1-500 | 501-503
    Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |                whole. Therefore, in some cases, the Report may not completely
  2    I,     2.  7        |                 with each other, in some cases forming a single entity.
  3    I,     2.  9        |                 desertification. In many cases, desertification is irreversible,
  4    I,     2.  9        |                 risk of human Leishmania cases further north. The possible
  5    I,     2. 10.  4    |        traceability around the world. In cases of cross border trading,
  6   II,     5.  1.  1    |                strategies allow, in some cases, for early detection and
  7   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 been estimated that most cases of this cancer are preventable
  8   II,     5.  2.  1    |                accounting for 42% of all cases of death in the EU. In the
  9   II,     5.  2.  3    |               data refer to two separate cases of AMI or one case of AMI
 10   II,     5.  2.  5    |           account for more than ¾ of IHD cases; these studies have demonstrated
 11   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 the number of new cancer cases per 100,000 population at
 12   II,     5.  3.  1    |                  3.1. Estimated incident cases and deaths by selected cancer
 13   II,     5.  3.  2    |                  collect data on all new cases of cancer occurring in a
 14   II,     5.  3.  2    |          survival (following up incident cases for a given time after diagnosis)
 15   II,     5.  3.  2    |            incidence, number of interval cases, follow-up of cases after
 16   II,     5.  3.  2    |             interval cases, follow-up of cases after migration or lapsed
 17   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 down-staging of incident cases; reversal of initial prevalent
 18   II,     5.  3.  2    |                initial prevalent wave of cases after screening introduction;
 19   II,     5.  3.  2    |     representative samples of registered cases.~ ~· Providing information
 20   II,     5.  3.  2    |             confidentiality, but in some cases they failed to take account
 21   II,     5.  3.  2    |                  the UK (2000). In other cases registries are prevented
 22   II,     5.  3.  4    |                 been estimated that most cases of this cancer are preventable
 23   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   In 2006, 3,200,000 new cases and 1,700,000 deaths were
 24   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 Hungary for men (599 new cases per 100,000) and in Denmark
 25   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Denmark for women (414 new cases per 100,000). Maximum mortality
 26   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  Europe for men (482 new cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.
 27   II,     5.  3.  5    |                Europe for women (351 new cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.
 28   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  Europe saw, 160,000 new cases and 118,000 deaths estimated
 29   II,     5.  3.  5    |                Macedonia for men (37 new cases per 100,000) and in Lithuania
 30   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Lithuania for women (18 new cases per 100,000); while maximum
 31   II,     5.  3.  5    |                154)~In 2006, 413,000 new cases and 207,000 deaths were
 32   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 Hungary for men (106 new cases per 100,000) and Switzerland
 33   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Switzerland for women (56 new cases per 100,000). Finland had
 34   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  Figures 5.3.10) (65 new cases in men and 41 new cases
 35   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  cases in men and 41 new cases per 100,000 in women). Figures
 36   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Europe there were 386,000 new cases and 335,000 estimated deaths (
 37   II,     5.  3.  5    |              performance in men (119 new cases and 110 deaths per 100,000)
 38   II,     5.  3.  5    |               with minimum rates (29 new cases and 29 deaths per 100,000).
 39   II,     5.  3.  5    |              that of males (46 vs 41 new cases per 100,000). Eastern Europe
 40   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  for men in 2006 (92 new cases and 85 deaths per 100,000).
 41   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  rates for women (31 new cases and 27 deaths per 100,000
 42   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 an estimated 430,000 new cases and 132,000 deaths in 2006
 43   II,     5.  3.  5    |            estimated in Belgium (138 new cases per 100,000). Breast cancer
 44   II,     5.  3.  5    |          estimates were about 60,000 new cases and 30,000 deaths in 2002
 45   II,     5.  3.  5    |                185)~In 2006, 346,000 new cases and 87,000 deaths were estimated
 46   II,     5.  3.  6    |                on 2 699 086 adult cancer cases that were diagnosed in 1995–
 47   II,     5.  3.  8    |            increasing. The number of new cases is also increasing, because
 48   II,     5.  3.  8    |                  of all cancer prevalent cases in 2002. With cancer prevalence,
 49   II,     5.  3.  8    |             increase in prevalent cancer cases (i.e. increased needs of
 50   II,     5.  4.  2    |             still be resolved:~· in most cases population-based denominators
 51   II,     5.  4.  2    |         prevalence; different portion of cases with less severe diabetes
 52   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  is worth mentioning the cases of Sweden (Gudbjörnsdottir
