1-500 | 501-522
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |                     until that time. However, due to the complexity of these
  2    -,     1            |             inevitably vary across countries, due to cultural, technical,
  3    I,     2.  2        |                     is a growing concern also due to global climate change,
  4    I,     2.  3        |                  immigration flows are mainly due to strong and persisting
  5    I,     2.  3        |                  traditionally practised, but due to the arrival of immigrants,
  6    I,     2.  4        |                     were in their turn mostly due to faster mortality declines
  7    I,     2.  4        |                   disease mortality. This was due to improvements in health-conducive
  8    I,     2.  4        |                   among men. This is probably due to a combination of (interlinked)
  9    I,     2.  4        |               accessing conventional services due to physical or mental disability
 10    I,     2.  5        |                    rates will likely increase due to the current economic
 11    I,     2.  8        |                      2.8. Energy production~ ~Due to both population growth
 12    I,     2. 10.  1    |           high-throughput data collection and due to the need for complex
 13    I,     2. 10.  2    |                      10.2. Nanotechnologies~ ~Due to their diminutive size,
 14    I,     2. 10.  4    |                      60 patients die each day due to adverse drug errors9.
 15    I,     2. 10.  4    |            implementation on a national level due to the complexity of the
 16    I,     3.  1        |                     80s the TFR rose slightly due to the ‘catching up’ of
 17    I,     3.  1        |                       raised slightly further due to the fact that the increase
 18    I,     3.  1        |                     elevated than period TFRs due to changes in fertility
 19    I,     3.  1        |                      remain without children, due to lower ever-marriage-rates
 20    I,     3.  2        |                   during the last fifty years due to the fact that the overall
 21    I,     3.  2        |                   population is still growing due to a larger positive immigration
 22    I,     3.  2        |               population, growth is currently due to only net gains of international
 23    I,     3.  2        |                  immigration flows are mainly due to strong and persisting
 24   II,     4.  1        |                    the EU15 than in the EU27, due to the fact that new Member
 25   II,     4.  1        |                   should be pointed out that, due to cultural differences
 26   II,     4.  2        |                       to some Countries only, due to the availability of data
 27   II,     4.  2        |                      expectancy in the 1970s, due to the strong decline in
 28   II,     4.  2        |                   women in contrast with men, due to the fact that number
 29   II,     4.  2        |                  negative impact on mortality due to cancer, for men more
 30   II,     4.  2        |               increased between 1980 and 2000 due to a decline in mortality
 31   II,     4.  2        |                       However, this is mainly due to the negative development
 32   II,     5.  1.  1    |                    when this excess weight is due to abdominal fat In case
 33   II,     5.  1.  2    |                     medical consultations are due to chronic diseases which
 34   II,     5.  2.  1    |                      next few decades, mainly due to a growth in the elderly
 35   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       determine actual stroke due to co-morbidity; including
 36   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   diabetes and smoking habit. Due to differences among countries
 37   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   interpretation is difficult due to various factors, such
 38   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       of hospitalizations are due to other CVD. This means
 39   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   more recent decline is also due to improvements in modern
 40   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   interpretation is difficult due to various factors such
 41   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   interpretation is difficult due to various factors such
 42   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 decrease of case fatality was due to changes in the management
 43   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       but low in antioxidants due to a low intake of fruit
 44   II,     5.  2.  4    |                       are difficult to obtain due to the high cost of health
 45   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      is difficult to describe due to the different existing
 46   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  incidence (Wellman J, 2004).~Due to differences in data collection
 47   II,     5.  2.  4    |                Eastern and Eastern Europe are due to a history of high blood
 48   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      35% of heart attacks are due to abnormal blood lipids,
 49   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 two-thirds of the decline was due to the incidence decrease
 50   II,     5.  3.  1    |                  cancer risk factors and also due to increased life expectancy
 51   II,     5.  3.  5    |                       Figure 5.3.25) possibly due to the diffusion of PSA
 52   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   over time, which are mainly due to improvements in health-care
 53   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  treatment of cancer patients due to detection at an earlier
 54   II,     5.  3.  7    |                screening is often misleading, due to a wide range of biases.
 55   II,     5.  3.  7    |                   often difficult to analyze, due to scarce data in some national
 56   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  level without further delays due to price and reimbursement
 57   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    Indirect costs by diabetes due to loss of productivity
 58   II,     5.  4.  1    |                       is difficult to collect due to the different and fragmented
 59   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 classified: earlier diagnosis due to increasing awareness
 60   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      see Armesto et al. 2006) due to problems in national
 61   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      on a range of individual due to recall bias and imprecise
 62   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy/
 63   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy
 64   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      of blindness in one year due to diabetic retinopathy/
 65   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    was not reported by EUCID, due to the small number of countries
 66   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 Annual incidence of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy.
