1-500 | 501-528
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |              country-level historical studies exploring the role of health
  2    I,     2.  5        |               levels are weak. Recent studies show that the position that
  3    I,     2.  5        |             at Work, 2006).~Both case studies and quantitative data show
  4    I,     2.  5        |               in work-related stress. Studies have showed that an increase
  5    I,     2.  6        |         successfully completing their studies were men. Men also outnumbered
  6    I,     2. 10.  1    |          generated by high-throughput studies. The storage, organisation
  7    I,     2. 10.  4    |           medication errors8. Several studies in different countries indicate
  8    I,     2. 10.  4    |           medication errors. Numerous studies have shown that automatic
  9    I,     2. 10.  5    |           concerns how to conduct HTA studies with the aim of assessing
 10    I,     2. 11        |              discipline evolving from studies on ultrafine particles.
 11   II,     5.  1.  1    |         mellitus. The focus of recent studies in periodontics is on systemic
 12   II,     5.  2.  2    |             than rigorous but limited studies carried out in certain geographical
 13   II,     5.  2.  4    |               despite epidemiological studies demonstrated that the risk
 14   II,     5.  2.  5    |           Prospective epidemiological studies have emphasized that known
 15   II,     5.  2.  5    |            than ¾ of IHD cases; these studies have demonstrated that most
 16   II,     5.  2.  5    |            then, many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that risk
 17   II,     5.  2.  5    |            The majority of cardiology studies suggests that improvements
 18   II,     5.  2.  6    |          great majority of cardiology studies suggests that improvements
 19   II,     5.  2.  6    |            and CVD risk~Observational studies performed in the sixth decade
 20   II,     5.  2.  6    |             number of epidemiological studies (Stamler J et al, 1986).
 21   II,     5.  2.  6    |               in most epidemiological studies (Lewington et al, 2007).
 22   II,     5.  2.  6    |         Collins R (2002): Prospective Studies Collaboration : Age-specific
 23   II,     5.  2.  6    |              adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 360: 1903-1913.~
 24   II,     5.  2.  6    |                1966). Epidemiological studies related to coronary heart
 25   II,     5.  2.  6    |         Collins R (2007): Prospective Studies Collaboration: Blood cholesterol
 26   II,     5.  2.  6    |              data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths.
 27   II,     5.  3.  2    |              groups. To perform these studies additional data, such as
 28   II,     5.  3.  2    |           They usually perform ad hoc studies on representative samples
 29   II,     5.  3.  2    |       bio-bank-clinical research, for studies on molecular and genetic
 30   II,     5.  3.  9    |        Reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:606-
 31   II,     5.  4.  1    |              range of epidemiological studies to be highly significant
 32   II,     5.  4.  1    |              the conduction of ad hoc studies that are often limited in
 33   II,     5.  4.  2    |            National drug sales~ ~Some studies have utilised national drug
 34   II,     5.  5.Int    |             than in men in almost all studies15.~ ~Only cardiovascular
 35   II,     5.  5.Int(15)|         people in Europe: the EURODEP studies. World Psychiatry, 3:45–
 36   II,     5.  5.Int    |             not in men19. The EURODEM studies also noted that the rates
 37   II,     5.  5.  1    |              suicide and results from studies carried out in several Member
 38   II,     5.  5.  1    |               results from 3 European studies. J Clin Psychiatry 68(Suppl
 39   II,     5.  5.  2    |               is taken from two major studies into the prevalence of dementia
 40   II,     5.  5.  2    |           calculations based on these studies and population statistics
 41   II,     5.  5.  2    |        systematic review of published studies on dementia and agreed on
 42   II,     5.  5.  2    |        EURODEM and Ferri et al (2005) studies are as follows. The figures
 43   II,     5.  5.  2    |             is a drawback to existing studies as such information would
 44   II,     5.  5.  2    |  meta-analysis of existing prevalence studies in whole Europe, including
 45   II,     5.  5.  2    |              European epidemiological studies in this field to-date. They
 46   II,     5.  5.  3    |               disorders~ ~Qualitative studies with a small sample size
 47   II,     5.  5.  3    |           press). Mostly, qualitative studies are cross-sectional studies
 48   II,     5.  5.  3    |           studies are cross-sectional studies and therefore are not able
 49   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Reviewed articles and studies by Hoek and van Hoeken (
 50   II,     5.  5.  3    |           evidence level for reviewed studies is predominantly moderate
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |        inconsistencies among research studies and surveys concerning generalisation,
 52   II,     5.  5.  3    |        representative epidemiological studies which inform about frequencies
 53   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of regional or clinical studies are partly very different
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |        representative epidemiological studies about prevalence of eating
 55   II,     5.  5.  3    |               through cross-sectional studies accomplished in different
 56   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Reviewed articles and studies by Hoek and van Hoeken (
 57   II,     5.  5.  3    |          articles (out of 32 separate studies) were reviewed. The review
 58   II,     5.  5.  3    |               it appears that several studies were follow-up measurements
 59   II,     5.  5.  3    |               over time. Longitudinal studies and population statistics
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |      evaluated in 188 epidemiological studies the median point prevalence
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |              psychiatric epidemiology studies, and the population size
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |           majority of epidemiological studies are based on a consistent
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the population.~ ~In most studies incidence rates are based
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |              are only included in few studies. With regard to lacking
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |              a broad variation across studies and countries (WHO, 1997).