 53   II,     5.  4.  2    |            Carinci et al 2006).~In other cases, registers are client-based,
 54   II,     5.  4.  2    |              denominators, which in many cases lead to reports that are
 55   II,     5.  4.  2    |                target population. In all cases, they do not provide us
 56   II,     5.  4.  2    |               EUCID as the number of new cases of diabetes in children
 57   II,     5.  4.  2    |               the ratio of the number of cases of diabetes present in the
 58   II,     5.  4.  2    |               ratio of the number of new cases of blindness in one year
 59   II,     5.  4.  2    |              retinopathy/total number of cases of blindness in the same
 60   II,     5.  4.  2    |             defined as the number of new cases with dialysis and/or transplantation (
 61   II,     5.  4.  2    |             defined as the number of all cases with dialysis/transplantation
 62   II,     5.  4.  2    |             defined as the number of new cases of major amputations (above
 63   II,     5.  4.  2    |             defined as the number of new cases with stroke (both ischemic
 64   II,     5.  4.  2    |             defined as the number of new cases with any myocardial infarction
 65   II,     5.  4.  3    |             Luxembourg) and 60 (Finland) cases per 100,000 per year. The
 66   II,     5.  5.  1    |        undertreated in as much as 80% of cases of completed suicide. Furthermore,
 67   II,     5.  5.  2    |                diseases account for most cases of dementia (Kurz, 2002).
 68   II,     5.  5.  2    |               between 30 and 59. In some cases, population statistics were
 69   II,     5.  5.  2    |             prevention. Combined in some cases with an advance directive,
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |              female; nonetheless, 10% of cases occur in male. Both anorexia
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to 18; however, several cases appear in childhood as well
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |               health and policy. In most cases, actions and programmes
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Norway. Although in some cases variations like this might
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  treatment among serious cases were not merely a result
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the need for treatment in cases of severe disorders was
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of stigma in 428 concrete cases of stigmatization reported
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  countries do not in all cases cover direct and indirect
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  order to reduce chronic cases and financial burden;~·
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |          included in DSM-IV to encompass cases where there is marked impairment
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |               urban location and whether cases were assessed prospectively
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Commission, 1993). These cases add up to the so-called
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |                only in about one-half of cases (Berg & Shinnar, 1991).
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Thus, multiple sources of cases must be explored to maximize
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |               studies, the proportion of cases with documented etiology
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepticus) occurred in 41% of cases (incidence 23.5 per 100,
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |                groups. The percentage of cases with documented etiology
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Population ~Design~No. of cases ~Prevalence ratio (per 1,
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |               were reported in 55-60% of cases, generalized seizures in
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |          syndromic category in 41-54% of cases from Sweden, Finland and
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Callenbach et al, 2001). In most cases, SUDEP is triggered by a
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |         childhood-onset epilepsy, 64% of cases were in 5-year terminal
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   DMSR) has collected MS cases since 1948 (www ), and has
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |              recording information on MS cases from multiple sources, including
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |                88% (Greece) of prevalent cases. The combined proportion
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |                distribution of prevalent cases by disease severity and
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |               detect benign and/or early cases; (c) the different degree
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |            courses and severely disabled cases, subsequently underestimating
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and is based on prevalent cases. It is often unclear whether
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Score (EDSS) for prevalent cases (Kurtzke, 1983). Disability
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |          syndromes’). Identifying benign cases in the early stages of MS
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Estimated total number of cases of Parkinson’s disease in
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Estimated total number of cases of Parkinson’s disease in
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  up to 36% of identified cases in community-based studies.
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Distribution of Parkinson’s disease cases according to the Hoehn &
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |             explain the higher number of cases with mild disability (HYI-II)
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Distribution of Parkinson’s disease cases according to the Hoehn &
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the definition of incident cases (symptom onset vs. date
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |                clinical ascertainment of cases. Mov Disord 13(3):400-405.~
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |        clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery,
110   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 Clinic-based established cases have a far worse prognosis
111   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 that about two-thirds of cases had mild or moderate disability
112   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 account for about 10% of cases whereas 90% of people with
113   II,     5.  6.  3    |                for more than 1 month. In cases with chronic back pain,
114   II,     5.  6.  3    |               reflects that about 50% of cases are associated to a non-specific
115   II,     5.  6.  4    |                the consequence in milder cases with varying intensity of
116   II,     5.  7.  3    |                min per 1.74 m2 ) of 12.1 cases per million of the age-related
117   II,     5.  7.  3    |             corresponding figure was 7.7 cases /year pmarp (<30 ml/min
118   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 al, 2004). Indeed, 9 new cases of ESRD developed in 1983
119   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  1978. By comparison, 16 cases of ESRD had developed in
120   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 min per 1.74 m2) of 74.7 cases pmarp (Ardissino et al,
121   II,     5.  7.  3    |              corresponding figure was 21 cases pmarp (Esbjorner et al,
122   II,     5.  7.  3    |             years) in Europe is about 60 cases pmarp (Van der Heijden et
123   II,     5.  9. FB    |                studied over the years in cases where the mother does not
124   II,     5.  9.  2    |                 societies, the number of cases and the prevalence of asthma
125   II,     5.  9.  3    |        represents about 35% of prevalent cases of the young adult population (
126   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  significant increase in cases of allergic respiratory
127   II,     5.  9.  4    |                higher among females (2.9 cases.1000 person-yrs(-1)) than
128   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    than among males (1.5 cases.1000 person-yrs(-1)). (Torén
129   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  determine about 1 in 10 cases of asthma in the working