 67   II,     5.  4.  4    |                       biases related possibly due to the use different coding
 68   II,     5.  4.  4    |                    loose 30 citizens per year due to diabetes.~As far as secondary
 69   II,     5.  4.  5    |            particularly when excess weight is due to abdominal fat In case
 70   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     for national governments. Due to the great increase of
 71   II,     5.  5.Int    |                     lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric disorders.
 72   II,     5.  5.Int    |                inviting Member States to give due attention to the implementation
 73   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  include loss of productivity due to sickness spells, absenteeism
 74   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     early retirement and also due to increased mortality for
 75   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       most of the increase is due to indirect costs (Sobocki
 76   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     for undertreatment can be due to stigma associated with
 77   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       statistics on mortality due to suicide are not totally
 78   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  between WHO-HFO and EUROSTAT due to different definition
 79   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      of the EU Member States. Due to reason described above,
 80   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      differences are possible due to differences in ICD interpretation
 81   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    and the WHO EURO databases due to differences in presenting
 82   II,     5.  5.  1    |                         Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide and intentional
 83   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self inflicted
 84   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self inflicted
 85   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    mortality rates and trends due to suicide and self inflicted
 86   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   considerably underestimated due to the lack of availability
 87   II,     5.  5.  2    |                       carers (ongoing project due to be finalised in 2008)~ ~
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      6. Future developments~ ~Due to the fact that eating
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Alexander D, Rigby M, (in press, due January 2009): Challenges
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Neumann G, Kirch W (in press, due January 2009): Challenges
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     level of excess mortality due to treatable physical disorders.
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       causes of mortality are due to the high psychiatric
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     the brain. Therefore, and due to the multitude of clinical
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     the health care system is due to schizophrenia which affords
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    the direct treatment costs due to remarkable unemployment
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |                respect to hospital admissions due to ICD-10/F20, i.e. the
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       disease are death rates due to the diagnosis of interest,
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      treatment/admission data due to the diagnosis of interest.
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |             cardiovascular disease. Mortality due to cardiovascular disease
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       and this cannot only be due to differences in psychiatric
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    countries, which cannot be due to higher incidence or prevalence
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   missing in figure 5.5.3.3.2 due to lacking ICD-10 documentation.
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    like this might in part be due to differences in the mental
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    the extent of variation is due to differences in the national
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |               amounting to one fifth of DALYs due to health conditions (WHO,
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |                        Table 5.5.3.2.1. DALYs due to schizophrenia~DALY rates
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    the cardiovascular system (due to the use of nicotine)
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       nicotine) or the liver (due to alcohol consumption).
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       that the disease burden due to schizophrenia is underestimated.~
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       trends in efficacy, but due to a paucity of well-controlled
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     be untreated. This may be due to several reasons: lack
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |               increased burden of the disease due to more severe courses of
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     guidelines may in part be due to health insurance policies
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     relapse is supposed to be due to non-adherence.~Deficits
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   acute psychotic episode are due to the stigma associated
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     of the economic burden is due to DALYs and the respective
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      costs for hospital stays due to mental disorders were
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  neuro-developmental disorder due to neurobiological conditions.
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      Elevated death rates are due to several causes, including
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |              different European countries but due to the different methodologies
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      other populations can be due to different criteria or
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       is expected to increase due to the greater longevity
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |                studies. This is most probably due to the different populations
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       of the disease in women due to socio-cultural reasons.~
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Mortality~The mortality rate due to epilepsy ranges from
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      an increasing disability due to irreversible functional
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |                northern countries, maybe also due to a better degree of ascertainment,
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      in Europe is a hard task due to: (a) the variability
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |                        As for disease course, due to the remarkable heterogeneity
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 future years of lifetime lost due to premature mortality (
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      for the disease severity due to mental and/or physical
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   increase the disease burden due to the greater number of
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |               indirect costs (production loss due to sick-leave and early
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 temporary minor improvements.~Due to the cross-sectional or
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Kurtzke, 1983). Disability due to MS can be measured within
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      helpless and 10 is death due to MS.~ ~Treatment~There
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    are forced to give up work due to lack of support.~The
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     that most variations seem due not to the severity of the
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   number of unemployed people due to MS, number of people
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 recent review estimated costs due to PD resulting in €10.7
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       excluded indirect costs due to production losses associated
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 healthcare sector. Disability due to PD causes a strong need
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       the burden, while costs due to informal care and earnings
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      greatly in their results due to differences in methodology.~
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   income was observed, mainly due to earlier retirement. In
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      patients stopped working due to PD (Clarke et al, 1995).~ ~
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     use and productivity loss due to 12 major diseases in
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       nations.~ ~In addition, due to the changes in family
149   II,     5.  6.  3    |                      of physical disabilities due to a musculoskeletal condition
150   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    but its impact is changing due to advances in the management
151   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   mild or moderate disability due to RA and less than 10%
152   II,     5.  6.  3    |                      the burden of disability due to RA might be further reduced
153   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     over the subsequent years due to the costs of devices,
