels, in which alcohol plays a causal role. Alcohol-related
234  III,    10.  2.  1|            includes the “harmful use of alcohol”, a category in the ICD-10
235  III,    10.  2.  1|               risk of harm or hazardous alcohol consumption, as it is associated,
236  III,    10.  2.  1|                adults. The harm done by alcohol has a larger disporptionate
237  III,    10.  2.  1|     disporptionate effect on young men. Alcohol consumption is associated
238  III,    10.  2.  1|          provided by the members of the Alcohol Policy Network (APN), co-financed
239  III,    10.  2.  1|                    European Comparative Alcohol Study (ECAS) reports (2001-
240  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Global Status Report on AlcoholGlobal Status Report on
241  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Global Status Report on Alcohol PoliciesWHO-EURO Health
242  III,    10.  2.  1|                 All DatabaseWHO-EURO Alcohol Control Database~· WHO Global
243  III,    10.  2.  1|           Control Database~· WHO Global Alcohol Database~ ~International
244  III,    10.  2.  1|             European Schools Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD;
245  III,    10.  2.  1|               International Handbook of Alcohol Problems and Dependence~ ~ ~
246  III,    10.  2.  1|                description and analysis~Alcohol consumption and patterns
247  III,    10.  2.  1|               average 11 litres of pure alcohol each year – a level over
248  III,    10.  2.  1|               sales due to low taxes on alcohol).~ ~Despite the present
249  III,    10.  2.  1|                 2.1. Trends in recorded alcohol consumption in population
250  III,    10.  2.  1|       population aged 16+) do not drink alcohol at all, and some 58 million
251  III,    10.  2.  1|                on average more than 20g alcohol per day and men who consume
252  III,    10.  2.  1|              citizens aged 15+ consumed alcohol at least once during the
253  III,    10.  2.  1|            months, and 65% had consumed alcohol during the previous 30 days.
254  III,    10.  2.  1|                five or more drinks (50g alcohol) on one occasion at least
255  III,    10.  2.  1|         citizens aged 15+ who had drunk alcohol at least once during the
256  III,    10.  2.  1|               had 5 or more drinks (50g alcohol) on one occasion when they
257  III,    10.  2.  1|             occasion when they consumed alcohol. Of the past month drinkers,
258  III,    10.  2.  1|                drink 3-4 drinks (30-40g alcohol) on one occasion and a further
259  III,    10.  2.  1|               34% 5 or more drinks (50g alcohol). The proportion of EU15
260  III,    10.  2.  1|                 of EU15 adults reported alcohol consumption within the past
261  III,    10.  2.  1|                five or more drinks (50g alcohol) on an occasion increased
262  III,    10.  2.  1|            year-old students have drunk alcohol at some point in their life,
263  III,    10.  2.  1|                School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD)
264  III,    10.  2.  1|              that the average amount of alcohol drunk by 15-16 year olds
265  III,    10.  2.  1|            drinking occasion was 60g of alcohol. No EU15 country outside
266  III,    10.  2.  1|                reaches over 80g of pure alcohol. Last occasion drinking
267  III,    10.  2.  1|              which averaged 38g of pure alcohol. The highest levels of both
268  III,    10.  2.  1|               period.~ ~Acute harm from alcohol~ ~A substantial proportion
269  III,    10.  2.  1|              violent crimes relating to alcohol, the proportion varying
270  III,    10.  2.  1|               is a relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk
271  III,    10.  2.  1|            relationship between greater alcohol use and criminal and domestic