130   II,     5.  9.  4    |           occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year.~ ~
131   II,     5.  9.  5    |                  management. Most asthma cases are self-managed by patients
132   II,     5.  9.  5    |            clinical monitoring in severe cases. At this level there are
133   II,     5. 10.  3    |             except for a very few severe cases of non-responsive adult
134   II,     5. 10.  6    |          responsible for the majority of cases. For this purpose, well-designed
135   II,     5. 11.  3    |            Prevalence=8% (including mild cases)~Meding B, et al~ ~Swedish
136   II,     5. 11.  3    |              skin condition that in most cases develops during in early
137   II,     5. 11.  3    |                may be continuous in some cases. Atopic eczema often has
138   II,     5. 11.  3    |              make the eczema worse. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or
139   II,     5. 11.  3    |               but it is likely that most cases are mild and can be managed
140   II,     5. 11.  3    |             atopic eczema, 60% of eczema cases were considered to be very
141   II,     5. 11.  3    |          carcinoma (SCC) and over 50 new cases of melanoma per 100,000.
142   II,     5. 11.  3    |               Registry registered 38 629 cases of NMSC (19 600 in men and
143   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   doubling the number of cases every 10-15 years), probably
144   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  2000 there were 132 000 cases of melanoma diagnosed world-wide
145   II,     5. 11.  3    |                in 2000 there were 35 000 cases of melanoma diagnosed and
146   II,     5. 11.  3    |         high-resource countries (104 000 cases and 25 000 deaths) and low-
147   II,     5. 11.  3    |        medium-resource countries (28 500 cases and 12 000 deaths) (Ferlay
148   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 for detecting such early cases varies widely within relatively
149   II,     5. 12.  6    |              i.e. comparatively younger) cases, the lack of population-based
150   II,     5. 12.  6    |                  proportion of cirrhosis cases, liver transplantation is
151   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  These are predominantly cases of quality dental care,
152   II,     5. 14.  3    |               methods emphasized in most cases limitations among population
153   II,     5. 14.  3    |              ahead of the moderate (3%), cases. Severe forms were marginal
154   II,     5. 15.  2    |             cohorts and observatories of cases started to be established
155   II,     6.  2.  0(2) |                  sources, only confirmed cases are included where the status
156   II,     6.  2.  0(2) |                  been used for the other cases.~
157   II,     6.  3.  1    |                  incidence and number of cases through concerted prevention
158   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 was present in 1520% of cases reported by the Baltic Republics (
159   II,     6.  3.  2    |           frequent in previously treated cases, and in foreigners, especially
160   II,     6.  3.  3    |         Netherlands.~ ~ ~Figure 6.2. HIV cases per million.~Source: ECDC,
161   II,     6.  3.  3    |         heterosexual contact: from 2 314 cases in 1996 to 6 386 in 2004.
162   II,     6.  3.  3    |                then has risen from 2 615 cases in 2001 to 4 151 in 2004.
163   II,     6.  3.  3    |                number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV among injecting drug
164   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  low proportion of total cases, and has declined since
165   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  2001 (from 1 491 to 860 cases in 2004), although data
166   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  from Estonia). With 171 cases reported in 2005, mother-to-child
167   II,     6.  3.  3    |                   of the newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection believed
168   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 trend). In 2005, 203 691 cases of Chlamydia infection were
169   II,     6.  3.  3    |            countries, with almost 96% of cases from (in descending order)
170   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 from levels of up to 200 cases per 100 000 per year in
171   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  2005, a total of 27 537 cases were reported by 22 countries.
172   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 the early 1990s (over 60 cases per 100 000 per year in
173   II,     6.  3.  3    |              incidence remained below 10 cases per 100 000 per year, with
174   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 In 2005, 12 945 syphilis cases were reported by 24 countries.
175   II,     6.  3.  3    |               partners.~ ~Almost 180 000 cases of Hepatitis B were reported
176   II,     6.  3.  3    |         decreasing trend from 6.6 to 2.6 cases per 100 000 per year over
177   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 late 1990s. Of the 6 977 cases reported in 2005 by 26 countries,
178   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  than 29 000 hepatitis C cases were reported by 24 countries.
179   II,     6.  3.  4    |                season, although sporadic cases do occur throughout the
180   II,     6.  3.  4    |             closer to Europe, with human cases as close as Turkey, but
181   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  as Turkey, but no human cases in Europe. This virus in
182   II,     6.  3.  4    |                   Table 6.A1.1 Number of cases of tubercolosis~ ~ ~ ~Figure
183   II,     6.  3.  4    |      tubercolosis~ ~ ~ ~Figure 6.A1.1 TB cases per 100,000 selected countries
184   II,     6.  3.  4    |               Figure 6.A1.2 Tubercolosis cases by age and gender~ ~ ~ ~
185   II,     6.  3.  4    |                A1.4 New culture positive cases (Sweden smear)~ ~ ~Table
186   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  smear)~ ~ ~Table 6.A1.2 Cases of TB between 1995 and 2004~ ~ ~ ~
187   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  2004~ ~ ~ ~Table 6.A1.3 Cases of TB by age groups~ ~ ~ ~ ~
188   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 drug-resistance among TB cases is low to moderate.~· The
189   II,     6.  3.  4    |             where TB rates are moderate, cases of foreign origin rare,
190   II,     6.  3.  4    |                Norway reported 59 497 TB cases corresponding to an overall
191   II,     6.  3.  4    |             Kingdom) had more than 5 000 cases each, accounting for 62%
192   II,     6.  3.  4    |                accounting for 62% of all cases reported. With the EU expansion
193   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 to female ratio, 1.7:1). Cases aged over 64 accounted for
194   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 accounted for 22% of the cases overall, while children
195   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 the majority of notified cases. In people of foreign origin,
196   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  highest in the elderly. Cases of foreign origin accounted
197   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 accounted for 30% of all cases reported in the 25 countries (
198   II,     6.  3.  4    |            countries (range 078%). Most cases of foreign origin were from
199   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  EU in 2005, 22% of AIDS cases had TB as the initial AIDS-indicator
200   II,     6.  3.  4    |               countries. While 15% of TB cases in Portugal were HIV positive,
201   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  HIV prevalence among TB cases has also increased since