154   II,     5.  6.  3    |                       next 10 years in Europe due to the ageing populations.
155   II,     5.  6.  3    |                      of which occur in women (due in part to the presence
156   II,     5.  6.  3    |                        The effect is not just due to the recent fracture as
157   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    from 2000 to 2050. This is due to the ageing of the population
158   II,     5.  6.  3    |                individual and also on society due to its frequency and economic
159   II,     5.  6.  3    |                      of back pain is indirect due to work loss and disablement
160   II,     5.  6.  4    |                       major impact on society due to their frequency, chronicity
161   II,     5.  6.  4    |                arthritis and osteoporosis and due to the ageing of population
162   II,     5.  6.  4    |                sick leave longer than 14 days due to musculoskeletal and connective
163   II,     5.  6.  4    |                 people on disability pensions due to musculoskeletal and connective
164   II,     5.  6.  4    |                      cost for health services due to musculoskeletal conditions
165   II,     5.  6.  6    |                         Impact of disablement due to rheumatic disorders in
166   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     in Europe. This is partly due to a higher US incidence
167   II,     5.  7.  3    |                      7.3). This was primarily due to the incidence rate in
168   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     incidence of RRT for ESRD due to glomerulonephritis/ glomerulosclerosis
169   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    population (pmp). This was due to a 40% increase in the
170   II,     5.  7.  3    |              recipients is, at least in part, due to selection bias, the survival
171   II,     5.  7.  5    |                     the risk of complications due to modifiable factors is
172   II,     5.  8.  2    |                          compensatory ( J9 ~· due to inhalation of chemicals,
173   II,     5.  8.  2    |                emphysema ( J4 )~lung diseases due to external agents ( J6 )~
174   II,     5.  8.  3    |                       indicate that mortality due to COPD increases with age
175   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     with COPD is likely to be due to other factors in addition
176   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    per 100 000 population are due to this disease; in Central
177   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 Eastern Europe lost work days due to COPD are 4300. with a
178   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     third of these costs were due to the treatment of COPD
179   II,     5.  8.  3    |              remaining two-thirds were mainly due to admissions for other
180   II,     5.  8.  6    |                      care programs, partially due to the difficulty in prognosis.
181   II,     5.  8.  7    |                     fixed airflow obstruction due to asthma or chronic obstructive
182   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   Europe in the last decades, due to the improved hygienic
183   II,     5.  9.  1    |                     comparisons are difficult due to the technical characteristics
184   II,     5.  9.  2    |                     Working Paper~ ~Mortality due to asthma (J45-J46 ICD9)~
185   II,     5.  9.  2    |                     478.0Allergic rhinitis due to pollen 477.0Allergic
186   II,     5.  9.  2    |                     477.0Allergic rhinitis due to other allergens 477.8~·
187   II,     5.  9.  3    |              outpatient health care.~ ~Deaths due to asthma are estimated
188   II,     5.  9.  3    |                       worldwide. EU mortality due to asthma (death defined
189   II,     5.  9.  4    | population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures
190   II,     5.  9.  4    |                     Spain). While this may be due to variations in exposure
191   II,     5.  9.  4    |                factors, and DNA modifications due to oxidative stress. Partners
192   II,     5. 10.  2    |                allergy, apart from dermatitis due to ingested food (Table
193   II,     5. 10.  2    |            description~ICD-9~693.1~Dermatitis due to ingested food~995.0~Anaphylactic
194   II,     5. 10.  2    |                       ICD-10~L27.2~Dermatitis due to ingested food~T78.0~Anaphylactic
195   II,     5. 10.  2    |                      T78.0~Anaphylactic shock due to adverse food reaction~
196   II,     5. 10.  3    |                 country to another is limited due to significant differences
197   II,     5. 10.  4    |                       in the clinical setting due to the low awareness of
198   II,     5. 10.  4    |          over-diagnosis of FA and intolerance due to inadequate diagnostic
199   II,     5. 11.  3    |                       some European countries due to the increasing incidence
200   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  every 10-15 years), probably due in part to an increased