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Based on population-based studies reporting primary data on
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |            well-controlled randomized studies, a final conclusion could
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |           worldwide; selected data of studies from Western Europe note
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |             schizophrenia~A number of studies have attempted to estimate
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Europe by an analysis of studies from Italy, Denmark, the
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |            analysis~ ~Cross-sectional studies suggest that the evidence
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |             from previously published studies, with some communities having
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |           previously reported in U.S. studies.~There is still controversy
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |           been identified in clinical studies by using different methods
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |            retrieval of data in these studies has made direct comparison
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |       systematic review of prevalence studies has contributed to explaining
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |       enrolled in the epidemiological studies should be representative
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |               available only for some studies.~With few exceptions, in
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Forsgren et al, 2005). In these studies, the disease was diagnosed
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |           seizures~Thirteen incidence studies carried out in Europe have
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |          unprovoked seizures in these studies ranges from 44 to 73 per
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |            significant changes across studies. This is most probably due
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |  socio-cultural reasons.~In incidence studies, the proportion of cases
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epilepsy~There are numerous studies on the prevalence of epilepsy
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |              is not consistent across studies and, with few exceptions,
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |            significant. In individual studies, the dominance in females
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |     documented etiology in prevalence studies has been shown to vary from
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |           those reported in incidence studies (see above).~ ~Table 5.5.
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Forsgren (2004) in prevalence studies made on adults from industrialized (
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Based on a meta-analysis of studies investigating mortality
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |             to 9.3 in community-based studies and 1.9-8.7 in institutionalised
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |               by the French and Swiss studies may be partially explained
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |              5.3.4.4. Community-based studies of mortality in epilepsy~
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in most population-based studies. Most studies have also
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |        population-based studies. Most studies have also detected an inverse
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |        increased mortality in several studies from Europe. In contrast,
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |          prospective population-based studies, the CFR reached 39% (Vignatelli
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |               per 1,000 in prevalence studies (ODonogue and Sander, 1997)
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |              5 per 1,000 in incidence studies (Nashef et al, 1995). The
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |              behind (Thompson, 1995). Studies made in Finland showed that
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |              al, 2007). However, most studies on epilepsy and employment
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |             epilepsy. However, recent studies have indicated an improvement
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Beghi, 2004). Intervention studies on epilepsy and vocational
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |          there is no need for further studies on the incidence and prevalence
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |             be needed.~Multi-national studies should be performed to identify
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Epilepsia 34:
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |            meta-analysis of incidence studies of epilepsy and unprovoked
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Large population-based studies (ie, 50 000 pop. and over,
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and incidence differs from studies to studies. For this report,
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |               differs from studies to studies. For this report, the age
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |           serving MS population-based studies and multicenter collaborative
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |               morbidity and mortality studies (Vukusic et al, 2007). Further
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Vukusic et al, 2007). Further studies showed that regional differences
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |            systematic epidemiological studies on MS conducted over the
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prevalence rates between studies.~A decreasing north-to-south
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |          severity) was observed among studies. As for disease course,
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |        respectively (WHO, 2004b). Few studies measuring DALYs have been
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |           environmental risk factors, studies of disease should be started
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |            used in MS epidemiological studies and the lack of MRI facilities
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of most epidemiological studies on MS, the disease course
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |         historical or cross-sectional studies so that EDSS 0 to 3.5 refers
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |           literature.~Early published studies on MS patients and their
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |              important of these early studies (Larocca, 1985) identified
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Rieckmann, 2006)~Recent clinical studies in MS provide new data on
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and dose issues. All these studies have important implications
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |               treatment, high quality studies are still scarce. The MSTCG
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |      available evidence from clinical studies and on expert opinions collected
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |        position paper based on recent studies underlines the need for
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |             analyse existing national studies on the economics of (i.e.
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |              rates in epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Data source~To identify studies that evaluated epidemiological
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |             rates for PD in different studies are shown in Table 5. 5.