202   II,     6.  3.  4    | immuno-compromised individuals. Sporadic cases and outbreaks occur worldwide.
203   II,     6.  3.  4    |                  189 human legionellosis cases were reported by 23 countries.
204   II,     6.  3.  4    |               000 per year. In 2005, 746 cases of travel-associated Legionnaires’
205   II,     6.  3.  4    |               had resulted in 8 098 SARS cases in 26 countries, with 774
206   II,     6.  3.  4    |               Although sporadic imported cases of SARS also appeared in
207   II,     6.  3.  4    |              from the infection. No SARS cases were reported in the world
208   II,     6.  3.  5    |               There have been no endemic cases of polio since 1992, only
209   II,     6.  3.  5    |             polio since 1992, only a few cases of diphtheria are still
210   II,     6.  3.  5    |               quarters of all EU measles cases. The same downward trend
211   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  at between five and six cases per 100 000 per year, but
212   II,     6.  3.  5    |            stable at between one and two cases per 100 000 per year. Good
213   II,     6.  3.  5    |                In 2005, a total of 5 494 cases were reported by 26 countries.
214   II,     6.  3.  5    |               and the UK. In 2005, 1 145 cases were reported by 25 countries.
215   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  very high proportion of cases have been reported among
216   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  2005, a total of 13 207 cases were reported by 24 countries.
217   II,     6.  3.  5    |          European countries, and in some cases quite dramatically. Close
218   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  the other EU countries, cases are only observed sporadically.
219   II,     6.  3.  5    |               2005, only Latvia reported cases (20) with an incidence of
220   II,     6.  3.  5    |               000 per year in 2000 (nine cases) and for Malta with 0.5
221   II,     6.  3.  5    |                000 per year in 2002 (two cases). In 2005, altogether 137
222   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  In 2005, altogether 137 cases were reported by 21 countries.
223   II,     6.  3.  5    |               reported almost 50% of all cases and the highest incidence
224   II,     6.  3.  5    |                decrease in the number of cases in France and in Italy,
225   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  a significant number of cases have still been observed
226   II,     6.  3.  5    |                In 2005, a total of 1 291 cases were reported by 25 countries,
227   II,     6.  3.  5    |         countries, with more than 50% of cases (776) from Germany. The
228   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 since then the number of cases has again been steadily
229   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  2005, a total of 52 918 cases were reported by 23 countries.
230   II,     6.  3.  5    |                In 2005, a total of 1 498 cases were reported by 22 countries.
231   II,     6.  3.  5    |                 caused an outbreak of 71 cases with two deaths in an unvaccinated
232   II,     6.  3.  6    |             almost no secondary domestic cases seen in recent years. The
233   II,     6.  3.  6    |             systems miss the majority of cases, namely those patients who
234   II,     6.  3.  6    |             increasing trend from 85 000 cases in 1995, to 180 000190
235   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  2005, more than 200 000 cases were reported, with the
236   II,     6.  3.  6    |               the proportion of imported cases varies considerably between
237   II,     6.  3.  6    |              countries with 99% domestic cases in Czech Republic, Lithuania
238   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  61% and 52% of reported cases were imported.~ ~Salmonellosis~ ~
239   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  876 human salmonellosis cases were reported by 27 countries,
240   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  group 04 years (27% of cases), decreasing steadily in
241   II,     6.  3.  6    |              high proportion of imported cases (7787%).~Alternative sources
242   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 large under-reporting of cases in some of the Member States.~ ~
243   II,     6.  3.  6    |         proportion (31%) of all reported cases (n=20 746), was reported
244   II,     6.  3.  6    |             between 1995 and 2004 (6 440 cases). In 2005, a total of 1
245   II,     6.  3.  6    |                human typhoid/paratyphoid cases were reported by 26 countries.
246   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  7 425 human shigellosis cases were reported by 26 countries.
247   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  representing 10% of all cases. Lithuania (13.43 per 100
248   II,     6.  3.  6    |            bloody diarrhoea that in some cases may proceed to a severe
249   II,     6.  3.  6    |                In 2005, a total of 5 218 cases were reported by 25 countries.
250   II,     6.  3.  6    |               incidence rate of reported cases has been relatively stable,
251   II,     6.  3.  6    |                notified a total of 9 564 cases of human yersiniosis with
252   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 countries reported 1 491 cases in 2005. Denmark (0.85 per
253   II,     6.  3.  6    |              More than half the reported cases occurred in individuals
254   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  In 2005, 96 listeriosis cases were associated with pregnancy.