201   II,     5. 11.  4    |                  Societal impact~ ~Disability due to loss of function~Public
202   II,     5. 11.  4    |                   cause lack of concentration due to drowsiness.~ ~Mortality
203   II,     5. 11.  4    |                     and the opportunity costs due to time lost for daily topical
204   II,     5. 11.  6    |                services is likely to increase due to the growing consumer
205   II,     5. 12.  1    |                    from cirrhosis are largely due to changes in the major
206   II,     5. 12.  3    |                    variation may, however, be due to changed validity of cirrhosis
207   II,     5. 12.  3    |                       of these changes may be due to the classification as
208   II,     5. 12.  4    |                    from cirrhosis are largely due to changes in the two major
209   II,     5. 12.  4    |               European countries – are mainly due to recent rises in alcohol
210   II,     5. 12.  5    |                Southern European countries is due to the declined prevalence
211   II,     5. 12.  6    |                   likely to be modest to date due to its use mainly in very
212   II,     5. 13        |                  costs); lost of productivity due to absenteeism and premature
213   II,     5. 14.  2    |                       condition is difficult, due to the scarcity of data
214   II,     5. 14.  3    |             Surveillance of oral disadvantage due to functional limitation
215   II,     5. 14.  3    |                       professional management due to severe periodontal destruction.
216   II,     5. 15.  1    |        counterbalanced by the future profits, due to the small number of affected
217   II,     5. 15.  3    |                   patients worldwide, usually due to a single mutation segregating
218   II,     6.  3.  1    |                        which could in part be due to improved surveillance.
219   II,     6.  3.  3    |                    HIV diagnoses in the EU is due to a steady increase in
220   II,     6.  3.  3    |                      This increase is largely due to the rising number of
221   II,     6.  3.  3    |                      per year in 2004, mainly due to outbreaks in large cities
222   II,     6.  3.  3    |                      the UK (17.54). However, due to the nature of the disease (
223   II,     6.  3.  4    |                       peak consultation rates due to influenza-like illness
224   II,     6.  3.  5    |              Bacterial infections~ ~Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (
225   II,     6.  3.  5    |                   sustained decrease possibly due to the introduction of the
226   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 European Region of the WHO.~ ~Due to the two-dose vaccination