272  III,    10.  2.  1|              other drugs in addition to alcohol are taken into account.
273  III,    10.  2.  1|                 the higher the level of alcohol consumption, the more serious
274  III,    10.  2.  1|             reviews have suggested that alcohol is a cause of child abuse
275  III,    10.  2.  1|                 with both the amount of alcohol consumed and the frequency
276  III,    10.  2.  1|             occasions, as well as blood alcohol concentration levels. A
277  III,    10.  2.  1|             departure from a zero blood alcohol concentration level (BAC).
278  III,    10.  2.  1|               BAC). Comparison of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of
279  III,    10.  2.  1|         relationship between the use of alcohol, largely in the short term,
280  III,    10.  2.  1|                People who usually drink alcohol at lower levels, but who
281  III,    10.  2.  1|            drinking large quantities of alcohol, are at particular risk.
282  III,    10.  2.  1|                 are at particular risk. Alcohol increases the risk of attendance
283  III,    10.  2.  1|                 can be alcohol-related. Alcohol alters the treatment course
284  III,    10.  2.  1|             direct relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk
285  III,    10.  2.  1|                 has been estimated that alcohol is related to:~- 2,000 homicides (
286  III,    10.  2.  1|          families adversely affected by alcohol.~ ~Table 10.2.1.2.2. Change
287  III,    10.  2.  1|            litre increase in per capita alcohol consumption~ ~As can be
288  III,    10.  2.  1|           between a 1 litre increase in alcohol consumption and death rates
289  III,    10.  2.  1|          countries.~ ~Chronic harm from alcohol~ ~Alcohol is a toxic substance
290  III,    10.  2.  1|             Chronic harm from alcohol~ ~Alcohol is a toxic substance that
291  III,    10.  2.  1|               more different disorders. Alcohol consumption can result in
292  III,    10.  2.  1|               in addiction. The risk of alcohol dependence increases with
293  III,    10.  2.  1|                 with both the volume of alcohol consumption and a pattern
294  III,    10.  2.  1|               with increasing levels of alcohol consumption, with no evidence
295  III,    10.  2.  1|              women. The total amount of alcohol consumed over a lifetime
296  III,    10.  2.  1|                consumed over a lifetime alcohol intake increases the risk
297  III,    10.  2.  1|             linear relationship between alcohol consumption and symptoms
298  III,    10.  2.  1|                function of the level of alcohol use. There is a straight
299  III,    10.  2.  1|      relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed over a lifetime
300  III,    10.  2.  1|                   Long term exposure to alcohol increases the risk of liver
301  III,    10.  2.  1|          pancreatitis. The reduction in alcohol consumption, which took
302  III,    10.  2.  1|                2).~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.2. Alcohol consumption and cirrhosis
303  III,    10.  2.  1|              rates in southern Europe~ ~Alcohol is a carcinogen; long term
304  III,    10.  2.  1|                20 grams (two drinks) of alcohol per day, with most of the
305  III,    10.  2.  1|             with ageing and ill health. Alcohol raises blood pressure and
306  III,    10.  2.  1|           J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk
307  III,    10.  2.  1|           pre-existing heart disease.~ ~Alcohol shows reproductive toxicity.
308  III,    10.  2.  1|          toxicity. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can be associated to a distinctive
309  III,    10.  2.  1|                 in children with Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FASD), children