255   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  reported by Germany (56 cases), France (37 cases) and
256   II,     6.  3.  6    |           Germany (56 cases), France (37 cases) and Denmark (three cases).~ ~
257   II,     6.  3.  6    |                cases) and Denmark (three cases).~ ~Brucellosis~ ~Brucellosis
258   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  products. The number of cases steadily decreased from
259   II,     6.  3.  6    |              from 1999 (just under 4 000 cases (0.87 per 100 000)) to 2004 (
260   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 100 000)) to 2004 (1 743 cases (0.38 per 100 000)). Twenty-six
261   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 countries reported 1 429 cases in 2005, with an overall
262   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 Poland reported the most cases over the 10-year period.
263   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  In 2005, a total of 152 cases were reported by 22 countries
264   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 five reported 20 or more cases, with Lithuania reporting
265   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   The number of imported cases has remained small; a peak
266   II,     6.  3.  6    |             remained small; a peak of 40 cases was observed in 1998 but
267   II,     6.  3.  6    |                In the last 10 years, 237 cases were reported ( 0.01 per
268   II,     6.  3.  6    |               000 per year). In 2005, 34 cases were reported by 20 countries,
269   II,     6.  3.  6    |                available. Almost 210 000 cases have been reported in Europe
270   II,     6.  3.  6    |               since then. In 2005, 6 695 cases were reported by 25 countries.
271   II,     6.  3.  6    |                2005, 1 519 toxoplasmosis cases were reported by 14 countries,
272   II,     6.  3.  6    |                and animals, the reported cases only reflect a minute proportion
273   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 minute proportion of all cases, and very few conclusions
274   II,     6.  3.  6    |              years. In 2005, some 15 103 cases were reported by 18 countries.
275   II,     6.  3.  6    |            scanty. In 2005, almost 8 000 cases were reported by 16 countries,
276   II,     6.  3.  6    |            highest incidence rates. Most cases occurred in the age groups
277   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   The number of reported cases has been steadily decreasing
278   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  In 2005, altogether 337 cases were reported by 22 countries.
279   II,     6.  3.  6    |                rates. The real number of cases is probably considerably
280   II,     6.  3.  6    |          relatively stable. In 2005, 153 cases were reported by 25 countries.
281   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  of increased numbers of cases in the future, particularly
282   II,     6.  3.  6    |                reported annual number of cases (30) was in 1999. Since
283   II,     6.  3.  6    |                   the number of reported cases declined steadily until
284   II,     6.  3.  6    |              2004~In 2005, a total of 21 cases were reported by 18 EU Member
285   II,     6.  3.  6    |             States. Slovakia reported 11 cases; however, the criteria for
286   II,     6.  3.  6    |             criteria for reporting these cases may have been different
287   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 the other countries. Six cases reported in France, two
288   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  up the remainder of the cases reported.~ ~
289   II,     6.  3.  7    |            diseases have a low number of cases, are often geographically
290   II,     6.  3.  7    |                the EU network, but these cases are almost all imported.
291   II,     6.  3.  7    |         prevention and control. Imported cases through travel need to be
292   II,     6.  3.  7    |             years the reported number of cases in the EU has been very
293   II,     6.  3.  7    |             countries reporting the most cases over the last 10 years and
294   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  in Sweden. In 2005, 508 cases were reported by 21 countries.
295   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  has been an increase of cases every third year. The year