227   II,     6.  3.  5    |                   2004.~ ~This drop is mainly due to a sharp decrease in the
228   II,     6.  3.  6    |                    since 2004 . This could be due to improved surveillance
229   II,     6.  3.  6    |                     countries are complicated due to differences in the surveillance
230   II,     6.  3.  7    |              typically under-reported disease due to its unspecific clinical
231   II,     6.  3.  7    |                     of growing concern partly due to global climate change,
232   II,     6.  3.  7    |                mosquitoes from endemic areas. Due to the large number of imported
233   II,     6.  4.  3    |                   pandemic could be imminent, due to H5N1 or another strain,
234   II,     7.  1        |                       Injuries (unintentional due to “accidents” and intentional
235   II,     7.  1        |                    accidents” and intentional due to interpersonal violence
236   II,     7.  1        |                  classified as unintentional (due to accidents) and intentional (
237   II,     7.  1        |                   accidents) and intentional (due to self harm or interpersonal
238   II,     7.  1        |                     the frequency of injuries due to accidents and violence
239   II,     7.  2.  2    |                       Discharge Database HDD) due to injuries of several countries
240   II,     7.  2.  6    |                  injuries as well as injuries due to self-harm and interpersonal
241   II,     7.  2.  9    |                  requires further research.~ ~Due to the different definitions
242   II,     7.  3.  3    |               Morbidity~ ~Hospital admissions due to accidents and injuries
243   II,     7.  3.  3    |                      7.5. Hospital discharges due to injuries, EU27, 2003-
244   II,     7.  3.  3    |                       500 hospital discharges due to injuries per 100 000
245   II,     7.  3.  3    |                       7.3. Hospital discharge due to injuries, EU27: Minimum
246   II,     7.  3.  3    |                     sick leave and disability due to injuries yet, both are
247   II,     7.  3.  4    |               variation between Member States due to differences in national
248   II,     7.  3.  4    |                        Fatalities and injured due to work-related accidents~ ~
249   II,     7.  3.  4    |                        Fatalities and injured due to home and leisure accidents
250   II,     7.  3.  5    |                Hospital deaths and discharges due to suicide and suicide attempts
251   II,     7.  3.  5    |                     mortality includes deaths due to homicide, sexual assault,
252   II,     7.  3.  5    |           circumstances of non-fatal injuries due to homicide, assault and
253   II,     7.  3.  5    |                       information on injuries due to violence of hospital
254   II,     7.  4        |                     sick leave and disability due to injuries. Both are important
255   II,     7.  4        |                     yet widely available e.g. due to a lack of reliable data
256   II,     7.  4        |                      lack of reliable data or due to lack of common definition.
257   II,     7.  4.  1    |                       every death that occurs due to injury another 50 children
258   II,     7.  4.  1    |                  people in this age group die due to injuries (Kumpala & Paavola
259   II,     7.  4.  2    |                       highest mortality rates due to injury are reported among
260   II,     7.  4.  2    |                   people aged 65 or older die due to an injury in the EU27.~
261   II,     7.  4.  2    |                     receive medical treatment due to an injury each year,
262   II,     7.  4.  3    |                    were affected by an injury due to falls in transport areas.~ ~
263   II,     7.  4.  4    |                       hospital admissions are due to sports activities (see
264   II,     7.  4.  4    |                  paramedical professionals is due to sports injuries in the
265   II,     7.  4.  4    |                      health benefits are lost due to injuries. Sport injuries
266   II,     7.  4.  7    |                     is heavily under-reported due to the reluctance of victims
267   II,     7.  6        |                      the number of fatalities due to injuries is to a large
268   II,     8.  1.  1    |             deficiencies or other limitations due to aging or to sequelae
269   II,     8.  1.  3    |                  restrictions in work ability due to LSHPD increases with
270   II,     8.  2.  1    |              estimates may vary among studies due to the different circumstances
271   II,     8.  2.  1    |                   treatments may be withdrawn due to behavioural issues (Fisher
272   II,     8.  2.  2    |               Candidate Countries (Table 8.2) due to different assumptions
273   II,     8.  2.  2    |                      of the visual impairment due to uncorrected or inadequately
274   II,     8.  2.  2    |               Candidate Countries (Table 8.2) due to different assumptions
275   II,     8.  2.  2    |                      of the visual impairment due to uncorrected or inadequately
276   II,     8.  2.  3    |                   disability for hearing loss due to ageing or noise exposure,
277   II,     8.  2.  3    |                   which excludes hearing loss due to congenital causes, infectious
278   II,     8.  2.  3    |                      The burden of disability due to hearing loss has been
279   II,     9            |                      increased risk is mostly due to the higher preterm birth
280   II,     9            |                       with congenital anomaly due to chronic disease status.
281   II,     9.  1.  1    |                     of perinatal death/deaths due to congenital anomalies~
282   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   nearly three-quarters - are due to conditions originating
283   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   remaining 25% of deaths are due, in part, to infectious
284   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    wider public health agenda due to their individual rarity.
285   II,     9.  1.  2    |                      data on infant mortality due to congenital anomalies.
286   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 countries in infant mortality due to congenital anomaly can
287   II,     9.  1.  2    |                     terminations of pregnancy due to foetal anomaly (TOPFA)
288   II,     9.  1.  2    |                      in the most recent years due to late case registration).
289   II,     9.  1.  2    |                increase is seen to be in part due to an increase in the prevalence
290   II,     9.  1.  2    |                      2.2. Perinatal mortality due to congenital anomalies,
291   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   2004.~ ~Perinatal mortality due to congenital anomaly varies
292   II,     9.  1.  2    |                       screening and diagnosis due to cultural and organisational
293   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  Switzerland) of foetuses die due to the presence of a congenital
294   II,     9.  1.  2    |                      increased risk is mostly due to the higher preterm birth
295   II,     9.  1.  2    |                       with congenital anomaly due to chronic disease status.
296   II,     9.  1.  2    |                       experience higher risks due to deprivation, as well
297   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   well as some specific risks due to genetic or cultural factors.
298   II,     9.  2.  1    |                     and CEHAPE processes were due for report by each Member
299   II,     9.  2.  3(2) |                    medication use was avoided due to the marked variation
300   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 thought that outbreaks may be due less to lack of immunisation
301   II,     9.  2.  3    |                    over the last two decades. Due to under–reporting, the
302   II,     9.  2.  5    |                       health has been limited due to the fact that Member
303   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 prostate cancer is increasing due to an ageing population,
304   II,     9.  3.  1    |                      before the age of 65) is due mainly to cardiovascular
305   II,     9.  3.  1    |                      men aged 15-34 as deaths due to pulmonary embolism, heart
306   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  remain untreated are at risk due to the progressive nature