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease in
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Table 5.5.3.6.2. Prevalence studies of Parkinson’s disease in
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |             age ranges varied. In six studies (Claveria et al, 2002; de
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |            age; however, in six other studies (Benito-Leon et al, 2003;
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cases in community-based studies. Differences in methods
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |        considerably in the identified studies. Furthermore, screening
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |          clinical experience: several studies were performed with medical
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prevalence for men: some studies found a 1.5-2-fold increase,
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |           were not confirmed in other studies (Granieri et al, 1991).~
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |          could be found in only a few studies (Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the Italian and Spanish studies, more than 55% of the patients
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |           seems quite similar in most studies. Higher probabilities of
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in the population-based studies may explain the higher number
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |           disability (HYI-II) in some studies. As is the case for elderly
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |           according to the identified studies. Baldareschi, et al, estimated
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |              discussed for prevalence studies, differences in methodology
149   II,     5.  5.  3    |      drawbacks of available incidence studies have been illustrated in
150   II,     5.  5.  3    |             epidemiological incidence studies.~It is widely believed that
151   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Hoehn and Yahr 1967). Newer studies also found an increased
152   II,     5.  5.  3    |   cost-of-illness data from different studies (even from the same country)
153   II,     5.  5.  3    |        consequences. Only prospective studies that included a broad range
154   II,     5.  5.  3    |        selected for this analysis. No studies, however, had been conducted
155   II,     5.  5.  3    |           prospective cost-of-illness studies in Europe. Furthermore,
156   II,     5.  5.  3    |            national and international studies (Schöffski and v.d. Schulenburg,
157   II,     5.  5.  3    |             together, these and other studies show associations but a
158   II,     5.  5.  3    |            well as industry-sponsored studies, and a comparative analysis
159   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of the key diseases. New studies are planned including studies
160   II,     5.  5.  3    |         studies are planned including studies which will collect patient-level
161   II,     5.  5.  3    |               C (2007): Epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures
162   II,     5.  5.  3    |        hereditary? Evidence from twin studies. Adv Neurol 91:133-142.~
163   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease.
164   II,     5.  6.  3    |               population derived from studies in Europe and North America (
165   II,     5.  6.  3    |           musculoskeletal diseases as studies have shown that for osteoporosis
166   II,     5.  6.  3    |               used in epidemiological studies to estimate the prevalence
167   II,     5.  6.  3    |               40% in inception cohort studies, whilst there is little
168   II,     5.  6.  3    |      persistent disease in population studies in 75% of people after 5
169   II,     5.  6.  3    |      Incidence~ ~A review of European studies using the 1987 ACR criteria (
170   II,     5.  6.  3    |            per 1000 for women. In all studies the prevalence is higher
171   II,     5.  6.  3    |             arthritis from individual studies across Europe.~ ~Prevalence~ ~
172   II,     5.  6.  3    |              a full-time job in older studies (Brooks, 1997) but outcomes
173   II,     5.  6.  3    |               is generally greater in studies reporting patients in the
174   II,     5.  6.  3    |               direct costs in earlier studies but this has increased considerably
175   II,     5.  6.  3    |          difficult to predict. Recent studies indicate a decline in its
176   II,     5.  6.  3    |            collected through specific studies.~ ~Osteoporosis and low
177   II,     5.  6.  3    |        Incidence~ ~There are not many studies of incidence but a large
178   II,     5.  6.  6    |           defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender,
179   II,     5.  6.  6    |            for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (
180   II,     5.  7.  1    |            Biesen et al, 2007); these studies indicate that CKD is of
181   II,     5.  7.  1    |             screening of CKD; indeed, studies are currently underway for
182   II,     5.  7.  2    |             based on a compilation of studies on the prevalence of CKD
183   II,     5.  7.  2    |        Registry performs more focused studies using data from a segment
184   II,     5.  7.  3    |              than in population based studies in Belgium, Netherlands,
185   II,     5.  7.  3    |           2004) - in population-based studies ranges from 3.57% (Norway) (
186   II,     5.  7.  3    |              al, 2007). International studies to investigate the reasons
187   II,     5.  7.  3    |              than in population based studies in Belgium, Netherlands,
188   II,     5.  7.  6    |           only European collaborative studies on different aspects on