310  III,    10.  2.  1|              exposed to lower levels of alcohol can also exhibit similar
311  III,    10.  2.  1|             year in the European Union, alcohol causes:~- 45,000 deaths
312  III,    10.  2.  1|                 up all the harm done by alcohol means that 7.4% of all ill-health
313  III,    10.  2.  1|                European Union is due to alcohol, placing alcohol as the
314  III,    10.  2.  1|                 due to alcohol, placing alcohol as the third most important
315  III,    10.  2.  1|               Union~ ~Economic costs of alcohol consumption~ ~The burden
316  III,    10.  2.  1|             burden of ill-health due to alcohol is disproportionally shouldered
317  III,    10.  2.  1|              nearly 1 in 3 in the EU10. Alcohol is responsible for a slightly
318  III,    10.  2.  1|               of deaths attributable to alcohol in EU per age group (year
319  III,    10.  2.  1|                health gap are linked to alcohol. For males dying between
320  III,    10.  2.  1|             2008). Whereas in the EU15, alcohol is responsible for 29% of
321  III,    10.  2.  1|              The estimates suggest that alcohol is responsible for a difference
322  III,    10.  2.  1|          Anderson and Baumberg 2006).~ ~Alcohol is a cause of health inequalities
323  III,    10.  2.  1|                 For example, in Sweden, alcohol is the 2nd most important
324  III,    10.  2.  1|     inequalities are strongly linked to alcohol, including external causes (
325  III,    10.  2.  1|           southern Europe). The role of alcohol in these inequalities may
326  III,    10.  2.  1|                directly attributable to alcohol than areas with the least,
327  III,    10.  2.  1|                 5. The tangible cost of alcohol in Europe per cost element (
328  III,    10.  2.  1|           social harms that result from alcohol consumption. They are implemented
329  III,    10.  2.  1|                 They are implemented by alcohol policies, which include
330  III,    10.  2.  1|                  the central purpose of alcohol policies is to serve the
331  III,    10.  2.  1|               treat problem drinkers.~ ~Alcohol is a major economic commodity
332  III,    10.  2.  1|                the centre of the global alcohol industry, acting as both
333  III,    10.  2.  1|                recall that the trade in alcohol in the whole European Union
334  III,    10.  2.  1|                 reduce the harm done by alcohol (Anderson and Baumberg 2006).~ ~
335  III,    10.  2.  1|       Maintaining the relative price of alcohol~ ~When other factors are
336  III,    10.  2.  1|           constant, the more affordable alcohol is, the more it is consumed;
337  III,    10.  2.  1|                impact of an increase in alcohol price is stronger in the
338  III,    10.  2.  1|           effects - taking into account alcohol’s dependence producing properties -
339  III,    10.  2.  1|                  Policies that increase alcohol prices have been shown to
340  III,    10.  2.  1|         sensitive to price, with higher alcohol taxes or prices leading
341  III,    10.  2.  1|                the revenues from tax on alcohol depend on the total amount
342  III,    10.  2.  1|           depend on the total amount of alcohol drunk in a country, evidence
343  III,    10.  2.  1|              unsurprisingly the average alcohol tax rates, which relate
344  III,    10.  2.  1|              closely to the income from alcohol taxes.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.
345  III,    10.  2.  1|             taxes.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.2.6. Alcohol consumption and alcohol
346  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Alcohol consumption and alcohol tax revenue~ ~Managing the