307   II,     9.  3.  1    |                      mass at menopause can be due to insufficient bone acquisition
308   II,     9.  3.  1    |                     of cells during menopause due to oestrogen depletion.
309   II,     9.  3.  1    |                         The causes are mainly due to either prostate problems
310   II,     9.  3.  1    |                       the total concentration due to altered Sex Hormone Binding
311   II,     9.  3.  1    |                       be more difficult – not due to lack of will, but because
312   II,     9.  3.  2    |                        and indirect (death is due to a cause which preceded
313   II,     9.  3.  3    |                     sexual violence, however, due to the chosen age group
314   II,     9.  4.  1    |                experience severe difficulties due to ill-health. Furthermore,
315   II,     9.  4.  5    |                      to consider that, partly due to the changes in family
316   II,     9.  4.  5    |                       women. Social isolation due to widowhood or divorce
317   II,     9.  4.  5    |                disability as they age, mostly due to the presence of multiple
318   II,     9.  4.  6    |                      of the ageing process or due to a chronic illness (Mukaetova-Ladinska,
319   II,     9.  5.  1    |                   mortality in men seem to be due to differences in gender
320   II,     9.  5.  2    |                 health services. The Report , due to be published in 2008,
321   II,     9.  5.  3    |                       old age is likely to be due to the greater longevity
322   II,     9.  5.  3    |                     are particularly affected due to their biological potential
323   II,     9.  5.  3    |                       may be at a higher risk due to lower body weight and
324   II,     9.  5.  3    |                        1990), but this may be due to social experience and
325   II,     9.  5.  3    |                Schneekloth and Müller, 2000). Due to the higher life expectancy
326   II,     9.  5.  3    |                       the percentage inactive due to family responsibilities
327   II,     9.  5.  6    |                       in the EU27 is inactive due to family responsibilities.
328  III,    10.  1        |                     address them in analysis. Due to the high complexity of
329  III,    10.  1        |                      premature mortality) was due to environmental factors (
330  III,    10.  1        |                      at high risk of injuries due to environmental factors.
331  III,    10.  1.  1    |                      and energy intake may be due to the fact that behavioural
332  III,    10.  1.  1    |                     violence is weakpartly due to publication bias and
333  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      can yield variable data, due to the lack of standardisation
334  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      comparability is limited due to the lack of standardization
335  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     will probably increase in due time to reflect the current
336  III,    10.  2.  1    |                overall prevalence, but mainly due to the decrease of smoking
337  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      These cancers are mainly due to smoking (European Communities,
338  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Communities, 2002).~Mortality due to COPD (see Chapter 5.7)
339  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   decrease in exposure on ETS due to anti-smoking interventions,
340  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     the loss of human capital due to smoking attributable
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   those will repeatedly fail, due to the addictive power of
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    its availability. Finally, due to societal and cultural
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 available to other countries, due to societal and cultural
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       This increase is mainly due to three TCS subscales:
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      large trans-border sales due to low taxes on alcohol).~ ~
346  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      the protective effect is due to a systematic misclassification
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  systematic misclassification due to the inclusion as ‘abstainers’
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 cancer deaths~- 17,000 deaths due to neuropsychiatric conditions~-
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      in the European Union is due to alcohol, placing alcohol
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      The burden of ill-health due to alcohol is disproportionally
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       harm to young people is due to the importance of intentional
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       finds this to be mainly due to liver cirrhosis and alcohol-related
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       production not realised due to absenteeism, unemployment
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |               potential (e.g. heroin), mainly due to sampling frame-related
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 problem opioids users (POUs), due to various reasons (e.g.
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      of HCV markers, possibly due to differences in vaccination
357  III,    10.  2.  1(14)|                 countries still include cases due to psychoactive medicines
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     people.~ ~Overdose deaths due to cocaine are difficult
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      disease to be confirmed, due to a lack of perspective
360  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 health is improving, possibly due to the improved dental hygiene
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Office for Europe, 2007b). ~ ~Due to the fact that physical activity
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  costs); lost of productivity due to absenteeism and premature
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      countries was difficult, due to their use of different
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     within-subject variations due to random measurement errors
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  cases of type 2 diabetes are due to excess body weight; overweight
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       of biological processes due to its role as a donator
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |                vitamin B12 deficiency, partly due to the high prevalence of
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       iron losses for example due to bleeding, low intakes
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      to bleeding, low intakes due to small contents in food
370  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  folate is generally adequate due to a high consumption of
371  III,    10.  2.  1    |          micronutrient supply are low intakes due to dieting or nutritional
372  III,    10.  2.  4    |                  early detection of illnesses due to the availability of “
373  III,    10.  2.  4    |                    understanding of diseases, due to novel genome-based knowledge:~ ~·
374  III,    10.  2.  4    |                   rare in the one case (e.g., due to MC4R mutant and being
375  III,    10.  2.  4    |                     common in the other case (due to environmental factors).~ ~
376  III,    10.  2.  5    |          neurodevelopment during foetal life, due to malnutrition, increases
377  III,    10.  2.  5    |                    Foetal malnutrition can be due to maternal malnutrition (
378  III,    10.  2.  5    |                 combined with plasma albumin, due to a reduction of plasma
379  III,    10.  2.  5    |                   year after 40 years of age) due to a reduced number of nefrons;
380  III,    10.  2.  5    |                    metabolism of xenobiotics, due to a reduction of competent
381  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    years lost in a population due to premature mortality or