189   II,     5.  7.  7    |            PREVEND and the PREVEND IT studies. Clin Therapeutics, 2006;
190   II,     5.  8.  3    |         mainly deriving from isolated studies in Scandinavian countries
191   II,     5.  8.  3    |           severity~ ~Since 2000, many studies on COPD prevalence have
192   II,     5.  8.  3    |           years of age. A total of 62 studies reported 101 overall prevalence
193   II,     5.  8.  3    |              8.1).~ ~ ~ ~In two model studies carried out with data of
194   II,     5.  8.  3    |       Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) studies (12 centres; 5 European
195   II,     5.  8.  3    |            care utilization~ ~Several studies focused on the economic
196   II,     5.  8.  3    |        medical expenditures. In other studies, average direct costs per
197   II,     5.  8.  4    |       community or general population studies carried out in the United
198   II,     5.  8.  5    |         decision process.~ ~Different studies have focused on the screening
199   II,     5.  8.  6    |            standards of COPD care and studies on the effectiveness of
200   II,     5.  8.  6    |          manage this disease. Further studies on the influence of genetic
201   II,     5.  8.  6    |            advertised although larger studies are still needed (Horton,
202   II,     5.  8.  6    |             COPD patients.~ ~Previous studies have documented similar
203   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med 2006; 100: 264-
204   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Not 15 but 50% of smokers
205   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med 2003; 97: 115–
206   II,     5.  9. FB    |            meta-analysis including 12 studies examined the effect of high
207   II,     5.  9. FB    |            combined results from nine studies that examined the effect
208   II,     5.  9. FB    |            any effective intervention studies.~ ~Interventions for primary
209   II,     5.  9. FB    |           decade. The majority of the studies investigating prevention
210   II,     5.  9. FB    |          sufficient breast milk. Some studies indicate that in “high-risk”
211   II,     5.  9. FB    |       adequate multi-centric clinical studies are required. In addition,
212   II,     5.  9.  1    |               conditions.~ ~Different studies, such as the European Community
213   II,     5.  9.  1    |      technical characteristics of the studies. Nevertheless, the epidemiology
214   II,     5.  9.  2    |              In early 1990s two large studies were set up which standardized
215   II,     5.  9.  2    |               contrast with these two studies, the AIRE ) (Blanc et al,
216   II,     5.  9.  2    |               5.9.5 to 5.9.7). Twenty studies have been considered: 5
217   II,     5.  9.  3    |           poor prognosis.~ ~Different studies have pointed out that people
218   II,     5.  9.  3    |              Marco, 2000).~ ~Previous studies described the history of
219   II,     5.  9.  3    |                respectively). Further studies are necessary to achieve
220   II,     5.  9.  3    |       identified that in 13 of the 20 studies reviewed, a decreasing or
221   II,     5.  9.  3    |              more contradictory: many studies have shown stable trends
222   II,     5.  9.  3    |               Table 5.9.3. Summary of studies showing disparities in trends
223   II,     5.  9.  3    |         different phases of the ISAAC studies showed an increasing prevalence
224   II,     5.  9.  3    |                   In a review of nine studies carried out in different
225   II,     5.  9.  4    |               been confirmed by other studies. The European Respiratory
226   II,     5.  9.  4    |              asthma-related symptoms. Studies such as the ISAAC keep bringing
227   II,     5.  9.  4    |              prospective birth cohort studies found a decreased prevalence
228   II,     5.  9.  4    |         different aeroallergens. Many studies have reported the prevalence
229   II,     5.  9.  4    |          However, comparisons between studies and between regions are
230   II,     5.  9.  4    |           children only.~ ~In several studies it has been recently observed
231   II,     5.  9.  5    |                  Primary prevention~ ~Studies such as the ISAAC keep in
232   II,     5.  9.  5    |        Research is already supporting studies made by over 50 European
233   II,     5.  9.  5    |               quality of life.~ ~More studies are needed to investigate
234   II,     5.  9.  7    |                1990): Quality of life studies: definitions and conceptual
235   II,     5. 10.  2    |       prevalence come from individual studies conducted in single Member
236   II,     5. 10.  2    |       addition, most of the available studies have used as diagnostic
237   II,     5. 10.  2    |       methodology (i.e food challenge studies and particularly double
238   II,     5. 10.  3    |          addition of other individual studies showed that heterogeneity
239   II,     5. 10.  3    |               that observed for other studies conducted on adults. Prevalence
240   II,     5. 10.  6    |          epidemiological and clinical studies using common and gold standard
241   II,     5. 11.  3    |        Summary of 18 population-based studies within Europe~Point prevalence=
242   II,     5. 11.  3    |               are unclear.~Prevalence studies of children in temperate
243   II,     5. 11.  3    |         Comparisons between different studies are limited, as diagnostic
244   II,     5. 11.  3    |          suitable for epidemiological studies of atopic eczema have only
245   II,     5. 11.  3    |          white counterparts. However, studies of Asian children in Leicester
246   II,     5. 11.  3    |            recent national prevalence studies of atopic eczema in the
247   II,     5. 11.  3    |              al, 1999). In population studies from Scandinavian countries,
248   II,     5. 11.  3    |             et al. 2001).~ ~Available studies supported the point of view