347  III,    10.  2.  1|          revenue~ ~Managing the sale of alcohol~ ~The smaller the number
348  III,    10.  2.  1|                 difficulty in obtaining alcohol, a situation that is likely
349  III,    10.  2.  1|                 that is likely to deter alcohol use and problems (Anderson
350  III,    10.  2.  1|                 either hours or days of alcohol sale can redistribute the
351  III,    10.  2.  1|                 the times in which many alcohol related accidents and violent
352  III,    10.  2.  1|               violent events related to alcohol take place, this occurs
353  III,    10.  2.  1|          Saturday opening of government alcohol stores was re-instituted,
354  III,    10.  2.  1|            there was a 3.6% increase in alcohol sales (Norstrom and Skog
355  III,    10.  2.  1|              countries legally restrict alcohol sales to minors. There is
356  III,    10.  2.  1|                or not there are bans on alcohol advertisements in a jurisdiction
357  III,    10.  2.  1|             specify the extent to which alcohol advertising in certain categories
358  III,    10.  2.  1|           prohibition of advertising of alcohol products on television and
359  III,    10.  2.  1|              examples of regulations on alcohol marketing in some countries.
360  III,    10.  2.  1|           Setting and controlling blood alcohol levels.~ ~Establishing a
361  III,    10.  2.  1|                an increase in passenger alcohol consumption is often found
362  III,    10.  2.  1|                and persuasion to reduce alcohol related harm might seem
363  III,    10.  2.  1|       supporting drinking, and in which alcohol is readily available. Many
364  III,    10.  2.  1|                 which aimed at reducing alcohol related harm and found that
365  III,    10.  2.  1|        effective intervention to reduce alcohol related harm; although there
366  III,    10.  2.  1|               increased knowledge about alcohol and in improved attitudes,
367  III,    10.  2.  1|           impact of these guidelines on alcohol related harm (Anderson and
368  III,    10.  2.  1|            failed to deter increases in alcohol consumption. The exception
369  III,    10.  2.  1|              customer’s estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or number
370  III,    10.  2.  1|                 prohibiting the sale of alcohol to intoxicated customers.~ ~
371  III,    10.  2.  1|          reducing drinking and driving, alcohol related traffic fatalities
372  III,    10.  2.  1|               for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption reduce alcohol
373  III,    10.  2.  1|              alcohol consumption reduce alcohol consumption, alcohol related
374  III,    10.  2.  1|             reduce alcohol consumption, alcohol related problems and alcohol-related
375  III,    10.  2.  1|              with hazardous and harmful alcohol use in the absence of severe
376  III,    10.  2.  1|                 people with more severe alcohol dependence and related problems,
377  III,    10.  2.  1|                 maximum permitted blood alcohol content, 2001~http ~ ~Council
378  III,    10.  2.  1|       Recommendation on the drinking of alcohol by young people, in particular
379  III,    10.  2.  1|          Commission Communication on EU alcohol strategy, 2006~http ~ ~European
380  III,    10.  2.  1|         strategy, 2006~http ~ ~European alcohol and health forum, 2007~http ~ ~
381  III,    10.  2.  1|              Project~http ~ ~EUROCAREAlcohol Policy Network in the Context
382  III,    10.  2.  1|            advertising and marketing of Alcohol~http ~ ~Research projects
383  III,    10.  2.  1|                    Research projects on alcohol:~ ~Genomics, mechanism and
384  III,    10.  2.  1|               under influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine~http ~ ~DG
385  III,    10.  2.  1|                       DG SANCO pages on Alcohol~http ~ ~
386  III,    10.  2.  1|          Anderson P, Baumberg B (2006): Alcohol in Europe: A Public Health
387  III,    10.  2.  1|        Commission. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies. Available at:~htt ~ ~
388  III,    10.  2.  1|           Commercial Communications and Alcohol. Utrecht: National Foundation
389  III,    10.  2.  1|                 National Foundation for Alcohol Prevention.~ ~Babor TF,
390  III,    10.  2.  1|             Room R and Rossow I (2003): Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity.
391  III,    10.  2.  1|                2007). Attitudes towards Alcohol. Available at:~htt f. Accessed
392  III,    10.  2.  1|                to prevent and/or reduce alcohol use by young people under
393  III,    10.  2.  1|               people under 18 years old Alcohol and schools: Review of effectiveness
394  III,    10.  2.  1|                    Giesbrecht N (2003): Alcohol, tobacco and local control.
395  III,    10.  2.  1|               trials. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 20 25-40.~ ~Kristenson