382  III,    10.  3.  1    |                      in a non-harmonised way. Due to differences in methodologies
383  III,    10.  3.  1    |                      are regional differences due to the presence of radon.
384  III,    10.  3.  1    |                 populations. This is probably due to more frequent, intermittent,
385  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    these fields is increasing due to new and emerging technologies.~ ~
386  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     or air traffic). However, due to differences in the measurement
387  III,    10.  3.  1    |               estimated the burden of disease due to noise exposure (Knol
388  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    and cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure is considerable
389  III,    10.  3.  1    |                  overall burden of ill health due to noise in Europe has not
390  III,    10.  3.  1    |                  children, hearing impairment due to leisure noise, tinnitus,
391  III,    10.  3.  1    |              significant increase in exposure due to natural radiation sources (
392  III,    10.  3.  2    |                    chemical industry but also due to hazardous substances
393  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     Rh. Pd/Rh catalysts that, due to costs, are being increasingly
394  III,    10.  3.  2    |                   amounts of suspended matter due to flooding.~Levels for
395  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  Research Centre (2006). ~ ~ ~Due to the lack of good exposure
396  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     now seem to be decreasing due to ban of penta- and octa-derivatives
397  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       that this difference is due to obligatory treatment
398  III,    10.  3.  3    |                        which could in part be due to improved surveillance
399  III,    10.  3.  4    |                       related deaths. Damages due to sea-level rise in the
400  III,    10.  3.  4    |                    public-health response was due to a lack of experts, limited
401  III,    10.  3.  4    |                       likely to have occurred due to human influence on the
402  III,    10.  3.  4    |                      cooperation in response, due to expected increased risk
403  III,    10.  4.  1    |                       estimated health damage due to PM2.5 and the effect
404  III,    10.  4.  1    |                       Estimated health damage due to PM2.5 in the EU 2000
405  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      died prematurely in 2000 due to outdoor air pollution
406  III,    10.  4.  1    |                       halve the health impact due to PM between 2000 and 2020,
407  III,    10.  4.  2    |                          crisis in confidence due to the lack of functional
408  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      identify vulnerabilities due to eating habits. High consumption
409  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 trichinellosis~• tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis;
410  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  safety and quality of foods. Due to reasons related to sampling,
411  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  important zoonosis in humans due to the severity of the disease.
412  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       in humans, but relevant due to severity of the diseases.
413  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     positive list~No problem, due to~admission policy~Admission
414  III,    10.  4.  2    |               transfer (SCNT) is low. This is due to incomplete or inappropriate
415  III,    10.  4.  3    |                      the water supply systems due to missing or faulty disinfecting
416  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   under 14 years die annually due to poor water conditions (
417  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 children under 5 years of age due to diarrheal diseases in
418  III,    10.  4.  5    |                limited health risks; in fact, due to investments in waste
419  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 faecal material, for instance due to inadequate sewage treatment
420  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 faecal material, for instance due to inadequate sewage treatment
421  III,    10.  4.  5    |            waste-related exposures with those due to other sources of pollution.~ ~
422  III,    10.  4.  5    |             considerably over the past years, due to the progress in investigation,
423  III,    10.  4.  5    |                  variations within a country, due to changes in wastes generated
424  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      SEE countries is growing due to the increase in economic
425  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     generation statistics are due varying classification in
426  III,    10.  4.  5    |             considerably over the past years, due to the progress in investigation,
427  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       importance. This may be due to the lack of specific
428  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      the soil media, but also due to the wider dispersion
429  III,    10.  4.  5    |               remediation activities. This is due to the limited applicability
430  III,    10.  4.  5    |               requires further investigations due to the large population
431  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   development (EEA, 2007b).~ ~Due to economic and logistical
432  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     adverse effects on health due to nuisance (smell, noise,
433  III,    10.  4.  5    |                  related exposures with those due to other sources of pollution.
434  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     in humans (legionellosis) due to the inhalation of droplets
435  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    indoor particulates may be due to infiltration from outdoor
436  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      barriers to access care, due to discrimination, appointment
437  III,    10.  5.  2    |                     the new EU members state. Due to these limitations, the
438  III,    10.  5.  2    |                   Figure 10.5.2.3. Complaints due to air pollution in urban
439  III,    10.  5.  3    |                  workers are absent from work due to health problems at least
440  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 agriculture report sick leave due to health problems the percentage
441  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    from work in last 12 month due to health problems~ ~Production
442  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   caused by absence from work due to diseases and by reduced
443  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       by reduced productivity due to sickness. Production
444  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      a year, of which 62% was due to healthcare (€105 billion),
445  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 losses (€ 35 billion) and 17% due to informal care (€ 29 billion)
446  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    2005). These are primarily due to reduced productivity
447  III,    10.  5.  3    |                European countries43. However, due to the heterogeneity of
448  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       of the compensation was due to only 5 disease groups.