249   II,     5. 11.  3    |           scarce, whereas a number of studies have looked at special groups
250   II,     5. 11.  3    |            available population-based studies reveals prevalences ranging
251   II,     5. 11.  3    |          patients to conduct reliable studies e.g., the mapping of molecular
252   II,     5. 11.  3    |               recent population-based studies from Australia, the incidence
253   II,     5. 11.  4    |               are considered. Various studies have assessed the economic
254   II,     5. 11.  5    |            devastating disease. Other studies in Europe suggested that
255   II,     5. 11.  5    |           sets of indicators and case studies, including examples of good
256   II,     5. 11.  6    |            perspective in mind. These studies could initially be observational
257   II,     5. 11.  6    |            initially be observational studies based on data already collected
258   II,     5. 11.  6    |               controlled intervention studies.~The third priority is to
259   II,     5. 11.  7    |               al (2004) ; Overview of studies of treatments for hand eczema260   II,     5. 13        |            compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including those
261   II,     5. 14.  2    |               reports from population studies on oral health carried out
262   II,     5. 14.  2    |              scientifically validated studies are contained in the WHO
263   II,     5. 14.  2    |        scarcity of data from national studies based on a representative
264   II,     5. 14.  2    |            aspects of epidemiological studies markedly limits comparisons
265   II,     5. 14.  2    |           data favoured cross-section studies with no repetitive character
266   II,     5. 14.  3    |              formation than children. Studies show that nursing home residents
267   II,     5. 14.  3    |             oral functioning measure. Studies have also shown that large
268   II,     5. 14.  3    |        International Collaborative II studiesexperience difficulty
269   II,     5. 14.  3    |             be improved. For example, studies in Poland showed that only
270   II,     5. 14.  4    |         mellitus. The focus of recent studies in periodontics is on systemic
271   II,     5. 15.  2    |              is low in general as the studies were mostly conducted by
272   II,     5. 15.  4    |              targeted at pan-European studies of natural history, patho-physiology,
273   II,     5. 15.  6    |            hope: lessons learned from studies on rare diseases and orphan
274   II,     6.  3.  1    |            better data and scientific studies are needed to clearly understand
275   II,     6.  3.  3    |              designed epidemiological studies would help to define the
276   II,     6.  3.  3    |            data collection. Screening studies in Europe have shown that
277   II,     6.  3.  3    |              mode of transmission and studies show that IDU are generally
278   II,     7.  2.  9    |                          7.2.9. Other studies and projects~ ~Furthermore
279   II,     7.  2.  9    |             Furthermore many national studies and single initiative complement
280   II,     7.  4.  4    |            health promotion. However, studies have demonstrated that a
281   II,     8.  2.  1    |        accomplished through community studies and convenience samples.
282   II,     8.  2.  1    |              Chapter represent recent studies related to the health of
283   II,     8.  2.  1    |              estimates may vary among studies due to the different circumstances
284   II,     8.  2.  2    |              several population-based studies on the prevalence of blindness
285   II,     8.  2.  2    |              1999). A summary list of studies, with their basic features
286   II,     8.  2.  2    |           population-based prevalence studies. Ophthalmic Epidemiology
287   II,     8.  2.  3    |               8.2.3.2. Data Sources~ ~Studies of hearing loss occurrence
288   II,     8.  2.  3    |              the world (see a list of studies with their basic features
289   II,     8.  2.  3    |                thus, comparison among studies is difficult. WHO has classified
290   II,     9            |             1994; Reddy et al, 2006). Studies report higher rates of antepartum,
291   II,     9            |           addressed, it is clear from studies from UNICEF and others that
292   II,     9            |          obtain other than by special studies. It has been shown that
293   II,     9            |           national and cross-cultural studies of drinking in Europe have
294   II,     9            |           educated patients. Numerous studies demonstrate that life expectancy
295   II,     9.  1.  1    |             EURO-PERISTAT feasibility studies and other published data
296   II,     9.  1.  2    |             1994; Reddy et al, 2006). Studies report higher rates of antepartum,
297   II,     9.  1.  2    |               retrospective follow-up studies of children with congenital
298   II,     9.  2.  2    |            provide useful attitudinal studies. Most special topics are
299   II,     9.  2.  2    |      child-friendly, with a number of studies on issues affecting children,
300   II,     9.  2.  2    |      interview and health examination studies, are important sources of
301   II,     9.  2.  2    |            appear almost invisible in studies such as this, swamped by
302   II,     9.  2.  3    |          comparable Europe-wide data. Studies and registers are in the
303   II,     9.  2.  4    |           addressed, it is clear from studies from UNICEF and others that
304   II,     9.  2.  4    |          obtain other than by special studies. It has been shown that
305   II,     9.  2.  4    |           national and cross-cultural studies of drinking in Europe have
306   II,     9.  3.  1    |         coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies of menopause are numerous