396  III,    10.  2.  1|                trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction,
397  III,    10.  2.  1|                  Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary
398  III,    10.  2.  1|                Rehm J (2005): Volume of Alcohol Consumption, Patterns of
399  III,    10.  2.  1|               Region - Implications for Alcohol Policy. 10th meeting of
400  III,    10.  2.  1|               national counterparts for alcohol policy in the WHO European
401  III,    10.  2.  1|                School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs~HBSC~Health
402  III,    10.  2.  1|             played a role in deaths are alcohol, benzodiazepines, other
403  III,    10.  2.  1|           modifying the availability of alcohol and tobacco, the settings
404  III,    10.  2.  1|                 problems are also using alcohol and tobacco and sometimes
405  III,    10.  2.  1|                School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) (
406  III,    10.  2.  1|           factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol, stress improvements – is
407  III,    10.  2.  1|               tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption. Such behaviours
408  III,    10.  2.  1|           factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol, stress improvements – is
409  III,    10.  2.  1|               as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption and poor dietary
410  III,    10.  2.  1|  physical activity, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption also affect
411  III,    10.  2.  1|               fish (Welch et al, 2002), alcohol (Sieri et al, 2002), added
412  III,    10.  2.  1|               performed for tobacco and alcohol; pricing policies for food
413  III,    10.  2.  1|          smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption).~· It is recommended
414  III,    10.  2.  1|               reduce the consumption of alcohol).~· Strengthen nutrition
415  III,    10.  2.  1|           Slimani N (2002): Patterns of alcohol consumption in 10 European
416  III,    10.  2.  4|          polymorphisms with smoking and alcohol on the risk of cardiovascular
417  III,    10.  5.  2|              social pathologies such as alcohol and drug dependence being
418  III,    10.  5.  3|          indirect costs for addictions (alcohol, drugs).~ ~Impact of work
419  III,    10.  6.  2|              Reduced use of tobacco and alcohol, a society free from illicit
420  III,    10.  6.  2|               Another goal is to reduce alcohol and drug abuse and improve
421  III,    10.  6.  3|        behaviours, including the use of alcohol;~· Influencing close personal
422   IV,    11.  2.  2|              public health campaigns on alcohol abuse and smoking. It is
423   IV,    12.  2    |                and health, the European Alcohol and Health Forum, the e-Health
424   IV,    12.  2    |                  emerging technologies, alcohol and mental health.~ ~Regular
425   IV,    12.  2    |               and physical activity and alcohol) or the environment (carcinogenic
426   IV,    12.  2    |                on tobacco control.~ ~2. Alcohol~ ~Risk reduction strategies
427   IV,    12.  2    |           social harms that result from alcohol consumption. They are implemented
428   IV,    12.  2    |                 They are implemented by alcohol policies, which include
429   IV,    12.  2    |           health the central purpose of alcohol policies is to serve the
430   IV,    12.  2    |               treat problem drinkers.~ ~Alcohol is a major economic commodity
431   IV,    12.  2    |                the centre of the global alcohol industry, acting as both
432   IV,    12.  2    |                recall that the trade in alcohol in the whole European Union
433   IV,    12.  2    |                 reduce the harm done by alcohol. ~ ~Maintaining the relative
434   IV,    12.  2    |       Maintaining the relative price of alcohol~ ~When other factors are
435   IV,    12.  2    |           constant, the more affordable alcohol is, the more it is consumed;
436   IV,    12.  2    |                impact of an increase in alcohol price is stronger in the
437   IV,    12.  2    |            effects, taking into account alcohol’s dependence producing properties
438   IV,    12.  2    |                  Policies that increase alcohol prices have been shown to
439   IV,    12.  2    |         sensitive to price, with higher alcohol taxes or prices leading
440   IV,    12.  2    |                the revenues from tax on alcohol depends on the total amount
441   IV,    12.  2    |          depends on the total amount of alcohol drunk in a country, the
442   IV,    12.  2    |              unsurprisingly the average alcohol tax rates, which relate
443   IV,    12.  2    |              closely to the income from alcohol taxes.~ ~Managing the sale
444   IV,    12.  2    |                    Managing the sale of alcohol~ ~The smaller the number
445   IV,    12.  2    |                 difficulty in obtaining alcohol, a situation that is likely
446   IV,    12.  2    |                 that is likely to deter alcohol use and problems. A number
447   IV,    12.  2    |                 either hours or days of alcohol sale can redistribute the