296   II,     6.  3.  7    |              peaks, with more than 2 500 cases reported by Finland and
297   II,     6.  3.  7    |              varying between 0.2 and 0.5 cases per 100 000. In 2005, 958
298   II,     6.  3.  7    |                per 100 000. In 2005, 958 cases were reported by 21 countries.
299   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 ranging from 0.1 to 0.22 cases per 100 000. The lowest
300   II,     6.  3.  7    |                000. The lowest number of cases in recent years (687) was
301   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  report a high number of cases, partly related to higher
302   II,     6.  3.  7    |                departments. In 2005, 900 cases were reported by 24 countries,
303   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  reported a total of 250 cases throughout the period (though
304   II,     6.  3.  7    |                10-year period). The most cases were reported by Spain (
305   II,     6.  3.  7    |               countries reported just 10 cases.~ ~West Nile fever~ ~West
306   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 affecting five and seven cases respectively. In addition,
307   II,     6.  3.  7    |              addition, sporadic imported cases have been reported in several
308   II,     6.  3.  7    |               infection of most imported cases is the USA, where an increasing
309   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 years no more than seven cases per year were reported across
310   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  across the EU (total 21 cases). In 2005, five cases of
311   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 21 cases). In 2005, five cases of rabies were reported
312   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 large number of imported cases in Europe, malaria surveillance
313   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  of the imported malaria cases to Europe, mainly through
314   II,     6.  3.  7    |                   In 2005, 4 306 malaria cases were reported by 26 countries (
315   II,     6.  3.  7    |                that the trend of malaria cases in returning travellers
316   II,     6.  3.  7    |               those infections for which cases were reported in returning
317   II,     6.  3.  7    |             mainly in children. Imported cases of Dengue fever are not
318   II,     6.  3.  7    |           reported annually some 120220 cases, the UK around 200250 cases,
319   II,     6.  3.  7    |             cases, the UK around 200250 cases, and Belgium and Sweden
320   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 Belgium and Sweden 2560 cases. According to available
321   II,     6.  3.  7    |          According to available data, no cases of DHF were reported in
322   II,     6.  3.  7    |                  15% of the hospitalised cases may die. Individual short
323   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 a total of five imported cases of Lassa fever in Europe
324   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 the past five years: two cases in the UK from Sierra Leone (
325   II,     6.  3.  7    |               from Sierra Leone, and two cases in Germany in 2000 from
326   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 dIvoire and Nigeria. No cases were reported in 2005.~ ~
327   II,     6.  3.  7    |              returning from Zimbabwe. No cases were reported in 2005.~ ~
328   II,     6.  3.  7    |               Marburg haemorrhagic fever cases have been reported in Europe
329   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 a century. Only sporadic cases have been reported in travellers
330   II,     6.  3.  7    |                   2001 and 2005, and two cases from Ireland in 1998 and
331   II,     6.  3.  7    |              country of the UK and Irish cases).~ ~Plague~ ~In Europe no
332   II,     6.  3.  7    |                In Europe no human plague cases have been reported for a
333   II,     6.  3.  7    |     characteristics, it is unlikely that cases have been missed. Though
334   II,     6.  3.  7    |               years, a growing number of cases have been reported to the
335   II,     6.  4.  3    |                    early notification of cases;~· outbreak assistance and
336   II,     7.  3.  1    |                    All medically treated cases”). Also, indicators on health
337   II,     7.  3.  5    |                 of all medically treated cases (See Table 7.1).~ ~Suicide
338   II,     7.  3.  5    |                  in the EU27 (24% of all cases, almost 61 000 people a
339   II,     7.  4.  1    |              group is estimated as 26000 cases in the EU27. For every death
340   II,     7.  4.  1    |            traumatic injury. Another 800 cases are treated at the accident
341   II,     7.  4.  2    |               represents about 8 million cases per year in the EU27 (Working
342   II,     8.  1.  1    |              weather conditions. In many cases disabilities are associated
343   II,     8.  2.  1    |             genetic or congenital in 51% cases, acquired in 19%, genetic
344   II,     8.  2.  1    |               acquired in 18%. Among all cases, 9% had SPID as the only
345   II,     8.  2.  1    |                 towards mild to moderate cases.~ ~Vulnerable groups~ ~Overall,
346   II,     8.  2.  1    |                Primary prevention~ ~Some cases of intellectual disability
347   II,     9            |               the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the
348   II,     9            |                factors. For about 15% of cases, there is an identifiable
349   II,     9            |                 abnormality. Under 5% of cases can be attributed to a known
350   II,     9            |                are needed to capture all cases of congenital rubella syndrome,
351   II,     9            |             control weight gain. In many cases it is reported that children
352   II,     9.  1        |               care in nearly half of the cases (see chapter 9.3.2).~ ~This
353   II,     9.  1.  1    |               excluding post-neonatal CP cases acquired during 1990-1998
354   II,     9.  1.  1    |               countries, with fewer mild cases in registers from the Southern
355   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  and mild cerebral palsy cases, born 1990-1998, in selected
356   II,     9.  1.  2    |              Many registers also include cases diagnosed later in infancy
357   II,     9.  1.  2    |         proportion of multiply malformed cases where a karyotype has been
358   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  in Table 9.1.2.1, these cases have been excluded from
359   II,     9.  1.  2    |            anomaly, the vast majority of cases of congenital anomaly across
360   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 increasing proportion of cases, among both older and younger
361   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  In many countries, most cases of neural tube defects are
362   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 for nearly two thirds of cases. Geographic variation within
363   II,     9.  1.  2    |                    The great majority of cases of gastroschisis are prenatally
364   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  the diagnosis of milder cases. Hypospadias is of particular
365   II,     9.  1.  2    |               the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the
366   II,     9.  1.  2    |                factors. For about 15% of cases, there is an identifiable
367   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 abnormality. Under 5% of cases can be attributed to a known
368   II,     9.  1.  2    |                are needed to capture all cases of congenital rubella syndrome,
369   II,     9.  1.  2    |          treating a sufficient volume of cases. However, information on
370   II,     9.  1.  2    |         Comparisons of the proportion of cases prenatally diagnosed, the
371   II,     9.  1.  2    |               used and the proportion of cases resulting in termination
372   II,     9.  1.  2    |               potential to link registry cases to death notifications in
373   II,     9.  2.  3    |                increase in the number of cases in the UK (from 137 in 1996
374   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 of all reported HIV/AIDS cases are among those under 25
375   II,     9.  2.  3    |               and wellbeing, and in many cases their self esteem, but it
376   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 disturbances. In extreme cases, dieting may also affect
377   II,     9.  2.  4    |             control weight gain. In many cases it is reported that children
378   II,     9.  3.  1    |                limited because they omit cases of undiagnosed conditions
379   II,     9.  3.  1    |             diagnoses can vary. Tackling cases of under reporting and improving
380   II,     9.  3.  1    |              also obesity. Although most cases of venous thrombosis are
381   II,     9.  3.  1    |              1988 to 2001. The number of cases of diabetes is expected
382   II,     9.  3.  1    |              HIV/AIDS. Although most new cases of HIV/AIDS reported in
383   II,     9.  3.  1    |               but 24,184 newly diagnosed cases of HIV were recorded in
384   II,     9.  3.  1    |              population. Over a third of cases (36%) were females. For
385   II,     9.  3.  1    |                men. Thirteen per cent of cases were young people between
386   II,     9.  3.  1    |                increase in the number of cases, ranging from 137 in 1996
387   II,     9.  3.  1    |                1990s, an increase in the cases of gonorrhoea has been observed
388   II,     9.  3.  1    |       experienced a 35% increase in male cases and a 32% rise in female
389   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 and a 32% rise in female cases between 1995-97 (WHO, 2001).