307   II,     9.  3.  1    |             or disease. Most of these studies are quantitative, but some
308   II,     9.  3.  1    |              conditions is difficult. Studies on prevalence often have
309   II,     9.  3.  1    |             than in men in almost all studies.~ ~The burden of depression
310   II,     9.  3.  1    |             likely to die than a man. Studies have indicated that women
311   II,     9.  3.  1    |              of symptoms. A number of studies suggests that symptom experience
312   II,     9.  3.  1    |      menopause is narrow in that most studies have been carried out on
313   II,     9.  3.  1    |          findings from cross-cultural studies stem from a number of limitations.~ ~
314   II,     9.  3.  1    |      described in a limited number of studies in a variety of other cultures.
315   II,     9.  3.  1    |            several years. A number of studies have shown a statistical
316   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Multiple population-based studies imply a decrease in female
317   II,     9.  3.  1    |      accentuated at elderly age. Many studies suggest that sex hormones
318   II,     9.  3.  1    |               men. Some observational studies suggest the potential relevance
319   II,     9.  3.  1    |       represent, according to several studies, the main reason for consulting
320   II,     9.  3.  1    |           educated patients. Numerous studies demonstrate that life expectancy
321   II,     9.  3.  2    |            practice has been shown in studies to be affected by maternal
322   II,     9.  3.  3    |               of the related European studies published in scientific
323   II,     9.  3.  3    |             including 20 quantitative studies (1995- May 2005) on individual
324   II,     9.  3.  3    |            partners”. Since 1980, six studies on youth sexuality in the
325   II,     9.  3.  3    |           from West Germany only, all studies since 1994 include East
326   II,     9.  3.  3    |             1999 (Nikula et al, 2007).Studies comparing behaviour over
327   II,     9.  3.  3    |           funding for large sexuality studies are diminishing (Fenton
328   II,     9.  3.  3    |               to having sex. Numerous studies have reported the correlation
329   II,     9.  3.  3    |           common ones included in the studies are:~ ~· type of partner (
330   II,     9.  3.  3    |           Europeans. Vol.1 Population Studies Council of Europe Publishing,
331   II,     9.  4.  2    |            find recent statistics and studies on lifestyle issues and
332   II,     9.  4.  3    |      surveillance and epidemiological studies on aged persons is sporadic.
333   II,     9.  4.  3    |               not in men. The EURODEM studies also noted that the rates
334   II,     9.  5.  2    |          disease. While most of these studies are quantitative also, the
335   II,     9.  5.  3    |              European epidemiological studies~ ~Table 9.5.3. Suicide Rates~ ~
336   II,     9.  5.  3    |                  Education~ ~Numerous studies demonstrate that life expectancy
337   II,     9.  5.  3    |               than the more educated. Studies have shown that children
338   II,     9.  5.  4    |               Impact Assessment (GIA) studies were ordered by the European
339   II,     9.  5.  4    |       recommendations made by the GIA studies, and consequently gender
340   II,     9.  5.  6    |            Development and Population Studies, Harvard University Press,
341   II,     9.  5.  6    |           European Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol 12(3): 377-395; SAGE
342  III,    10.  1.  1    |            interpreting observational studies it is critically important
343  III,    10.  1.  1    |         Melzer et al, 2005). Only few studies have addressed the effects
344  III,    10.  1.  1    |               Schmitt et al, 2007).~ ~Studies investigating interactions
345  III,    10.  1.  1    |                 In addition, only few studies investigate the two risk
346  III,    10.  1.  1    |              of exercise intervention studies only consider the energy
347  III,    10.  1.  1    |      behaviour has been shown in many studies, but there is still no evidence
348  III,    10.  1.  1    |               to having sex.~Numerous studies have reported the correlation
349  III,    10.  1.  3    |          Bondy SJ (1996): Overview of studies on drinking patterns and
350  III,    10.  1.  3    |      Stockholm: Institute for Futures Studies. [on-line document available
351  III,    10.  1.  3    |        Physical activity intervention studies. What we know and what we
352  III,    10.  1.  3    |              environmentally oriented studies concerning the relationship
353  III,    10.  1.  3    |              environmentally oriented studies concerning the relationship
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |               to a large extent. Some studies found that the integration
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Results from different studies remain inconclusive, as
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |     particularly strong evidence from studies of domestic and sexual violence.
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |             models. A large number of studies have reported a variety
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |               levels. A review of 112 studies provided strong evidence
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Baumberg 2006). A number of studies have indicated that although
360  III,    10.  2.  1    |               off-premise sales after studies showed that Saturday sales
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |            well designed longitudinal studies show that the volume of
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |             no published longitudinal studies that do not find such an
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |              this has been done, some studies have found that increased
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |           have not. In general, later studies seem to have found more
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and Baumberg 2006). These studies have also shown some effects
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |        customer intoxication, several studies have found that server training
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |       customers with high BAC levels. Studies on the impact of adhering
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |          London: Institute of Alcohol Studies. Available at:~htt ~ ~Anderson
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |             prevention trials. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 20
370  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Comparison of Population Based Studies. British Medical Journal,
371  III,    10.  2.  1    |     prevalence estimates from various studies in selected EU Countries
372  III,    10.  2.  1    |          among injecting drug usersstudies with national and subnational
373  III,    10.  2.  1(12)|               users comes from cohort studies, which, depending on the
374  III,    10.  2.  1    |              a combination of causes. Studies have found that most cocaine
375  III,    10.  2.  1    |                National probabilistic studies in Denmark reported 60%
376  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2003). In comparison with studies dating from the ’50s and ’
377  III,    10.  2.  1    |           used so far.~ ~In addition, studies have looked at physical
378  III,    10.  2.  1    |           three special Eurobarometer studies included questions on physical activity:~·
379  III,    10.  2.  1    |              11, 13 and 15 years HBSC studies are carried out at four-year
380  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Selected multicentre studies~ ~- European Youth Heart
381  III,    10.  2.  1    |              a variety of surveys and studies which use different instruments
382  III,    10.  2.  1    |           physical inactivity. Recent studies conducted in Switzerland
383  III,    10.  2.  1    |            compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including those
384  III,    10.  2.  1    |               upon the compilation of studies on the prevalence of overweight
385  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Member States, national studies on the prevalence of overweight
386  III,    10.  2.  1    |         population. A large number of studies have documented, however,
387  III,    10.  2.  1    |              to consumers.~ ~European studies on dietary intake have been
388  III,    10.  2.  1    |               1997) is one of the few studies in which comparable individual
389  III,    10.  2.  1    |              For adolescents, the few studies that collected nationally
390  III,    10.  2.  1    |          respectively. The few recent studies that have collected BMI
391  III,    10.  2.  1    |        because many of the controlled studies of calcium also used vitamin
392  III,    10.  2.  1    |          reaching a deficiency state. Studies suggest that low selenium
393  III,    10.  2.  1    |          behaviour (UFC-Que Choisir’s studies) and quite unfortunately
394  III,    10.  2.  1    |     whole-school approach is adopted. Studies show that this approach
395  III,    10.  2.  1    |       practical reasons, many obesity studies measure the effect of interventions
396  III,    10.  2.  1    |        observational and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies,
397  III,    10.  2.  1    |              studies. Epidemiological studies, descriptive as well as
398  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Centre for Health Promotion Studies, National University of
399  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Centre for Health Promotion Studies.~ ~Kramer MS, Morin I, Yang