448   IV,    12.  2    |                 the times at which many alcohol related crashes and violent
449   IV,    12.  2    |               violent events related to alcohol take place, it does so at
450   IV,    12.  2    |          Saturday opening of government alcohol stores was re-instituted,
451   IV,    12.  2    |            there was a 3.6% increase in alcohol sales.~ ~Almost all countries
452   IV,    12.  2    |              countries legally restrict alcohol sales to minors. There is
453   IV,    12.  2    |                or not there are bans on alcohol advertisements in a jurisdiction
454   IV,    12.  2    |             specify the extent to which alcohol advertising in certain categories
455   IV,    12.  2    |           prohibition of advertising of alcohol products on television and
456   IV,    12.  2    |              examples of regulations on alcohol marketing in some countries.
457   IV,    12.  2    |           Setting and controlling blood alcohol levels.~ ~Establishing a
458   IV,    12.  2    |                an increase in passenger alcohol consumption is often found
459   IV,    12.  2    |                and persuasion to reduce alcohol related harm might seem
460   IV,    12.  2    |       supporting drinking, and in which alcohol is readily available. Many
461   IV,    12.  2    |         education which aimed to reduce alcohol related harm, and found
462   IV,    12.  2    |        effective intervention to reduce alcohol related harm; although there
463   IV,    12.  2    |               increased knowledge about alcohol and in improved attitudes,
464   IV,    12.  2    |           impact of these guidelines on alcohol related harm . The United
465   IV,    12.  2    |            failed to deter increases in alcohol consumption. The exception
466   IV,    12.  2    |              customer’s estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or number
467   IV,    12.  2    |                laws prohibiting sale of alcohol to intoxicated customers. ~ ~
468   IV,    12.  2    |          reducing drinking and driving, alcohol related traffic fatalities
469   IV,    12.  2    |               for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption reduce alcohol
470   IV,    12.  2    |              alcohol consumption reduce alcohol consumption, as well as
471   IV,    12.  2    |             demonstrating reductions in alcohol related problems and alcohol-related
472   IV,    12.  2    |              with hazardous and harmful alcohol use in the absence of severe
473   IV,    12.  2    |                 people with more severe alcohol dependence and related problems,
474   IV,    12.  2    |                 or setting. ~ ~Relevant alcohol policy documents~ ~· Television
475   IV,    12.  2    |                 maximum permitted blood alcohol content, 2001~http Council
476   IV,    12.  2    |       Recommendation on the drinking of alcohol by young people, in particular
477   IV,    12.  2    |          Commission Communication on EU alcohol strategy, 2006~http European
478   IV,    12.  2    |            strategy, 2006~http European alcohol and health forum, 2007~http ~ ~
479   IV,    12.  2    |                 Project~http EUROCAREAlcohol Policy Network in the Context
480   IV,    12.  2    |            advertising and marketing of Alcohol~http ~ ~Research projects
481   IV,    12.  2    |                    Research projects on alcoholGenomics, mechanism and
482   IV,    12.  2    |               under influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine~http DG SANCO
483   IV,    12.  2    |         medicine~http DG SANCO pages on Alcohol~http ~ ~For more information
484   IV,    12.  5    |           determinants such as tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs and pharmaceuticals
485   IV,    12. 10    |             High ~National/Regional~Yes~Alcohol consumption~High ~National/
486   IV,    12. 10    |      prohibition of sale af tobacco and alcohol to people under the age
487   IV,    12. 10    |            smoking and stopping~http df~Alcohol consumption~ ~ high~Act
488   IV,    12. 10    |      prohibition of sale af tobacco and alcohol to people under the age
489   IV,    12. 10    |              order to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption amongst young
490   IV,    12. 10    |                 Research Centre/DKFZ)~ ~Alcohol consumption~High priority,
491   IV,    12. 10    |     requirements aimed at prevention of alcohol abuse among young people:
492   IV,    12. 10    |                  Prohibition of selling alcohol to underage and youth drinking
493   IV,    12. 10    |             underage and youth drinking alcohol in public9 Law for protection
494   IV,    12. 10    |              are forbidden to drink any alcohol (Prohibition for novice
495   IV,    12. 10    |               taxes). In general, blood alcohol concentration limits on
496   IV,    12. 10    |       infringement of the regulations). Alcohol advertising is banned in
497   IV,    12. 10    |                exist.~National level of alcohol consumption as well as drinking
498   IV,    12. 10    |           Health Education (see www. .~ Alcohol prevention is one of the
499   IV,    12. 10    |                 no’” to drugs including alcohol~ProjectHaLTHart am
500   IV,    12. 10    |               preventing heavy or risky alcohol consumption amongst children