390   II,     9.  3.  1    |           development of ED, with 80% of cases believed to have a physical
391   II,     9.  3.  1    |           frequently affected (75-80% of cases) than men. The disease has
392   II,     9.  3.  2    |             variation in Europe. In many cases, especially for small Countries,,
393   II,     9.  3.  2    |              methodology for identifying cases. The EURO-PERISTAT group
394   II,     9.  4.  3    |                 by 177%, from 150 to 416 cases, between 1995 and 2003,
395   II,     9.  4.  3    |            between 1995 and 2003, whilst cases of gonorrhoea rose 249%,
396  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 of child abuse in 16% of cases.~The risk of drinking and
397  III,    10.  2.  1    |        admissions and drinking & driving cases (Ragnarsdottir et al, 2002).~ ~
398  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  roughly between 1 and 8 cases per 1000 inhabitants aged
399  III,    10.  2.  1    |               users ranging from 1.55.3 cases 1 000 inhabitants aged 15400  III,    10.  2.  1    |              roughly between one and six cases per 1 000 population aged
401  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 of between four and five cases per 1 000 of the population
402  III,    10.  2.  1    |                ranging between 0.5 and 6 cases per year for a population
403  III,    10.  2.  1    |               much higher estimate of 15 cases per 1000 has been reported.
404  III,    10.  2.  1    |            injectors) of between 3 and 4 cases for an adult population
405  III,    10.  2.  1    |       predominance of IDUs among the new cases of HIV and AIDS was overrun
406  III,    10.  2.  1    |             group. Since data on new HIV cases is incomplete and missing
407  III,    10.  2.  1    |                time trends based on AIDS cases (Figure 10.2.1.3.5).~ ~Figure
408  III,    10.  2.  1(12)|           mortality, which may miss some cases and misclassify a drug-related
409  III,    10.  2.  1(12)|         ill-defined. The extend to which cases are coded correctly might
410  III,    10.  2.  1(14)|                  countries still include cases due to psychoactive medicines
411  III,    10.  2.  1    |         mentioned in 60-90% of all death cases and these could therefore
412  III,    10.  2.  1    |         metabolites) are present in most cases of acute drug-related deaths
413  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 drug in about 40% of all cases. However, both the number
414  III,    10.  2.  1    |         buprenorphine, but also in a few cases other substances (codeine,
415  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  1993, when substitution cases in the EU were estimated
416  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 of the adult ( 30 years) cases of type 2 diabetes are due
417  III,    10.  2.  1    |             responsible for about 55% of cases of hypertensive disease,
418  III,    10.  2.  1    |             hypertensive disease, 35% of cases of both ischemic heart disease
419  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   and about a quarter of cases of osteoarthritis. The term420  III,    10.  2.  4    |               paper which covered 14.000 cases and 3000 shared controls
421  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 Member States as in most cases only a few reference laboratories