400  III,    10.  2.  2    |               levels.~ ~Observational studies performed in the 60’s showed
401  III,    10.  2.  2    |             number of epidemiological studies. The association extends
402  III,    10.  2.  2    |             115-155 mg/dl).~ ~Various studies have recognised that any
403  III,    10.  2.  2    |               in most epidemiological studies. From a mechanistic point
404  III,    10.  2.  4    |             of Prospective Technology Studies (part of the EC~ ~Joint
405  III,    10.  2.  4    |             of Prospective Technology Studies (IPTS) of the EC-Joint Research
406  III,    10.  2.  4    | implementation of long running cohort studies starting as early as possible
407  III,    10.  2.  4    |         including nested case-control studies at various ages and at various
408  III,    10.  2.  4    |        implementation of case-control studies in the very old population
409  III,    10.  2.  4    |             of Prospective Technology Studies, EC-Joint Research. Towards
410  III,    10.  2.  4    |             of Prospective Technology Studies, EC-Joint Research. Bio4EU, www ~ ~
411  III,    10.  2.  5    |            evidence from longitudinal studies (Seckl, 2008).~ ~
412  III,    10.  2.  5    |         Empirical longitudinal cohort studies in Europe have evidenced
413  III,    10.  2.  5    |            2006). Longitudinal cohort studies from Finland, the Netherlands
414  III,    10.  2.  5    |       increasing number of scientific studies indicate the role of exposure
415  III,    10.  2.  5    |              Some lessons from animal studies of neural plasticity. Prev
416  III,    10.  3.  1    |        concern and several scientific studies, there is still no conclusive
417  III,    10.  3.  1    |              European epidemiological studies on domestic exposure to
418  III,    10.  3.  1    |               in adulthood. There are studies suggesting that radon could
419  III,    10.  3.  1    |               in one study, but other studies have failed to confirm this.~ ~
420  III,    10.  3.  1    |             However, no epidemiologic studies on children are currently
421  III,    10.  3.  1    |          difficulties) or well-being. Studies on neurological effects
422  III,    10.  3.  1    |           established in 1998. Animal studies have not provided evidence
423  III,    10.  3.  1    |       analyses of the epidemiological studies on the association between
424  III,    10.  3.  1    |               for children.~ ~Several studies have estimated the burden
425  III,    10.  3.  1    |               Several epidemiological studies reported that noise is associated
426  III,    10.  3.  1    |          synthesis of epidemiological studies. Dose-effect Curve and Risk
427  III,    10.  3.  1    |              13 European case-control studies. Brit. J. Med. 330, 223-
428  III,    10.  3.  2    |       increasing number of scientific studies indicate the role of exposure
429  III,    10.  3.  2    |           toxicant for humans. Recent studies on the effects of lead in
430  III,    10.  3.  2    |               of breast milk analysis studies of dioxins coordinated by
431  III,    10.  3.  4    |               increase to 2°C. Recent studies point to an increasing risk
432  III,    10.  3.  4    |             more frequent event. Most studies divide the health aspects
433  III,    10.  3.  4    |           related to flood intensity. Studies in both high- and low-income
434  III,    10.  3.  4    |              difficult. Some previous studies suggest an increase in suicide
435  III,    10.  4.  1    |       knowledge, assessments and case studies in Europe.~ ~The EC SCALE
436  III,    10.  4.  1    |             number of epidemiological studies on both short and long-term
437  III,    10.  4.  1    |              long-term exposure. Many studies show that fine particles (
438  III,    10.  4.  1    |             pollution levels. Several studies in the USA and Canada (6-
439  III,    10.  4.  1    |        childhood asthma. Intervention studies clearly show the health
440  III,    10.  4.  1    |           exemplified by intervention studies such as the Dublin case
441  III,    10.  4.  1    |                There are also several studies which showed a reduction
442  III,    10.  4.  1    |         countries. A number of recent studies confirm that residential
443  III,    10.  4.  1    |               to particles (PM), many studies indicate that ground-level
444  III,    10.  4.  1    |               For example a number of studies found allergic disorders (
445  III,    10.  4.  1    |               smell of mould. Several studies also highlight the importance
446  III,    10.  4.  1    |           large number of time-series studies~- Acute effects on mortality~-
447  III,    10.  4.  1    |           admissions~ ~· Intervention studies~- Dublin, Hong Kong, etc.~ ~·
448  III,    10.  4.  1    |            Hong Kong, etc.~ ~· Cohort studies~- Pope et al and re-analyses~ ~
449  III,    10.  4.  1    |     epidemiological and toxicological studies or on the development of
450  III,    10.  4.  2    |              can access raw data from studies for microbial risk assessments.
451  III,    10.  4.  2    |              assessments. The type of studies for which raw data are included