449  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    people aged 15 or more~ ~ ~Due to non-response, certain
450  III,    10.  5.  3    |                potentially 5 € could be saved due to reduced absenteeism costs.
451  III,    10.  5.  3    |              proposals in new areas of action due to the changing world of
452  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 distribution similar to those due to education (Figure 10.
453  III,    10.  6.  2    |                     were in their turn mostly due to faster mortality declines
454  III,    10.  6.  2    |                   disease mortality. This was due to improvements in health-conducive
455  III,    10.  6.  2    |                   among men. This is probably due to a combination of (interlinked)
456  III,    10.  6.  2    |               accessing conventional services due to physical or mental disability
457  III,    10.  6.  2    |                   school non-attendance rates due to illness. Pupils who are
458  III,    10.  6.  3    |           circumstances of non-fatal injuries due to homicide, assault and
459  III,    10.  6.  3    |                     is heavily under-reported due to the reluctance of victims
460   IV,    11.  1.  1    |             inevitably vary across countries, due to cultural, technical,
461   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                  quickly than national income due to the limited constraints
462   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                       et al, 2000). Moreover, due to differences in the way
463   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                   quality of care, is largely due to the wide diversity in
464   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                      changes in health status due to provided or not provided
465   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                    results to the population (due to survey design), and potential
466   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                   Austria and France could be due to the lack of choice permitted
467   IV,    11.  3.  1    |                       are slightly inaccurate due to the potential inclusion
468   IV,    11.  3.  1    |                       overcome, in particular due to the EU harmonization
469   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                      HFA 2007). This could be due to cost containment efforts
470   IV,    11.  3.  2    |              generalizability’ of the results due to context-specific factors,
471   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                    classified as confidential due to ongoing procedures or
472   IV,    11.  5.  1    |                recipient and time constraints due to ischemia of organs. Despite
473   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                  explained. They are probably due to a complex mix of cultural,
474   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                     that many donors are lost due to lack of evaluation, lack
475   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                  living organ donation can be due to multiple factors, including
476   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                    not ideal donor candidates due to positive serology, congenital
477   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                     time. This improvement is due to the progress made in
478   IV,    11.  6.  2    |             expenditure is not always evident due to the way in which OECD
479   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                  revenue. This may in part be due to the widespread use of
480   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 out-of-pocket payments may be due to an increase in cost sharing
481   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              underestimated in many countries due to the difficulty in collecting
482   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                     to be slightly regressive due to indirect taxes, with
483   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                      are seen in Germany: (1) due to varying health risks,
484   IV,    11.  6.  3    |              effective in a tax-funded system due to limited income equalization
485   IV,    12.  1        |                       mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases.~
486   IV,    12.  5        |                       care and health policy. Due to its fundamental approach
487   IV,    12. 10        |                        who have been arrested due to the consumption of illegal
488   IV,    12. 10        |                   environment against damages due to ionising and non-ionising
489   IV,    12. 10        |                    Volatile Organic Compounds due to the Use of Organic Solvents
490   IV,    12. 10        |                 lifestyles. A 2008 edition is due out later this year.~ ~COUNTRY:
491   IV,    12. 10        |                   smoking also more generally due to the restricted possibilities
492   IV,    13.  2.  1    |                      quantify the health loss due to different diseases or
493   IV,    13.  2.  1    |                equivalent to half a year lost due to premature death. In this
494   IV,    13.  2.  1    |                      risk factor). DALYs lost due to a particular cause (disease
495   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                  Furthermore, the health loss due to exposures from the physical
496   IV,    13.  2.  2    |               amounting to one fifth of DALYs due to health conditions. In
497   IV,    13.  2.  3    |                       of total disease burden due to tobacco use, 10.9% attributable
498   IV,    13.  2.  3    |                     Burden of disease in 2000 due to selected health determinants
499   IV,    13.  2.  3    |                      premature mortality were due to environmental factors.
500   IV,    13.  2.  3    |                       higher risk of injuries due to environmental factors.