422  III,    10.  2.  4    |              association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases
423  III,    10.  3.  1    |               leads to 100 to 1200 extra cases of lung cancer every year.
424  III,    10.  3.  1    |                  estimation is 800 extra cases. In Sweden (population 9
425  III,    10.  3.  1    |           population 9 million), 400-700 cases of lung cancer can be ascribed
426  III,    10.  3.  1    |               2002, more than 21 000 new cases of melanoma were diagnosed
427  III,    10.  3.  1    |                US women population (6213 cases, 7390 age-matched controls)
428  III,    10.  3.  2    |               sources e.g. in accidental cases, as contamination in products
429  III,    10.  3.  3    |                season, although sporadic cases do occur throughout the
430  III,    10.  3.  3    |              case fatality and number of cases (incidence) in the population.~ ~
431  III,    10.  3.  3    |                  incidence and number of cases through concerted prevention
432  III,    10.  3.  4    |               was fatal in 1050% of all cases and may lead to nervous
433  III,    10.  3.  4    |                 Exceptionally, mortality cases were reported more in rural
434  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  Nevertheless, the human cases linked to food-borne outbreaks
435  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  fatality, and number of cases (incidence) in the population.~ ~
436  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  information on zoonoses cases in humans was acquired from
437  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   Reported Campylobacter cases in 2005 increased by 7.8%
438  III,    10.  4.  2    |                an incidence rate of 51.6 cases per 100,000 people and to
439  III,    10.  4.  2    |                and to a total of 197,363 cases. Poultry meat is assumed
440  III,    10.  4.  2    |          decrease in the number of human cases when compared to 2004, salmonellosis
441  III,    10.  4.  2    |             options to treat the disease cases may be limited.~· Verotoxigenic
442  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 animals to human disease cases, inhibits a proper assessment
443  III,    10.  4.  2    |             geographical distribution of cases and related risk of acquiring
444  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  No information on human cases of Toxoplasma infections
445  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 or reporting no positive cases. However, the progress towards
446  III,    10.  4.  2    |               there were only few rabies cases reported in humans, the
447  III,    10.  4.  2    |               the increased reporting of cases in domestic animals and
448  III,    10.  4.  2    |                risk calculated~at 75-130 cases of cancer per~year in the
449  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  established and in some cases the use of substances is
450  III,    10.  4.  2    |                carcinogens, were in most cases related to migration from
451  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 foods in Sweden. In some cases high levels of acrylamide
452  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  safe levels and in most cases over 99.9%. The results
453  III,    10.  4.  3    |               outbreaks and 34.8% of the cases of illnesses. Viral agents
454  III,    10.  4.  3    |             outbreaks (27%) and 60.6% of cases of illness. Four outbreaks
455  III,    10.  4.  3    |              caused by protozoa (3.7% of cases of illness), two by chemical
456  III,    10.  4.  3    |          chemical contamination (0.1% of cases of illness), and in four
457  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 of illness), and in four cases an unknown microbial agent
458  III,    10.  4.  3    |                  implicated (0.8% of the cases of illness). The data must
459  III,    10.  4.  5    |                from the site or, in some cases, on exposure modelling;
460  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 proven effective in some cases in waste management policies.
461  III,    10.  4.  5    |          non-informative studies. In the cases in which epidemiological
462  III,    10.  4.  5    |             waste and, therefore in most cases, waste must be land filled
463  III,    10.  5.  1    |                to be stated that in many cases the environmental determinants
464  III,    10.  5.  1    |              indoor environment, in some cases even desired (for example,
465  III,    10.  5.  1    |          materials and products. In most cases, these compounds affect
466  III,    10.  5.  1    |                  resulted in over 16 700 cases of illness) were recorded
467  III,    10.  5.  1    |               the sewage system. In both cases, hygiene concerns are predominant
468  III,    10.  5.  2    |              from urban centres. In many cases it seems easier to define “
469  III,    10.  5.  2    |           conditions and more overweight cases (Verheij et al., 1998).
470  III,    10.  5.  2    |         avoidable mortality) and reduced cases of hospitalization (Gulliford
471  III,    10.  5.  2    |            rural settings, while in many cases lower rural disease prevalence
472  III,    10.  5.  3    |              project, data on recognised cases for 31 items of the European
473  III,    10.  6.  1    |         contacted child in 41-86% of the cases in the EU-countries, being
474  III,    10.  6.  1    |              week in at least 75% of the cases. Absent contact was rare
475  III,    10.  6.  1    |                applying to 1% or less of cases (Kohb et al., 2005).~ ~The
476  III,    10.  6.  1    |               gender in more than 50% of cases, the proportion dropping
477   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                improved quality; in many cases through an increased role
478   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                contain costs and in many cases introduced activity-based
479   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               health system, and in some cases in their different roles
480   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 to be made about outlier cases (i.e. treatment episodes
481   IV,    11.  2.  1    |              disease control and in some cases reduce hospital admission
482   IV,    11.  5.  4    |               the past decade.~ ~Even in cases where there have been sustained
483   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                  and then regressive. In cases where individuals are either
484   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              given population. There are cases where the collection and
485   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                across the population, in cases where there are multiple
486   IV,    11.  6.  4    |         purchasing is paramount. In some cases, the revenue collection
487   IV,    11.  6.  4    |           supplements’. However, in most cases, benefit changes occurred
488   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                  such as the severity of cases and differences in clinical
489   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               and Morrow, 1989). In some cases, outcome indicators could
490   IV,    12.  1        |               and plant health). In some cases, legislative measures and
491   IV,    12.  2        |             confidentiality, but in some cases they failed to take account
492   IV,    12.  2        |          admissions and in drink-driving cases. ~ ~There is also evidence
493   IV,    12. 10        |                  Moreover in a number of cases The Smoke-free Environments
494   IV,    12. 10        |                    National (and in some cases federal) laws e. g. against
495   IV,    12. 10        |                  management of the above cases of patients.~Furthermore
496   IV,    12. 10        |          radiation~Number of skin cancer cases~Domain of objective 5~ ~
497   IV,    13.  1        |                 EU Member States in some cases consisting in orders of
498   IV,    13.  5        |         approximately 60-70% of dementia cases. The primary risk factor
499   IV,    13.  6.  1    |                social care;~· In extreme cases, lifelong societal costs
500   IV,    13.  6.  2    |              effective. This may include cases where the parent, or the