452  III,    10.  4.  2    |             are included are baseline studies, bacterial growth and survival
453  III,    10.  4.  2    |         bacterial growth and survival studies, dose response studies,
454  III,    10.  4.  2    |       survival studies, dose response studies, and lifestyle studies.~ ~
455  III,    10.  4.  2    |       response studies, and lifestyle studies.~ ~For animal health, disease
456  III,    10.  4.  2    |          toxicological and metabolism studies, fate and behaviour in the
457  III,    10.  4.  2    |      environment and ecotoxicological studies which are now being the
458  III,    10.  4.  2    |             reported in the available studies;~· the third step is the
459  III,    10.  4.  2    |           primarily from intervention studies) in circumstances consistent
460  III,    10.  4.  5    |         likely to be gained only from studies that consider exposure pathways
461  III,    10.  4.  5    |         considered in epidemiological studies; including cancer incidence
462  III,    10.  4.  5    |       disposal~ ~Most epidemiological studies on health effects of land-filling
463  III,    10.  4.  5    |         contaminated soil. While some studies indicating possible health
464  III,    10.  4.  5    |         likely to be gained only from studies that consider exposure pathways
465  III,    10.  4.  5    |          execution of non-informative studies. In the cases in which epidemiological
466  III,    10.  4.  5    |           both in human observational studies and in toxicological research,
467  III,    10.  5.  1    |           Despite the small number of studies, it is estimated that the
468  III,    10.  5.  1    |                besides home.~ ~School studies, mainly from North Europe,
469  III,    10.  5.  1    |             international comparative studies on the school environment
470  III,    10.  5.  1    |                  Swedish intervention studies have shown that the increase
471  III,    10.  5.  1    |         non-European contexts: school studies from China and South Korea
472  III,    10.  5.  1    |              conditions. Experimental studies have shown that a reduction
473  III,    10.  5.  1    |             personnel, there are less studies on associations between
474  III,    10.  5.  1    |          solutions.~Various city case studies, evidence reports and working
475  III,    10.  5.  2    |             mostly come from national studies and therefore needs to be
476  III,    10.  5.  2    |               variations~Pan-European studies indicate that there is very
477  III,    10.  5.  2    |                 A variety of national studies and research projects reveal
478  III,    10.  5.  2    |               Data from international studies, collected with similar
479  III,    10.  5.  2    |         scarce. For existing national studies confounding factors such
480  III,    10.  5.  2    |               One of the few national studies undertaken indicates that –
481  III,    10.  5.  2    |             New Zealand (based on 232 studies / papers etc.) came up with
482  III,    10.  5.  3    |               An increasing number of studies show that mental illness
483  III,    10.  5.  3    |             method is used in several studies for different purposes although
484  III,    10.  5.  3    |               levels are weak. Recent studies show that the position recent
485  III,    10.  5.  3    |                OSHA, 2002).~Both case studies and quantitative data show
486  III,    10.  5.  3    |               in work-related stress. Studies have shown that an increase
487  III,    10.  5.  3    |            summary evaluation of many studies on various health promotion
488  III,    10.  6.  2    |            kills as confirmed by many studies (for an overview see Berkman
489  III,    10.  6.  2    |       Stockholm: Institute for Future Studies.~ ~Dalstra JAA, Kunst AE,
490   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                specific health eventstudies in the United States to
491   IV,    11.  1.  3    |              Westerling, 1996). These studies provided evidence that (
492   IV,    11.  1.  3    |          McKee call for more detailed studies on the causes of death where
493   IV,    11.  1.  4    |        administrative requirements.~ ~Studies measuring equity in the
494   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          Gundersen, 2000). While some studies demonstrate minimal effect
495   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               be taken from the above studies: they are more effective
496   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         should (Kohn et al, 2000). UK studies show similar results, with
497   IV,    11.  1.  6    |            health system. Macro level studies of efficiency have been
498   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                2005). Moreover, these studies do not indicate causation,
499   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           been supported by empirical studies. For example a study in
500   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              outpatient care. Several studies have found supportive evidence